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A comparative re-examination of Anglo-Irish relations in nineteenth-century Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

By Caroline L. Scott
Topics: History
Year: 1998
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1058
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

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Citations

  1. 1 Number of Irish claiming poor relief in
  2. 2 Number of Irish paupers removed from
  3. 3 Expenditure on poor relief in doi
  4. 4 Relief payments to resident poor in
  5. 9 Irish entering the port of Liverpool
  6. 11 Number of apprehensions by doi
  7. 12 Convictions for begging in
  8. 13 Convictions for simple larceny in
  9. 14 Convictions for breach of peace in
  10. 15 Convictions for common assault in
  11. 16 Convictions for prostitution in
  12. 17 Convictions for assault on police officers in
  13. 18 Convictions for drunkenness in doi
  14. (1841). 1 Irish male trades in
  15. (1851). 2 Irish male trades in
  16. 3 Irish females trades in
  17. 4% of Irish-born household heads
  18. implications of Irish immigration have, as Foster identifies, tended to be insufficiently appreciated.' As they were not physically identifiable as later immigrants
  19. 5 Buxton Street doi
  20. 8
  21. 4 Gibson Street doi
  22. 7
  23. Entry
  24. Racial doi
  25. Even the most revisionist historian
  26. E. P.
  27. Report on the doi
  28. J. H. Clapham, doi
  29. exception',
  30. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. doi
  31. Wasn't
  32. Irish
  33. A. doi
  34. p. 134.
  35. Cooter, 'The Irish in
  36. 15% of liverpool Irish household heads lived somewhere else in England before Liverpool.
  37. the doi
  38. Belchem,
  39. improvident
  40. Engels had nothing but praise for Kay's 'excellent document', The Condition of the Working
  41. Swift and S. Gluey (eds.), The Irish in Britain
  42. from the Select Committee doi
  43. Dublin Review, xli (December 1856), pp. 473-4.
  44. W. Cooke Taylor, Notes on a Tour of the Manufacturing Districts, p. 128; J. P. Kay in Report on the 282State of the Irish Poor in Great Britain, 1836,
  45. See Rev. T. K. Morrow cited in P. J. Wailer, Democracy and Secrarianism:
  46. For one explicit example see Porcupine 28 June
  47. Report
  48. from James Harvey, Liverpool, 24 February 1848. M136/2/311409, MCL
  49. J.
  50. S. Gilley, Protestant London, No
  51. R.
  52. Bogue, 'The Irish in England',
  53. (1819). 58. doi
  54. August
  55. Liverpool Herald 17 November 1855, cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 114-5.
  56. D. Akenson refutes this
  57. Cited in Wallet, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 141.
  58. L P. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts: A Study of Anti-Irish Prejudice in doi
  59. Ireland, doi
  60. Hippolyte
  61. Appendix
  62. Engels, Condition of the Working Class p. 81. doi
  63. ibid., p.123.
  64. Marx and Engels, On doi
  65. in
  66. Cooter,
  67. (1877). pp.
  68. of the Commissioners ...on Cholera, p. xix; The
  69. Manufacturing Population, p. 125; Report from
  70. (1870). LWM,
  71. (1847). 124
  72. Duncan, On the doi
  73. M126/2/4f1-12 and M126/2/6/1-1 doi
  74. Mi®/i 17. Census of St Luke's
  75. on
  76. MG,
  77. The Most Horrible doi
  78. 55.
  79. Rob
  80. G. Connolly, 'The doi
  81. (1833). of
  82. Howard
  83. Liverpool Herald
  84. LC, 20 March
  85. 28 June 1877. doi
  86. H241 (MCL Historical Tracts) Sanitaiy Inquiry Report on the Prevalence of Diseases, 1840.
  87. MG, 12 May
  88. 17,
  89. of the Worldng Classes Ac4 1890.
  90. Cited in NWC, 27 January 1854.
  91. This new doi
  92. Newcastle doi
  93. Scola,
  94. H.
  95. many
  96. Durham',
  97. Report of the Medical Officer doi
  98. Porcupine doi
  99. Engels, Condition of the Working Class; p. 124; Duncan, 'On the Physical Causes of the High Rate of
  100. Report of the Medical Officer of Health(1847), p.5; doi
  101. 28 April 1847.
  102. May
  103. Association
  104. Persons per Acre: St Nicholas 162
  105. 10 10
  106. 1 7.1
  107. room
  108. Newcastle Chronicle, Inqithy, pp. 37, 43
  109. p.23.
  110. Proceedings
  111. Newcastle Board of Guardians'
  112. Newcastle Board of Guardians' Minutes
  113. better doi
  114. Shirnrnin,
  115. of the Working Class, p. 124; See.also Report
  116. Bogue, 'The Irish in England', p. 120.
  117. Duncan, On the Physical Causes of
  118. earns
  119. Harris, Nearest Place, p. 172.
  120. Engels, Condition of the Working doi
  121. P.
  122. Engels, doi
  123. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 24.
