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Peat slides : morphology, mechanisms and recovery

By Andrew James Mills
Topics: Geology Mineralogy Sedimentology Soil science
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1075
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

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  1. (1964) describe its presence. Therefore, it is not possible to ascertain whether the lack of block forms
  2. (1964), but insufficient information was available to accurately locate
  3. 0 O 0 c7m ,m mo mc Co D C C.) C o Co 0 Co 0 0. q
  4. 03 N— CD cr doi
  5. (1111). 11 1 II II II II I 1111111 1 1111 1 111111 I II I I 1111 I I II II I Middlehope Nein Head 2 Nein Head 3 I II 1 1 I1111 I I I I III I 1 1 I I 1 I 1 11 1 I III
  6. 173A more recent report is provided by Wilson
  7. 1986; Hendrick, 1990; Wilson and Hegarty, 1993) fall
  8. 208Slide name Total displaced volume (m3) Total block volume (m3) Total raft volume (m3) Total slurry volume (m3) Delivered volume (m3) delivery Sediment ratio Benty Hill 4880 230 3460 725 470 0.10
  9. 209e) Middlehope 6000 a) Benty Hill 1000 5000 400° (I) 3000 7:3 > 2000 4000 3500 3000 2500 a) 2000 z -6 1500 1000 500 0
  10. 4.2.7 Levees and composite features Levees are regularly cited as features in rapid
  11. 5.2.7 Zonal analysis of block characteristics, by
  12. 6.1.4 Rationale for laboratory determination of geotechnical characteristics At peat slides, the shear zone/failure plane represents the material layer in which a threshold of slope stability is exceeded and failure initiates. The dominant geotechnical
  13. 6.1.5 Sampling and method for stratigraphic assessment of peat and substrate material properties and determination of bulk properties At
  14. 6.2.2.2 Relative shear strength characteristics
  15. a
  16. A • eoe° A 7 • 1 -0.9 0.8 0.7 -• acrotelm • catotelm • clay A disturbed • transition A • • • • (1 • • • • • % • q14.;n a, • • • ). •k • • • • • al • ahn • •• • • •• •• • • • A • • • A ip e• •0, • • - • • • •
  17. a) Consolidation stage for substrate samples (standard apparatus) Tire (rrinutes) b) Consolidation stage for peat samples (standard apparatus) 12.0 10.0 E8.0 0 *-2 6.0 75 S 4.0
  18. a) Substrate shear test (drained) doi
  19. acrotelm samples are clearly the least
  20. Akroyd, T.N.W. (1964) Laboratory testing in soil engineering. Soil Mechanics Ltd, London, 233p.
  21. Alexander, R.W., Coxon, P. and Thorn, R.H. (1986) A bog flow at Straduff townland, County Sligo. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 86(A), 107-119.
  22. Alexander, R.W., Coxon, P. and Tomlinson, R. (1985) Bog flows in south-east Sligo and south-west Leitrim. In Irish Association for Quaternary Studies, Field Guide No.8 for Sligo and West Leitrim (edited by R.Thorn), 58-80.
  23. American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 140p Silfverberg, L. (1955) Influence of organic matter on differential thermal analysis of clays.
  24. An interesting pattern emerges at Nein Head 2, where length/width ratios appear to
  25. At the hillslope scale, topographic doi
  26. (1930). Attitude of scar head (m) Slope-channel coupled First published by
  27. Bishopp, D.W. and Mitchell, G.F. (1946) On a recent bog flow in Meenacharvy Townland, Co Donegal. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, 24(17), 151-157.
