Location of Repository

Cognitive, neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine effects of long-term rotating shift work in a nursing sample

By Alexia Pavlis


Sleep disruption, like that experienced by long-term rotating shift workers, is a physiological stressor which causes a variety of adverse physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms. Some cognitive symptoms are thought to be mediated by the direct effect of stress hormones on the hippocampus. Regardless of its source, stress provokes endocrine responses in the body that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whereas acute activation of the HPA axis adaptively activates the body’s stress response by increasing cortisol production, prolonged or repeated activation is detrimental to health due to dysregulation of the HPA axis. Cortisol affects the hippocampus, which has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors and plays a prominent role in the down-regulation of the HPA axis. Overstimulation of glucocortioid receptors can cause hippocampal atrophy and related cognitive deficits. Research has found that air crew with inadequate recovery time between outbound, transmeridian long-haul flights showed performance decrements on cognitive tasks, reduced hippocampal volumes and increased cortisol levels. The current study aimed to investigate whether work-related sleep disruption caused similar effects among rotating shift-workers from outside the flight industry. Twelve long-term female rotating shift-workers (nurses) and 17 day working female control participants (nurses and others) participated in the study. Analyses of the sleep health, cognitive (memory, attention, visual-spatial skills), endocrine (salivary cortisol), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) data of these participants showed few differences between groups in cognitive performance, volumetric MRI or MRS. Shift workers reported less sleep over a fortnight, higher levels of fatigue and lower levels of vigor compared to controls. Cortisol rhythm changes including earlier morning rise and peak attenuation were apparent in shift workers. The results are interpreted in terms of age differences between the groups and the existence of a 'healthy worker' effect in the shift workers. \u

Topics: 380000 Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, School of Social Sciences and Psychology, shift work, physiological effects, psychological effects, stress, sleep disruption, nurses
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.vu.edu.au:1509
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1509/1/P... (external link)
  • http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1509/ (external link)
  • Suggested articles



    1. (1974). 12 and 24 hour rhythms in error frequency of locomotive drivers and the influence of tiredness.
    2. (2005). A meta-analytic review of the effects of acute cortisol administration on human memory.
    3. (1995). A neuroanatomy of stress. In
    4. (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
    5. (2002). A prospective study of fatal occupational accidents-relationship to sleeping difficulties and occupational factors.
    6. (2006). A question of torture: CIA interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Metropolitan Book/Henry Holt and
    7. (1984). A review of human physiological and performance changes associated with desynchronosis of biological rhythms.
    8. (1995). A survey screen for prediction of apnea.
    9. (2004). A unified approach for morphometric and functional data analysis in young, old, and demented adults using automated atlas-based head size normalization: Reliability and validation against manual measurement of total intracranial volume.
    10. (2001). A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains.
    11. (1995). Acute corticosterone replacement three months after adrenalectomy improves performance in a Morris Water Maze despite degeneration in the dentate gyrus.
    12. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans.
    13. (1996). Adapting to phase shifts: I. An experimental model for jet lag and shift work.
    14. (1980). Adrenocortical and gonadal steroids during sleep deprivation.
    15. (1989). Adverse changes in mood and cognitive performance of house officers after night duty.
    16. (1999). Aging and shiftwork: The effects of 20 years of rotating 12-hour shifts among petroleum refinery operators.
    17. (1992). Alteration of circadian rhythm in shift-working ambulance personnel: Monitoring of salivary cortisol rhythm.
    18. (2000). Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation.
    19. (1993). Are circadian variations in taste thresholds cortisol-dependent?
    20. (2001). Are glucocortoids responsible for putative hippocampal damage in PTSD? How and when to decide.
    21. (2005). Are individual differences in fatigue vulnerability related to baseline differences in cortical activation?
    22. (2001). Atrophy of the hippocampus in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: How and when?
    23. (2003). Australian Bureau of Statistics.
    24. (2000). Australian Council of Trade Unions.
    25. (2004). Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules.
    26. (2000). Biological rhythms in mood disorders.
    27. (2005). Cerebral structural changes in severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
    28. (1998). Changes in cortisol secretion during shiftwork: Implications for tolerance to shiftwork?
    29. (2001). Chronic 'jet lag' produces temporal lobe atrophy and spatial cognitive deficits.
    30. (2000). Chronic jet lag produces cognitive deficits.