  124. Census of Great Britain (1851). Birth doi
  125. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p.4. doi
  126. Ibid., p.4.
  127. Neal, 'Criminal Profile of the Liverpool Irish', p. 166.
  128. Cited in 0. Kearns,
  129. (1863). Shixnmin,
  130. See
  131. Report on the State doi
  132. W. J. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire: the Shaping of a Working Class Community, p. doi
  133. Ibid Taylor, 'The Court and Cellar Dwellings', p. 68 n. 5.
  134. cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 94. doi
  135. P. Laxton, 'The built-up area, 1800-1913', in L A. Patmore and A. G. Hodgkiss (eds.) Merseyside in Maps, p. 17;
  136. Cited in LWIVl, 6 November 1869.
  137. Report of the Committee Appointed to Act doi
  138. of Guardians' Minutes 1852-4, TWRO, 35911/10,24 November 1853.
  139. NWC,
  140. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 186.
  141. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, p. 87; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. xix.
  142. Marx and Engels, On Britain, 'The Condition of the Working-Class in England', pp. 98. doi
  143. Newcastle Board of Guardians' Minutes 1845-7, TWRO, 359/1/6, 8 June 1847.
  144. Report on the State of the doi
  145. B. Lancaster (ed.), Working Class Housing on Tyneside 1850-1939, pp. 7-39; J. Smith, Public Health on Tyneside 1850-8(Y, N. McCord (ed.), Essays in Tyneside Labour History, p. 34.
  146. Medical
  147. B. D. White, A Histoiy of
  148. p. 160. doi
  149. See, for example, B. Love, Manchester As It Is, p. 29; B. Love, Hand-book of Manchester,
  150. LWM 19 November 1870.
  151. LM 23 November 1847; MG, 27 February, 20 March 1847; NWC, 6 August 1847; Denvir, Life Story, p.53; Report of the Medical Officer of Health (1847), p.6, 18.
  152. LWM, 19
  153. Report of the Medical Officer of Health (1847), p.6;
  154. May, 23, 30 November 1847;
  155. (1847). 26
  156. ibid.,
  157. Fever
  158. LM 25 May 1847.
  159. Dolan, 'The Fever Year in Liverpool', p. 180.
  160. Annual Report of the Poor
  161. of Dr Duncan on the
  162. LM 5 March 1847.
  163. LM, 23 April 1847; Returns of the Number of Irish Poor Relieved out of the Poor Rates in the Year 1848, p. 53; H045/2674 See Edward Rushton's Report on Immigration 21 April 1849.
  164. Redford, Labour Migration p. 126; NWC, 16 April 1847.
  165. Report of the Registrar General 1847-8. Cited in
  166. MG, 28 April, 5, 15 May, 14 July 1847.
  167. MG, 24 July 1847.
  168. MG, 10 July 1847; Report from the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, p.
  169. MG, 28 April 1847.
  170. of English Catholics, v, pp. 418-9; NWC, 5 November 1847.
  171. Minutes
  172. Cited
  173. NWC 7May
  174. Dr
  175. Second Report
  176. 377,
  177. Burke,
  178. In the event
  179. M9/36/1 Proceedings of the Board
  180. Duncan,
  181. D. B Reid, Report on the State
  182. 18 May 1849, 21 May 1850; MG, 30 June 1849;
  183. 1848. Cited in Neal, Black '47, p. 244.
  184. 1849;
  185. Out
  186. p.6.
  187. (1080). 1847;
  188. Officer
  189. on the State of the
  190. The Irish fever"'. See Thrift,
  191. (1847). of Guardians Minutes,
  192. Health,
  193. LC, 16 June 1847;
  194. Profile
  195. 5.
  196. 4 September 1818.
  197. Second
  198. June 1847; Report of the Medical Officer of
  199. 3
  200. Denvir, Life Story, p.
  201. 16.
  202. Brown,
  203. 1847.
  204. Economic and Social Investigations in Manchester, pp.
  205. Report from the Select Committee onPoorRemoval, 1854,
  206. Ibid.
  207. See for example doi
  208. 29.6
  209. Guardians
  210. Report on the Increased Death doi
  211. Medical Officer of Health (Liverpool), 1850,
  212. an doi
  213. Frances Finnegan and doi
  214. 494;
  215. pp. 34, 35; Kay, Moral and Physical Condition,
  216. January 1847; LM, 17 January 1847; Report from the Select Committee on PoorRemoval, 1854, pp.
  217. May 1850.
  218. (1849). Neal, doi
  219. Manchester Board of Guardians, Accounts of Monies disbursed week by week to the poor by the churchwardens, M3/3/6A and B,
  220. Report of 17 March
  221. and
  222. 353SEL/1/2/5
  223. June
  224. state
  225. Report of 24 April 1832, LCL
  226. Burke, Catholic History doi
  227. 1835, xxxv, p. 155. doi
  228. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 38, 39, 40, 41.
