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Facilitating the questioning skills of student teachers through action research

By Roongfa Kitiyanusan

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate the development of the teaching of questioning, reflective practice for development of teaching competence and systematic inquiry\ud and reflection on the university lecturer's teaching and learning to implement change for improvement in practice. This study employed an Action Research methodology. The participants were student teachers of in the Faculty of Education, Burapha University, Thailand

Topics: 1303 Specialist Studies in Education, School of Education, Teacher training, Education, Action research, questioning, teaching strategies
Year: 2004
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.vu.edu.au:15620

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  1. 1 What did you find out from Six Thinking Hats?
  2. 2 How do you apply Six Thinking Hats to teaching?.
  3. After a response is given, ask the others in the class to add to what the volunteers have contributed.
  4. analyse teaching skills by focus on questioning skill Content Reflection of teaching and leaming in the school. Learning activities
  5. analyse the quality of teaching
  6. and student teachers write the main idea of song.
  7. anlayse the teachers' works in the school Content Practical experiences in teaching profession. Learning activities
  8. Answer and ask questions on essential teaching skills
  9. Answer and ask questions on teaching and leaming in the classroom
  10. answer questions Content Demonstration teaching Learning activities
  11. answer questions Content Practice teaching Learning activities
  12. answer questions for undertaking situational analyses Six Thinking Hats Content Teaching strategies Learning Activities
  13. answer questions on leaming content.
  14. Answer some questions from work sheet.
  15. ask questions about lesson planning and answer the questions Content Planning Lessons - Daily lesson plan Learning activities
  16. ask questions about student and classroom management
  17. ask questions on teaching and leaming in the classroom
  18. Ask student teacher to volunteer to present questions and answers.
  19. Ask student teacher to volunteer to present questions and answers. Conclusion and collect cards (20 minutes)
  20. Ask student teachers on question, "How do teacher facilitate students on classroom leaming?"
  21. Assign student teacher to answer questions and vmte on leaming log (the 9 week) as follows :
  22. Assign student teachers to write answers on leaming log.
  23. Assignment Stude Read sheet about wrfting objectives Student teachers self-evaluation 1^ 279
  24. Cards Evaluation • Observation Set up questions Answer questions Assignment • Student teachers form group of three prepare for presentation on the next week • Each student teacher sets a question in his/her leaming log.
  25. Case study ( The example of daily lesson plan)
  26. Case study (The example of long-range plan)
  27. Checking lesson plan Assignment - Student teacher self- evaluation - Each student teacher sets up a question in his/her leaming log - Student teacher sets lesson plan by wrfting at least 6 questions.
  28. Checking lesson plans Assignment Student teacher self evaluation Bring leaming logs to class in the next session for sharing and feedback
  29. collaborate lesson plarming Content Practical experience in school Learning activities
  30. collect cards and classify questions by the types of questions (Knowledge,
  31. Collect the cards, shuffle them, and distribute one to each student. Ask students to read silently the question or topic on their card and think of a response.
  32. Conclude the issue of writing main idea for teaching strategies and planning for concept teaching.
  33. Conclusion and collect cards. Resources and materials
  34. Conclusion and discussion by transparencies.
  35. Conclusion by each student teacher selects a coloured hat and then set a question about leaming from video designated by the colour of their hat on a card. (20 minutes)
  36. Conclusion on good questions and questioning skills (10 minutes)
  37. Conclusion questions and teaching skill (10 minutes) 307 Resources and materials
  38. Conclusion Resource and materials
  39. conclusion teaching and leaming is school by lecturer asks some questions.
  40. Continue as long as there are volunteers.
  41. Crayons Evaluation • Observation set up questions - answer questions - group work - oral presentation Assignment
  42. Creating a positive leaming environment. Learning activities
  43. describe foundation of teaching
  44. describe meaning of education and educational goal
  45. describe strategies for teaching
  46. describe the process of teaching
  47. (1990). develop questioning skills of student teachers. Content • Curriculum in school - Primary school in
  48. develop the lesson plan
  49. Discuss and conclude on National Education Act.
  50. discuss good and bad teaching skills
  51. Discuss her/his writing long-rang plan. Is there anything new which you have leamt from partner? Write new ideas you have leamt from your discussion in the paper.