  28. Block depth, while decreasing slightly, was far less consistent. Depth appeared to exert little control on block size, suggesting that basal abrasion, while
  29. Bower, M.M. (1960) Peat erosion in the Pennines. Advancement of Science. 64, 323-331.
  30. Bowes, D.R. (1960) A bog burst in the Isle of Lewis. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 76, 21-23. doi
  31. Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (1999) The Nature and Properties of Soils. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 881p Bragg, O.M. and Tallis, J.H. (2001) The sensitivity of peat covered upland landscapes. Catena, 42, 345-360. doi
  32. c) 8 CD 1._ 0 c r- 8 el doi
  33. Colhoun, E.A. (1965) The debris-flow at Glendalough, Co Wicklow and the bog-flow at Slieve Rushen, Co Cavan, January 1965. Irish Naturalist, 15, 199-206.
  34. Colhoun, E.A., Common, R. and Cruickshank, M.M. (1965) Recent bog flows and debris slides in Northern Ireland. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, A(2), 163-174.
  35. Conway, V.M. (1954) Stratigraphy - a pattern analysis of Southern Pennine blanket peats. Journal of Ecology. 42, 117-47. doi
  36. Cooke, R.U. and Doornkamp, J.C. (1974) Geomorphology in Environmental Management. doi
  37. Correspondingly, Hanrahan and Walsh (1965) suggest that the response of peat to strain is independent of strain rate.
  38. Crozier, M.J. (1996) Runout behaviour of shallow, rapid earthflows. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplementband, 105, 35-48.
  39. Delap, A.D., Farrington, A., Praeger, R.L. and Smyth, L.B. (1932) Report on the recent bog-flow at Glencullin, Co.Mayo, Scient.Proc.R.D.S., 20(17), 181-192 Den Haan, E.J. and Edil, T.B. (1996) Secondary and tertiary compression of peat.
  40. e .( 2 • Ill. 2 E E -c) -o -o v -o -o VV VV -o 2 2 v v doi
  41. ea. INA ,. I \iiik o ll smothered and 1114..4* I 1 NO A loom I excavated grip IL I 7 ak k .. y
  42. East Midland Geographer. 29, 216-222 Barsch, D. (1990) Geomorphology and geoecology. Z. Geomorph.N.F. Suppl.-Bd., 79, 39-49 Bell, F.G. (1998) The glacial tills of the Middlesborough area, north east England.
  43. Figure 4.5a shows an enlargement of the
  44. Finally,
  45. from overlying peat. 273a) peat
  46. Gordon, J.E., Brazier, V., Thompson, D.B.A. and Horsfield, D. (2001) Geo-ecology and the conservation management of sensitive upland landscapes in Scotland. Catena, 42, 323-406332. doi
  47. Hemingway, J.E. and Sledge, W.A. (1941-46) A bog burst near Danby in Cleveland.
  48. However, there are a number
  49. I Block number -Raft volume - - - Slurry volume 60.0 -50.0 500.0 0.0
  50. I II II II II I I 1 III 1111 II I II 1111 111111 II I 1 I 111 1 doi
  51. ilf (t4 Aft -- " r, ' Eiff ., IL :1111' ok a,111(--flush • 0 aL , *vs I. 1.• , • i1 ipoik 1111 1
  52. in the matter of peat mass doi
  53. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, 580p Thomas, M.F. (2001) Landscape sensitivity in time and space — an introduction. Catena, 42142, 83-98 _
  54. Krumbein, W.C. (1939) Preferred orientation of pebbles in sedimentary deposits.Jouma/ of Geology, XLVII (7), 673-706 Keittel, M. (1996) Mapping of mires in Switzerland: starting point and results. In E.
  55. Little information is available concerning the Iron Band failure, other than its probable occurrence in 1964. On the ground,
  56. Major, J.J. (1998) Pebble orientation on large, experimental debris-flow deposits. doi
  57. Mitchell, G.F. (1938) On a recent bog flow in the County Wicklow. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, 22(4), 49-55.