    31. (1991). Chronic stress-induced acceleration of electrophysiologic and morphometric biomarkers of hippocampal aging.
    32. (1982). Circadian mechanisms in affective illness and in antidepressant drug action.
    33. (1990). Circadian performance rhythms: Some practical and theoretical implications.
    34. (2000). Circadian rhythm of heart rate, urinary cortisol excretion, and sleep in civil air traffic controllers.
    35. (1979). Circadian rhythms in air operations.
    36. (1979). Circadian rhythms: General features and endocrinological aspects. In
    37. (2000). Cognitive decline in patients with Cushing's syndrome.
    38. (1982). Cognitive dysfunction following loss of sleep. In
    39. (1999). Combined measurements of hippocampal n-acetyl-aspartate and T2 relaxation time in the evaluation of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: Correlation 125 with clinical severity and memory performances.
    40. (2006). Combined volumetric T1, T2 and secular-T2 quantitative MRI of the brain: Age-related global changes (preliminary results).
    41. (1995). Commonly used therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids impair explicit memory.
    42. (1978). Comparison of synchronization of circadian corticosteroid rhythms by photoperiod and food.
    43. (2002). Complexity and nonlinear description of diurnal cortisol and growth hormone secretory patterns before and after sleep deprivation.
    44. (1991). Coping style, trait anxiety, and cortisol reactivity during mental stress.
    45. (2001). Corticosteroids and cognition.
    46. (1967). Corticosteroids in depressive illness. II. A longitudinal psychoendocrine study.
    47. (2001). Cortisol activity and cognitive changes in psychotic Major Depression.
    48. (2006). Cortisol levels and hippocampus volumes in healthy preadolescent children.
    49. (2003). Cortisol levels are positively correlated with hippocampal Nacetylaspartate.
    50. (1998). Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits.
    51. (1990). Cortisol reactivity and cognitive performance in a continuous mental task paradigm.
    52. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.
    53. (1999). Decrease in cortisol reverses human hippocampal atrophy following treatment of Cushing's disease.
    54. (2005). Decreased cortical response to verbal working memory following sleep deprivation.
    55. (2001). Decreased hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in the absence of atrophy in posttraumatic stress disorder.
    56. (1999). Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stresslevel cortisol treatment.
    57. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.
    58. (1977). Die lebensdauer von fliegen unter dem einfluss von zeitverschiebungen.
    59. (1999). Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration.
    60. (1955). Diurnal variation of mental performance: A study of three-shift workers.
    61. (1998). Do professionals get jet lag? A commentary on jet lag.
    62. (2005). Doctors and interrogators at Guantanamo Bay.
    63. (2001). Does the medial temporal lobe bind phonological memories?
    64. (2006). Dorsolateral prefrontal and superior temporal volume deficits in first-episode 124 psychoses that evolve into schizophrenia.
    65. (1995). Dose response changes in plasma cortisol and lymphocyte glucocorticoid receptors following dexamethasone administration in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.
    66. (2004). Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.
    67. (1990). Effect of shift work on the night-time secretory patterns of melatonin, prolactin, cortisol and testosterone.
    68. (1998). Effect of the shift of the sleep-wake cycle on three robust endocrine markers of the circadian clock.
    69. (2006). Effect of two prednisone exposures on mood and declarative memory.
    70. (1981). Effects of "jet lag" on hormonal patterns. I. Procedures, variations in total plasma-proteins, and disruption of adrenocorticotropin-cortisol periodicity.
    71. (1991). Effects of adrenal steroids and the reduced metabolites in hippocampal long-term potentiation.
    72. (2001). Effects of age on tissues and regions of the cerebrum and cerebellum.
    73. (1966). Effects of bacterial pyrogen on pituitary-adrenal axis at various times in the 24 hours.
    74. (2005). Effects of cortisol suppression on sleep-associated consolidation of neutral and emotional memory.
    75. (1995). Effects of night work on the cognitive function in young and elderly subjects with specific reference to the auditory P300.
    76. (2001). Effects of one night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency.
    77. (2005). Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words.
    78. (2005). Effects of rotating night shifts: literature review.
    79. (2000). Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on Interleukin-6, growth hormone, cortisol, and melatonin levels in humans.
    80. (1987). Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers.
    81. (1983). Effects of travel across time zones (jet-lag) on exercise capacity and performance.
    82. (2001). Elevated cortisol levels in Cushing's disease are associated with cognitive decrements.
    83. (2003). Elevated salivary cortisol levels as a result of sleep deprivation in a shift worker.