  229. a doi
  230. 1836-7,
  231. p. 63. doi
  232. (1846). therefore
  233. 353SEL/1/1 Select Vestry Minute
  234. L 18 December
  235. from
  236. February
  237. January
  238. LM
  239. Thirteenth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commission, 1847, p. 166.
  240. MG, 3 February 1847; LM 1, 22 January 1847.
  241. 3, 13 February 1847;Thfrteenth Annual Report
  242. (1847). MG, 10 February 1847;
  243. Thirteenth Annual Report of doi
  244. Ibid.,p. 172.
  245. MG, 11 March 1848.
  246. 29
  247. the Select Committee on Settlement and Poor Removal, 1847, p. 464.
  248. July 1847; LM 20 February 1849; Thirteenth
  249. Report of the Select Committee on Settlement and Poor Removal, 1847, pp. 458, 459; Report from the Select Committee on PoorRemoval, 1854, p. 391.
  250. Report from the Select Committee on Poor doi
  251. Ibid, p. 368.
  252. 592.
  253. (1846). up
  254. pp. 257, 265. doi
  255. 353PAR/1/1/4 Vestry Minute Books 1829-1854, Report
  256. from the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854,
  257. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 25.
  258. The public mind is painfully excited
  259. (1847). Alfred
  260. proportion.
  261. high
  262. 21, 24, 28 April, 1, 5, 8, 19 May, 5, 16 June, 7, 17, 21, 24 July, 7 August 1847.
  263. MG, 24 April 1847. doi
  264. MG, 16 January 1847.
  265. Lowe, Irish doi
  266. 34.
  267. MG, 17,
  268. (1847). 27 doi
  269. PRO
  270. 1865; doi
  271. 2
  272. Newcastle Journall
  273. 7May,6August
  274. MG, 27 December 1848; doi
  275. Jiiquiry,
  276. 47,
  277. Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 29.
  278. Number of Irish Relieved out of
  279. Scotland, p.31.
  280. 1)4 31 May 1850; A Return of the Number of Irish
  281. Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, pp. 454,
  282. Last Week in Seutember 1852 Last Week in Januarsr 1853 Liverpool
  283. Steele, 'The Irish Presence in the doi
  284. Mid
  285. Catholics doi
  286. Liverpool
  287. Board
  288. Report from the
  289. Kay, Moral and Physical Condition, pp. 22, 83; Marx and Engels, On Britain, 'The Condition of the Working-Class in England', p.
  290. R. D. Collison-Black, Economic Thought and the Irish Question 1817-70, pp. 102, 106. doi
  291. Punch, vol. 9 (July-December 1845), p. 221, vol. 22 (January-June 1852)
  292. Inquiry, p.34; Conversely Frank Neal
  293. Returns of the Numbers of Irish Poor Relieved out of the Poor Rate
  294. March
  295. Removal Wanant Papeis, 1849, 20/75/1249, TWRO; All Saints Parish: Guardians Meeting 1840-48, TWRO; Minutes of Newcastle Board of Guardians, 15 August, 1844, p. 2, 359/1/1-35, TWRO; All Saints Parish: Guardians Meeting, 1 July 1853, p. 157, TWRO; Report
  296. 459, 462, 464; Report from the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, p. 369.
  297. 353SEL/1/1 Select vestry Minute Book 1852-5, report of 28 March 1854, LCL; Report from the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, pp. 368, 370, 371, 378,
  298. 1862-6,
  299. (1874). Vestry
  300. Irish paupers in Liverpool often claimed to have no funds in order to claim a free passage, but money was very often recovered upon their persons, and children and poor accommodation were often
  301. Vestiy Minute Books 1797-1829, report of 17 April 1827, LCL;
  302. Saints Parish: Guardians Meeting 1840-48, TWRO; William Royston
  303. Hibernians
  304. Annual Report of the PoorLaw Commission
  305. 1854-6,
  306. Selected
  307. 1871, 6 November 1875;
  308. it was common to record the
  309. MG, 5
  310. Cited in Davis, Irish in Britain, p.
  311. in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 25, 114, 123; Rev. Verner White directly hypothesized that
  312. Watch
  313. Report on the State of the Irish doi
  314. Condition, p. 34. doi
  315. Faucher, Manchester, p. 28.
  316. Neal 'Criminal
  317. Lowe, doi
  318. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 19, 20-, Neal, 'Criminal Profile', pp. 182, 184, 185; Redford, Labour Migmtion p. 130.