  52. discuss leaming and teaching
  53. Discuss on meaning and educational goal.
  54. Discuss teaching and focus on teaching skill especially questioning skill. Then discuss on good classroom questions (30 minutes)
  55. discuss teaching and leaming
  56. discuss teaching and leaming in the classroom.
  57. Discuss teaching strategies on the following aspects: communication, reinforcement, questioning, materials and evaluation.
  58. discuss the environment problems. Student teachers write up a project to solve problems (25 minutes)
  59. discuss the works of student teachers
  60. Discuss types of lesson plan
  61. Discussion by questioning and answering.
  62. Discussion of lesson plan writing.
  63. Divide student teachers in five groups and write daily lesson plan.
  64. Divide student teachers in five groups write daify lesson plan by working on work sheet. Student teachers set lesson plan by writing at least 6 questions (40 minutes). 309 (Break for 10 minutes)
  65. Divide student teachers in to 5 group. Each group has 4-5 members.
  66. Divide student teachers in to 5 groups. Each group makes concept mapping from the details of cards which are answers and questions (40 minutes)
  67. Divide student teachers into 7 groups. (One group has 3 student teachers)
  68. Divide the student teachers into five groups. There are four student teachers in a group.
  69. Divide the student teachers into groups of four members.
  70. Draw a conclusion by calling student teachers randomly to answer question. The lecturer asks the following questions (15 minutes)
  71. Each group discuss on. What'how is good question?
  72. Each group has a discuss on different topics. The topics are social arrangements (group 1), emotional arrangement (group 2), intellectual arrangement (group 3), and physical arrangement (group 4).
  73. Each group takes tum to observe the team teaching by focusing on questioning skills and giving positive feedback and comment.
  74. Each group works as follows : (30 minutes) - The first student teacher sets up question - The second student teacher answers question The third student teacher takes note
  75. Each question is read and student teachers tell the class of answering.
  76. Each student teacher asked questions and lecturer answer questions.
  77. Each student teacher asks yes-no questions and lecturer answers questions.
  78. Each student teacher presents their name cards, and lecttirer asks a question.
  79. Each student teacher sets a question on card by focus on her studying the good model of teaching of model teacher. Then lecturer asks questions by random name cards.
  80. Each student teacher sets a question that introduces her/him self or anything he/she would like share with the class.
  81. Each student teacher teach as step-by-step according to the lesson plan (20 minutes for a person)
  82. Each student teacher teach as step-by-step according to the lesson plan. (20 minutes for a person)
  83. Each student teacher wrfte a card what he/she has leamed from school.
  84. Each student teacher wrfte questions about the course.
  85. Each student teacher writes questions on cards as he/she is a teacher and must ask good questions (20 minutes)
  86. encourage thinking about questioning and answering
  87. Essential teaching skill Learning activities
  88. Evaluate on contents of leaming, leaming process and leaming and teaching. Three open questions are placed on each student's teacher back. Each student teacher asks three people to read it and records their answers.
  89. (1999). Evaluation • Observation - Set up questions Answer questions Assignment - Read National Education five Act B.E.
  90. Exercises Assignment - Bring leaming logs to class in the next lesson for sharing and partner feedback - Each student teacher writes main objectives and subsidiary objectives
  91. explain leaming and teaching process by questioning and answering
  92. explain the concept of lessons planning
  93. explain the concept of planning lessons
  94. explain the details of course by questioning and answering
  95. explain the details of course by questioning and answering.
  96. explain the good model of teaching of model teacher in primary and secondary school.