    84. (1993). Estimation of metabolite concentrations from localized in vivo proton NMR spectra.
    85. (2002). Event-related potential measures of the inhibition of information processing: I. Selective attention in the waking state.
    86. (2004). Frontal brain lobe impairment in obstructive sleep apnoea: a 105 proton MR spectroscopy study.
    87. (1978). Frontal lobe problems. In
    88. (2005). Functional brain imaging of a complex navigation task following one night of total sleep deprivation: A preliminary study.
    89. (2006). Functional imaging of working memory following normal sleep and after 24 and 35 h of sleep deprivation: Correlations of fronto-parietal activation with performance.
    90. (1995). Functional neuroanatomical correlates of the effects of stress on memory.
    91. (2005). Fundamentals of MR spectroscopy. In
    92. (2001). Glucocorticoids and cognitive function: From physiology to pathophysiology. Human Psychopharmacology:
    93. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders.
    94. (2006). Glucocorticoids interact with emotion-induced noradrenergic activation in influencing different memory functions.
    95. (1992). Healthy adults' performance on the Austin Maze.
    96. (2002). Herpes simplex encephalitis.
    97. (2003). High-field proton MRS of human brain.
    98. (2004). Hippocampal area metabolites relate to severity and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea.
    99. (2004). Hippocampal volume, spectroscopy, cognition, and mood in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy.
    100. (1983). Hormonal changes after jet lag in normal man.
    101. (2003). Hormonal changes in satisfied and dissatisfied shift workers across a shift cycle.
    102. (2003). Human circadian melatonin rhythm phase delay during a fixed sleep-wake schedule interspersed with nights of sleep deprivation.
    103. (2001). Hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis activity is related to the level of central arousal: Effect of sleep deprivation on the association of high-frequency waking electroencephalogram with cortisol release.
    104. (2001). Hypotheses and controversies related to effects of stress on the hippocampus: An argument for stress-induced damage to the hippocampus in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
    105. (2001). iBrain® - Software for analysis and visualisation of functional MR images.
    106. (2006). ImageJ (Version 1.36b).
    107. (2002). Immediate effects of an 8-h advance shift of the restactivity cycle on 24-h profiles of cortisol.
    108. (1999). Impact of gender, menstrual cycle phase, and oral contraceptives on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.
    109. (2002). Impact of night-float rotation on sleep, mood, and alertness: The resident's perception.
    110. (1999). Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function.
    111. (2004). Impact of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep on cortisol in unmedicated depressed patients.
    112. (2003). Improvement in learning associated with increase in hippocampal formation volume.
    113. (2002). Increase in amino acids in the pons after sleep deprivation: A pilot study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
    114. (2004). Inter- and intra-individual variability in performance near the circadian nadir during sleep deprivation.
    115. (1996). Internal dissociation of the circadian markers of the cortisol rhythm in night workers.
    116. (1998). International regulations on the organization of shift work.
    117. (2001). Is the HM story only a "remote memory"? Some facts about hippocampus and memory in humans.
    118. (1991). Is the poor sleep of shift workers a disorder?
    119. (1998). Jet lag and relapse of schizoaffective psychosis despite maintenance clozapine treatment.
    120. (2006). LCModel (Version 6.10). Ontario: Stephen Provencher Incorporated.
    121. (2005). Less effective executive functioning after one night's sleep deprivation.
    122. (1977). Living routine shifts simulated on mice by weekly or twice-weekly manipulation of light-dark cycle.
    123. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions.
    124. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampal formation and mamillary nuclei distinguish medial temporal lobe and diencephalic amnesia.
    125. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume 116 in chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
    126. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse: A preliminary report.
    127. (2004). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cognitive research.
    128. (1971). Manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.
    129. (1966). Memory and the hippocampal complex. II. Is memory a multiple process?
    130. (1993). Memory impairment in Cushing's Disease.
    131. (2000). Men may be more vulnerable to seizure-associated brain damage.
    132. (1995). Methods for normalization of hippocampal volumes measured with MR.
    133. (1972). Mortality of shift and day workers,
    134. (2003). MR imaging of epilepsy: State of the art at 1.5 T and potential of 3 T. Epileptic Disorders,
    135. (2005). MR spectroscopy in seizure disorders. In
    136. (2001). MR volumetry of the entorhinal, perirhinal, and temporopolar cortices in drug-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.