  58. Moisture contents
  59. Muschamp-Perry, J.J. (1897) The waterspout (or cloud burst) on the Cheviots. British Rainfall, 1893, 14-17.
  60. Nein Head 3 1. West Grain - - - - • . O 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Length/width ratio 0 6 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2 5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Length/width ratio 218become incorporated in the moving slurry, and larger masses
  61. o tr) 0 Lo C tr) r- CO CD 1.0 -cra (w) aPrIMIV 1280 a 6 0 C1D
  62. Other accounts add little to elucidate peat slide morphology. Selkirk (1996) provides limited description and a field
  63. Pearsall, W.H. (1956) Two blanket-bogs in Sutherland. Journal of Ecology, 44(1), 493-516. doi
  64. Pennant, T. (1772) A tour of Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides in 1772. Chester, 256p Perry, A.H. (1981) Environmental hazards in the British Isles. George, Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 158-160.
  65. Phillips, R. (ed) (1994) Grasses, ferns, mosses and lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. doi
  66. Related to the block shapes, defined by axial ratios, is block roundness. Block roundness may be considered as partly a function of smoothing by weathering, and partly a
  67. Scott, J.J. (1983) Landslip revegetation and rabbits, Subantarctic Macquarie Island. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 12, 170-171.
  68. Selby, M.J. (1993) Hillslope materials and processes. Oxford University Press; Oxford, 451p Selkirk, J.M. (1996) Peat slides on Subantarctic Macquarie Island. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie_Supplementband, 105, 61-72.
  69. Several volumes of doi
  70. Sub-sampling for shear tests revealed further characteristics
  71. Table 6.1. Test matrix for investigating bulk properties, engineering parameters and available techniques As noted in the previous section, undisturbed materials available for investigation surround the scar perimeter. Constraints
  72. Tallis, J.H. (1965) Studies on southern Pennine peats: IV. Evidence of recent erosion, Journal of Ecology, 53, 509-520. doi
  73. Tallis, J.H. (1973) Studies on southern Pennine peats V: direct observations on peat erosion and peat hydrology at Featherbed Moss, Derbyshire. Journal of Ecology, 61, 1-22 Tallis, J.H. (1975) Tree remains in southern Pennine peats. Nature, 256, 482-484. doi
  74. Tallis, J.H. (1985) Mass movement and erosion of a Southern Pennine blanket peat. doi
  75. The sites for which block mapping was not available (Dow Crag, Hart Hope, Iron Band, Langdon Beck, Me!don
  76. These may, for convenience be divided into scar and deposit
  77. Ti co 0 C 7 doi
  78. U "0 Q. -.-7 CO. -.0 .512 0 0 E •4r.
  79. u J J .J a_ is gr s ae)=. g.c eg e -121 trg 43 .... NI A 0. <0041 &quot; E *g fp3-gg VIT .il6 g 2 a,g2t 10. 'scb 12— NF e!Li u) '.2 44 g A
  80. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-141 Delap, A.D. and Mitchell, G.F. (1939) On a recent bog flow in Powerscourt Mountain Townland, Co Wicklow. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, 22(18), 195-198.
  81. Vi I I g cli g a . i 4 e 1 1 a .., 0 A I v. ) e , * . .4 C) Co CI Co CD
  82. Warburton, J. (1998) Geomorphological studies in the North Pennines: Field Guide, British Geomorphological Research Group, 92-104.
  83. Warburton, J. and Higgitt, D.L. (1998) Hart Hope Peat Slide: an example of slope channel coupling. Geomorphological studies in the North Pennines: Field Guide, British Geomorphological Research Group, 92-104.
  84. Ward, W.H., Penman, A. and Gibson, R.E. (1955) Stability of a bank on a thin peat layer. Geotechnique. 5, 154-163. doi
  85. Wilson, P. and Hegarty, C. (1993) Morphology and causes of recent peat slides on Skerry Hill, Co Antrim, Northern Ireland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforrns, 18, 593-601. doi
  86. Wilson, P., Clark, R., McAdam, J.H. and Cooper, E.A. (1993) Soil erosion in the Falkland Islands: an assessment. Applied Geography, 13, 329-352. doi

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