  97. explain the National Education Act by using closed questions
  98. explain what they have read about instmctional objectives
  99. explain working of teacher
  100. form questions and answer the questions about lesson planning. Content • Planning Lessons - Types of lesson plan - Long-range plan Learning activities
  101. Give out one card to each student teacher. Explain that this is a matching exercise. Some student teachers have questions and others have the answers. (20 minutes)
  102. Group oral presentation by using concept mapping.
  103. Hand out an index card to each student. Ask student to write dovm a question they have about their leaming material being studied in the class.
  104. have a discussion on foundation of teaching.
  105. Have a discussion on planning daily lesson plan. The topics are; selection of content writing objectives, writing leaming activities, selection of materials and evaluation.
  106. Have student teachers find their matching cards. When a match is formed, ask the matching student teachers to find seats together.
  107. Have students volunteer to ask questions to form a condition of the lesson. (10 minutes) Resources and materials
  108. How did the climate of the university classroom support or hinder your leaming?
  109. How did you develop appropriate questions?
  110. How did you feel when the lecturer as questions?
  111. How did you feel when you must ask a question?
  112. How did you solve the problems?
  113. How do you feel about questioning?
  114. How do you understand your ability for framing questions? • Before class activities • After class activities
  115. How often did you use questions in your class?
  116. identify factors that create a posftive leaming environment Content
  117. if anything, have you leamed from this work?
  118. initiate questions on instmctional objective Content - Main objectives Subsidiary objectives Learning activities
  119. Invite volunteers to read out loud the card they obtained and give a response
  120. Leaming log Assignment Answer questions and wrfte on leaming log
  121. (2001). Learning to Teach, 5* edn, McGraw-Hill,
  122. least three seconds after asking question to let the student teacher a response Resources and materials
  123. Lecturer asks open questions and rhetorical questions to relate the survey to the leaming and teaching.
  124. Lecturer asks questions and discus answers by random name cards
  125. Lecturer observes student teachers by focusing questioning skills and supportive feedback and comment. Remarks
  126. Lecturer presents some transparencies and resufts of class discussion on leaming.
  127. Lecturer random some student teachers ask questions each group.
  128. Lecturer randomly to asking questions
  129. Lecturer sets questions and ask students randomfy. The questions focus on the following: - Knowledge Comprehension 282 - Application - Analysis Synthesis -
  130. Lecturer summarizes activity and suggest student teachers student teachers should check their hands and fingers student teachers. Appendix B Self-evaluation of Student Teacher Subject:
  131. Lecturer summarizes teaching skills and questioning skills. Remarks
  132. Lecturer writes dovm questions (closed questions) about National Education Act. Each card contains only one question. The number of questions is equal to half the number of students in class.
  133. Lecturer writes down the answers for the questions in No. 1 on the cards. Each card contains only one answer.
  134. Lesson plans Assignment - Student teachers self evaluation on the week 7* - Each student teacher sets up a question in his/her leaming log on
  135. Make the mind map, draw pictures and present it to class.
  136. Make the mind map, draw pictures and present it to class. Lecturer asks some questions.
  137. Meanings - Goals Learning activities
  138. Name cards Evaluation • Observation class activities - set up open questions
  139. Observation - answering - questioning
  140. Observation - presentation - set up questions
  141. Observation - presentation interviewing questioning answering
  142. Observation - responsibility - personality - performance 313
  143. Observation - teaching questioning / answering
  144. Observation discussion - set up questions - group work - presentation Assignment • Student teacher answers questions on leaming log. They are as follows: - What have you leamed in the subject? - How do feel about teaching profession?
  145. Observation discussion set up questions Assignment - Each student teacher sets questions about Six Thinking Hats on leaming topic in leaming log.
  146. Observation discussion set up questions Assignment - Each student teacher sets up a question in his/her leaming log. - Bring leaming logs to class in the next week for sharing and partner
  147. Observation group teaching
  148. Observation group working set up questions
  149. Observation questioning and answering
  150. Observation questioning answering discussion group work presentation Assignment Student teacher self evaluation Student teacher develop lesson plan by writing at least 6 questions.