    137. (2003). MRI and PET study of deficits in hippocampal structure and function in women with childhood sexual abuse and 108 posttraumatic stress disorder.
    138. (2006). MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: Normative values of healthy adults.
    139. (2000). MRS methodology.
    140. (2003). Myoinositol abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    141. (2001). Neither major depression nor glucocorticoid treatment affects the cellular integrity of the human hippocampus.
    142. (2000). Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity.
    143. (1998). Neural correlates of attention and arousal: Insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology. Progress In
    144. (1998). Neuroendocrine activity and memory-related impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder.
    145. (2003). Neuroimaging in Alzheimer disease: An evidence-based review.
    146. (2004). Neuroplasticity: From MRI to depressive symptoms.
    147. (1980). Neuropsychological deficits in Cushing's syndrome.
    148. (2005). Neuropsychopharmacology: the Fourth Generation of 134 Progress.
    149. (1999). New NMR measurements in epilepsy. T2 relaxometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
    150. (2004). Normal brain maturation characterized with age-related T2 relaxation times: An attempt to develop a quantitative imaging measure for clinical use.
    151. (1990). Nurses and shiftwork: Effects on physical health and mental depression.
    152. (1995). On adaptive control, sleep loss and fatigue.
    153. (1997). On the utility of P3 latency as an index of mental chronometry.
    154. (2004). On-call work and health: A review. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source,
    155. (2000). Pathophysiology of human circadian rhythms. In
    156. (1987). Performance on the Austin Maze: Steps towards normative data.
    157. (2001). Performance, sleep and circadian phase during a week of simulated night work.
    158. (2002). Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population.
    159. (1993). Progeny of mothers drinking corticosterone during lactation has lower stress-induced corticosterone secretion and better cognitive performance.
    160. (2001). Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment.
    161. (1982). Psychiatric morbidity and time zone changes: a study of patients from Heathrow airport.
    162. (1995). Psychiatric morbidity in travelers to Honolulu,
    163. (1990). Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shift work.
    164. (2003). Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 h of 114 sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%.
    165. (1995). Quantitative hippocampal MRI and intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.
    166. (1995). Quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MR: Normative database spanning 5 decades of life.
    167. (2001). Recognition memory: What are the roles of the perirhinal cortex and the hippocampus?
    168. (1995). Recovery from work shifts: How long does it take?
    169. (1994). Relationship of day versus night sleep to physician performance and mood.
    170. (2003). Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep.
    171. (2004). Saliva cortisol in posttraumatic stress disorder: A community epidemiologic study.
    172. (1968). Selective retention of corticosterone by limbic structures in rat brain.
    173. (2004). Self-reported health and sleep complaints among nursing personnel working under 12h night and day shifts.
    174. (2004). Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers.
    175. (2003). Shift work, safety and productivity.
    176. (1981). Shift work: Shift-dependent well-being and individual differences.
    177. (1999). Short echo time single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging-negative temporal lobe epilepsy: different biochemical profile compared with hippocampal sclerosis.
    178. (1996). Short-term night-shift working mimics the pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome.
    179. (2006). Sleep deprivation as a neurobiologic and physiologic stressor: Allostasis and allostatic load. Metabolism: Clinical And Experimental,
    180. (1999). Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal and growth axes: Potential clinical implications.
    181. (1999). Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction.
    182. (1989). Sleep disorders.
    183. (2000). Sleep loss and temporal memory.
    184. (1998). Sleep loss impairs short and novel language tasks having a prefrontal focus.
    185. (1997). Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening. Sleep,
    186. (2004). Sleep parameters among offshore workers: An initial assessment in the Campos Basin,
    187. (1999). Sleep, age, and shiftwork experience.
    188. (2000). Sleepiness and days of recovery.
    189. (2004). Smaller hippocampal volume in Dutch police officers with posttraumatic stress disorder.
    190. (1998). Stabilisation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a treatment modality for mood disorders. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical &
    191. (2004). Stimulus-induced brain lactate: Effects of aging and prolonged wakefulness.
    192. (1990). Stress and coping strategies of three-shift workers.
    193. (2002). Stress and depression: Possible links to neuron death in the hippocampus.
    194. (1998). Stress hormones and brain aging: Adding injury to insult.
    195. (1992). Stress, the Aging Brain, and the Mechanisms of Neuron Death.
    196. (1896). Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Iowa. On the effects of sleep loss.
    197. (2005). Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels.
