10.1177/0146167205277206PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETINark, Crocker / CON EQUENCES OF SEEKING SELF-ESTEEM Interpersonal Consequences of Seeking Self-Esteem


ing. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, tar-decades, psychologists and the lf-esteem as a solution to social igh drop-out rates, teenage preg-ol abuse, eating disorders, and interpersonal aggression (e.g., Mecca, Smelser, & Vas-concellos, 1989). In popular culture, more than 2,000 self-esteem (LSE) causes social problems (see Bau-meister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003, for a review). Consequently, researchers have recently adopted more complex views of self-esteem. In addition to level of self-esteem (i.e., whether it is high or low), more nuanced, multifaceted aspects of self-esteem have emerged, such as whether self-esteem is contingent or noncontingent (Deci & Ryan, 1995), stable or unstable (Kernis & Waschull, 1995), and the specific domains on which peo-ple base their self-esteem (i.e., contingencies of self-worth [CSWs]; Crocker & Wolfe, 2001). Although these perspectives agree that there is more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low, they differ in which aspects of self-esteem are thought to be particularly important. In the present study, we focus on CSWs, in addition to level of self-esteem, in predicting interpersonal supportive-ness and liking following an academic ego threat. Researchers differ as to whether contingent self-worth should be conceived of as a broad trait or a domain-specific phenomenon. Deci and Ryan (1995

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