  151. Observation set up questions answer questions Assignment Student teacher self evaluation 289
  152. Observation teaching - questioning / answering
  153. Orient the course, activities and assignments by allocating sttident teachers to read the course syllabus 404361.
  154. Orientate the course, activities and assignments by allocating student teachers to read the course syllabus 404362.
  155. Others/ Comments Appendix C The Guiding questions of Group Interview 298 Group Interview Facilitating the Questioning Skills of Student Teachers Through Action Research The group interviews focus on the following guiding questions:
  156. plan the practical experiences
  157. (1996). Practice teaching Assignment Individual work 30%) • A leaming log 10% • A lesson plan 1^'^ 0 301 • Teaching demonstration 10% Group work 20%o • Report and presentation 10% • Group teaching 10%) Final examination 50%) Recommended Reading: Eggen,
  158. practice teaching skills Content Practical experience in teaching. Learning activities
  159. Present the concept mapping to class.
  160. Provide feedback on leaming log.
  161. question about Six Thinking Hats on leaming topic Content Teaching skills Learning activities
  162. question about Six Thinking Hats on leaming topic.
  163. Questioning and answering (Each group has 5 minutes) (Break time after the forth group finish, 10 minutes)
  164. Questions for student teachers as follows : - What have you leamt? - What do you still need to find out?
  165. questions related to the practice of teaching strategies and answer them
  166. Read the details and set questions.
  167. report what student teacher has leamed
  168. Reports Assignment Each student teacher sets a question in his/her leaming log.
  169. Reports of student teachers
  170. Reports of students teachers
  171. Review reading material sheet about objectives.
  172. Roundrobin activity: Student teachers sit in the cycle. Then each student teacher asks question. The next student teacher answers questions.
  173. Self evaluation the 8 week th
  174. Send his/her card to the next person.
  175. set up open questions on leaming content
  176. Set up questions -
  177. Set up questions - Answer questions
  178. set up questions answer questions - interview the speakers group work oral presentation Assignment - Student teacher self evaluation - Student teacher sets lesson plan by writing at least 6 questions.
  179. set up questions for undertaking situational analyses Six Thinking Hats
  180. set up questions on leaming topic. Content Teaching and leaming in primary and secondary school Learning activities
  181. set up questions on leaming topic. Contents
  182. set up yes-no question focus on course 404361.
  183. Share idea and discuss the objectives. (20 minutes)
  184. Share questions and answers.
  185. Share questions in a group. (A group has 3 student teachers). Analyse what the high level questions are. Write on the paper (20 minutes)
  186. Share their paired writing with all members of a team. Is there anything new you have leamt from the other pairs? Write the new ideas you have leamt from your group discussion in the paper. (20 minutes) 288 (Break for 10 minutes)
  187. Sharing and giving feedback of leaming log. Student teachers work
  188. Sharing and giving feedback on leaming log (10 minutes)
  189. Sharing and giving feedback on leaming log.
  190. state essential teaching skills
  191. state the main questions to be discussed
  192. state the main questions to be discussed in teaching
  193. state the strengths and weaknesses of teaching demonstration
  194. states the strengths and weaknesses of teaching demonsttation
  195. Sttident teachers volunteer to simulate good teaching skill and bad teaching skills. Then lecturer asks questions by random name cards of sttident teachers. (30 minutes). (Break for 10 minutes)
  196. Sttident teachers were chosen by random their name cards to read and answer Questions from the fifth leaming activities. (20 minutes) 284 Resources and materials
  197. Sttidents teacher works individuaUy writing long-range plan.
  198. Student teacher chooses their partner for team teaching in school next week. Collaborate on planning lesson. (20 minutes). T5 Resources and materials
  199. Student teacher does exercises about objectives
  200. Student teacher practice teaching in school about 3 hours (180 minutes) in a week.
  201. Student teacher presents the details of the report on teaching sfrategies that they were assigned in the f ^ week. (There are 6 groups per week)
  202. Student teacher reads poem and write main idea of poem.
  203. Student teacher reads the text and write main idea of it.
  204. Student teacher reviews his/her questions which was used in the classroom. (Week 11'*" -14*) Then rethink and rewrite new questions on card.