    198. (1998). Subjective sleepiness in shift work.
    199. (1980). Sustained remission of Cushing's Disease with mitotane and pituitary irradiation.
    200. (1998). Temporal lobe developmental malformations and epilepsy: Dual pathology and bilateral hippocampal abnormalities.
    201. (1999). Temporal lobe developmental malformations and hippocampal sclerosis: Epilepsy surgical outcome.
    202. (2006). Temporal lobe epilepsy as a model to understand human memory: The distinction between explicit and implicit memory.
    203. (1981). Test d2:/Aufmerksamkeits-Belastungs-Test Handanweisung (7th ed.). Goettingen: Verlag fuer Psychologie,
    204. (1993). The after-effects of night work on short-term memory performance.
    205. (1996). The amygdala and intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.
    206. (2006). The Basics of MRI.
    207. (1993). The circadian melatonin and cortisol secretion pattern in permanent night shift workers.
    208. (1982). The Clocks that Time Us. Cambridge,MA:
    209. (1999). The cognitive determinants of performance on the Austin Maze.
    210. (1949). The day and night performance of teleprinter switchboard operators.
    211. (1991). The effect of sleep deprivation on cerebral glucose metabolic rate in normal humans assessed with positron emission tomography.
    212. (2003). The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.
    213. (2001). The effect of working serial night shifts on the cognitive functioning of emergency physicians.
    214. (2004). The effects of 37 hours of continuous wakefulness on the physiological arousal, cognitive performance, self-reported mood, and simulator flight performance of F-117A pilots.
    215. (1989). The effects of 72 hours of sleep loss on psychological variables.
    216. (1995). The effects of chronic sleep reduction on the performance of cognitive tasks sensitive to sleep deprivation.
    217. (2003). The effects of consecutive night shifts on neuropsychological performance of interns in the emergency department: A pilot study.
    218. (1993). The effects of sleep deprivation and incentives on human performance.
    219. (2001). The effects of total sleep deprivation on cerebral responses to cognitive performance.
    220. (1992). The healthy-worker effect: self-selection among Swedish shift workers.
    221. (1979). The Human Circadian System.
    222. (2004). The impact of night work on subjective reports of well- 131 being: An exploratory study of health care workers from five nations. Revista de Saúde Pública,
    223. (1996). The impact of shift and night work on health.
    224. (2006). The impact of sleep deprivation and task difficulty on networks of fMRI brain response.
    225. (1927). The James-Lange theory of emotions: A critical examination and an alternative theory.
    226. (2005). The medial temporal-lobe amnesic syndrome.
    227. (2002). The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: Studies in young human populations.
    228. (2006). The neural basis of interindividual variability in inhibitory efficiency after sleep deprivation.
    229. (2006). The neuropsychological profile of psychotic major depression and its relation to cortisol.
    230. (1992). The P300 wave of the human event-related potential.
    231. (2000). The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in Major Depression: A primer on neuron death.
    232. (1997). The problem: Shiftwork.
    233. (1952). The psychological response to ACTH, cortisone, hydrocortisone and related steroid substances.
    234. (2003). The relation between memory of the traumatic event and PTSD: Evidence from studies of traumatic brain injury.
    235. (1997). The spectrum of hippocampal sclerosis: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.
    236. (1994). The use of various animal models in the study of stress and stress-related phenomena.
    237. (2002). Time zone change and major psychiatric morbidity: The results of a 6-year study in
    238. (1998). Ultradian rhythms in pituitary and adrenal hormones: Their relations to sleep.
    239. (2005). Urinary cortisol excretion as a predictor of incident cognitive impairment.
    240. (2000). Visual rating and volumetry of the medial temporal lobe on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia: A comparative study.
    241. (1965). Visually-guided maze learning in man: effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal, and unilateral cerebral lesions.
    242. (1995). Visuo-spatial short-term recognition memory and learning after temporal lobe excisions, frontal lobe excisions or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man.
    243. (2000). Volumetric study of lobar atrophy in Pick complex and Alzheimer's disease.
    244. (2004). Volumetry and diffusion tensor imaging of hippocampal subregions in schizophrenia.
    245. (2000). Voxel-based morphometry - the methods.
    246. (1997). Wechsler Memory Scale - III.
    247. (2000). White blood cells and cortisol after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in humans.
    248. (2006). Work-Related Fatigue: Summary of Recent Regulatory Developments. Canberra: Australian Government.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.