  205. Student teacher sets 10 questions on teaching skills by using Six Thinking Hats.
  206. Student teacher writes the plan of leaming which could lead them to the set goals (10 minutes) Resources and materials
  207. Student teachers appoint date/time for their teaching. Lecturer observes teaching in the classroom for three groups (6 student teachers) in a week. 317 Resources and materials
  208. Student teachers ask questions to evaluate lesson
  209. Student teachers demonstrate teaching
  210. Student teachers have a discussion and each student teacher writes retrieval charts.
  211. Student teachers in classroom record the gained information and prepare questions to ask the speakers by writing on cards.
  212. Student teachers in classroom record the gained information and prepare questions to ask the speakers by writing on cards. (Each group has 10 minutes)
  213. Student teachers positive support comment and analyse the strengths and weakness of teaching demonstration
  214. Student teachers practice writing objectives (group work).
  215. Student teachers self evaluation on the week 16*
  216. Student teachers sit in the cycle. Then each student teacher ask question. The next student teacher answers question. The questions focus on teaching and leaming in the school (30 minutes)
  217. Student teachers study good model of teaching of model teacher. They search for information at the library of Faculty of Education, Burapha University. Take notes and discussion.
  218. Student teachers take their question cards by group questions on Six Thinking Hats form questions about teaching sfrategies, trying to relate the questions to six thinking hats.
  219. Student teachers volunteer to read their questions.
  220. Student teachers work in pair discussing and concluding the course. Then the pairs create some new questions on cards.
  221. Student teachers work in pair, develop lesson plan. They will plan on team teaching. Their lesson plan need to have at least 6 questions, and each student teacher should ask at least 3 questions in his/her teaching.
  222. Student teachers work in pair. Give feedback on his/her partner' leaming log. Write feedback on leaming log. (10 minutes) Resources and materials
  223. Student teachers work in pairs discussing and concluding the course. Then the pairs create some new yes or no questions which lead to onfy yes answers and write those new questions on cards.
  224. Student teachers write the plan of leaming in the course which could lead them to the set goals (10 minutes) 303 Resources and materials
  225. Students from new group. Each new group consists of members from
  226. Students have a discussion and each student teacher write questions in their cards. Three groups have oral presentation and teaching.
  227. Students survey the surroundings of the Faculty of Education,
  228. Study the sample of long-range plan. Then set up questions and answer questions.
  229. Summarizes teaching skills and questioning skills. Remarks - There are 7 student teachers demonstrating teaching in a week. Resource and materials Lesson plans 311 Evaluation
  230. Take tum to work in each role until everyone has a chance to work in every role.
  231. Teaching skill - Questioning skill
  232. Teaching strategies Learning Activities
  233. teaching. Learning activities
  234. The model of presentation is interviewing. Some student teachers act as interviewers and interviewees by focusing on their report topics. (Each group has 25 minutes) (Break time after the second group finish, 10 minutes)
  235. The model of presentation is interviewing. Some student teachers act as interviewers and interviewees by focusing on their report topics.(Each group has 15 minutes)
  236. The picture can represent anything they would like to share with the class.
  237. The student teachers (4 groups) present the details of curriculum in primary school, junior school and high school. They are principles, frameworks, goals, subjects, activities and evaluation
  238. The student teachers (7 groups) present the detail of the good model of teaching of model teacher in primary and secondary school.
  239. The student teachers introduce themselves by drawing pictures on their name cards.
  240. The week 16^ , conclusion leaming course by pair work. Each student teacher draws a right hand of his/her friend. Write a name of a picture and explain meaning. Each finger means as follows:
  241. Then each pair quizzes the rest of class by reading aloud their question and challenging then classmates to answer the question. (30 minutes)
  242. There are 5-6 teacher students demonstrating teaching in a week Resources and materials
  243. Thinking Hats. The colour of each hat depicts a particular type of thinking.
  244. Three groups of student teachers (50 minutes) start reporting and demonstrating teaching.
  245. To clarify the assignment and how it might be undertaken. Objective: By the end of the class, student teachers will be able to:
  246. To clarify the assignment and how it might be undertaken. Objectives By the end of the class, student teachers will be able to:
  247. To clarify the educational goal. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  248. To clarify the educational goals, curriculum in school, the nature of leaming and teaching process, models of teaching and classroom management
  249. To clarify the meaning of education
  250. To clarify the nature of main objectives and subsidiary objectives
  251. To consider foundation of teaching
  252. To consider the details of National Education Act which focus on National Education guidelines
  253. To consider the role of teacher in creating a positive leaming environment
  254. To develop a sense of questioning Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  255. To develop a sense of questioning. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  256. To develop lesson plans and practise in teaching.
  257. To enable the student teachers to understand leaming process
  258. To enable the student teachers to understand relationship between leaming and teaching
  259. To enable the student teachers to understand teaching in primary school and secondary school.
  260. To engage in a simulation involving professional leaming.
  261. To engage in a simulation regarding professional leaming. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  262. To evaluate student teachers performance in the classroom Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  263. To explore the idea of daily lesson plan
  264. To explore the idea of daily lesson plan. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  265. To explore the idea of long-rang plan
  266. To have students practice writing main objectives and subsidiary objectives. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  267. To introduce lesson planning and lesson plan format
  268. To involve student teachers in teaching skills Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  269. To involve students in a simulation regarding role play and professional leaming. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  270. To leam and experience the duties of the teacher
  271. To observe activfties and methods of instmction in various subjects in the classroom
  272. To prepare student teachers for the teaching profession. Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  273. To promote a positive attitude towards work. Activities
  274. To promote discussion on creating a positive leaming environment. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  275. To promote discussion on leaming Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  276. To promote discussion on the quality of teaching. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  277. To promote leaming about teaching skills
  278. To promote leaming about teaching skills Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  279. To promote leaming about the subject through teaching demonstration Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to:
  280. To promote leaming about the subject through teaching demonstration. Objectives By the end of the class student teachers will by able to:
  281. To promote leaming and teaching for teacher profession
  282. To promote positive attitude toward the teacher profession
  283. To promote student teachers development to their fullest potentials
  284. To propose ways that the class might engage questioning and answering Objectives By the end of the class students teachers will be able to:
  285. To provide an opportunities for student teachers to work
  286. To provide an opportunity for student teacher to demonstrate their teaching
  287. To provide an opportunity for student teachers to group teaching.
  288. To provide an opportunity for student teachers to review their leaming from the subject
  289. To provide an opportunity for student teachers to set questions
  290. To provide an opportunity for student teachers to team teaching
  291. To provide valid reasons for stating instmctional objectives
  292. To readiness of pre-service teachers.
  293. To reflect teaching and leaming in the school
  294. To share leaming experiences. Objective By the end of the class student teachers will be able to :
  295. To share questioning and answering.
  296. use questions Content Plarming the lessons - Daily lesson plan Learning activities
  297. Video of model of teaching
  298. Watch video of teaching strategies.
  299. Watch video of teaching which is of two student teachers studied General Methods of Teaching. They are volunteers to reflect their demonstration teaching (50 minutes)
  300. Were you successful in your leaming by using those strategies?
  301. What are the advantages of lesson plan.
  302. What can happen if the teacher does not set daily lesson plan?
  303. What did you leam from questioning?
  304. What do you think you can improve?
  305. What else do you need to do to improve yourself?
  306. What have you leamed from this subject?
  307. What is daily lesson plan? (Knowledge)
  308. What is the relationship between objectives and evaluation? (Analysis)
  309. What problems did you have in class activities?
  310. What questions and answers that you set in the classroom.
  311. What skill do you think you are good at?
  312. What were your leaming strategies?
  313. What would happen if a teacher did not set lesson plan? (Synthesis)
  314. What would you do if you had to teach and implement a lesson plan that you did not vmte? (Application)
  315. write main objectives and subsidiary objectives

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