  319. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 32. doi
  320. Cooter, 'Hibernians and Geordies', p. 20.
  321. Statistical Returns of the Newcastle Police for the Year Ending 1861, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867,1865', Newcastle Watch Committee Reports 1875 and 1880. These make no differentiation.
  322. Luniley, The Statistics
  323. Report of the Select Committee on Prisons and Prison Ministers Acts, 1870, p. 877.
  324. LC, 4 February
  325. Report of the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, pp. 369, 370, 378.
  326. (1825). M117/1/5/1-28 City of Manchester, convictions for vagrancy and prostitution, MCL; MG, 13 September 1828, 18 April 1835, 21 June
  327. Ml 17/1/1/3-39, Ml 17/1/2/1-45, Ml 17/1/7/1-27, doi
  328. Ml 17/1/5/1-28 City of Manchester, Records of Conyictions for Vagrancy and Prostitution, MCL; M9/70/1/2 City of Manchester, Watch Committee Minutes Draft, MCL; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 76; Reid, Report
  329. 18
  330. (1851). MG, 17
  331. (1829). NWC, 9 November 1811,,
  332. (1834). the Malignant Cholera, p. 36; Faucher,
  333. Punch vol.43 (18 March 1862),
  334. Bryson, 'Riotous
  335. 21
  336. Gaskell, Manufacturing
  337. Violence,
  338. D. M. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration: The Irish in doi
  339. reports
  340. 16
  341. l7March
  342. 1855.
  343. (1855). to Watch Committee, report 27 January 1867; Of the 106 people arrested during the 1855 riot 83
  344. Army
  345. in Northern England, 1859-1900', Journal of Social Histoiy,
  346. 20
  347. M9/70/2/1, City of Manchester,
  348. of England:', p. 19. doi
  349. MG, 24 May 1843.
  350. 71, 193, 204; Chief Constable's Reports, Manchester, 1868, 1869; Manchester Watch Committee Minutes, vol. 2, 6 May 1862, p. 289; Kidd and Roberts, City, Class and Culture, p. 37.
  351. NWC, 24 March 1854.
  352. The Manchester police were 25% Irish in 1845 and 10% in 1865. But of the 275 Irish recruited between 1858 and 1869, an unrepresentative 54% were Protestant. S. J. Davies, 'Classes and Police in Manchester, 1829-1880', Kidd and Roberts, City, Class
  353. Ibid., p. 34. By contrast the 1851 census of Newcastle showed that there were only two Irish police constables in the city. See Census Enumerators Books.
  354. MG 1 August 1835. doi
  355. Manchester Watch Committee Minutes, 5 April 1833; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 112.
  356. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 41,42. doi
  357. Ibid., p. 60. doi
  358. 352M1N/WAT/l/3 Minutes of Watch Committee, 9, 30 November 1844, 10 November 1845, LCL LM, 7,28
  359. lodges.
  360. of the Watch Committee 12 February,
  361. 352M1N/WATI1/5 Minutes of Watch Committee 9 August 1851, 27 March 1852, LCL; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 119.
  362. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 120.
  363. (1883). Annual Reports on the Police Establishment and the State of Crime, 1878-1900. 1878
  364. Profll&,
  365. Neal 'Criminal Profile', pp. 163, 169, 188, 193; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 111.
  366. LWM, 6 November 1869.
  367. Select Committee on Prisons and doi
  368. NWC, 8 April 1882.
  369. Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry, p. 12.
  370. Neal, 'Criminal Profile', pp. 183, 185, 186; Wailer, Democracy
  371. See NDC 28, 29 October 1872; Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry, p. 10; T. Wright complained of the drunkenness prevalent among the Manchester Irish. Report from the Select Committee on Public Houses, 1854, xiv, p.
  372. Two
  373. described
  374. Northern Star 8 January
  375. 64. MG, 11 doi
  376. of the Select Committee doi
  377. Liveipool
  378. 1875. On the same theme
  379. Neal, 'Criminal Profile', p.165.
  380. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 156-7. doi
  381. MG, 25 March 1846. doi
  382. NWC, 21 March 1856.
  383. MG, 11 August 1827, 18 October 1828, 2, 16 January,
  384. Manufacturing Population, p. 125.
  385. Poor, p.77.
  386. MG, 2 January 1830; Report
  387. p. 183; NWC, 12 December 1851.
  388. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. x, 20, 73.
  389. Gaskeil,
  390. See R. Balls, 'Attitudes towards Drinking in Irish Culture', in D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder (eds.) Society, Culture and Drinldng Patterns, pp. 157-87; R. Stivers, A Hair of the Dog: Irish Drinldng and 314American Stereotype (London, 1976).
  391. capita spirit consumption exceed
  392. abstainers % heavy drinkers Irish men 13.1
  393. 7 Irish immigrant men 1.1 57 English men 2.5 43 Irish women 25.6
  394. 6 Irish immigrant women 5.9 doi
  395. 3 See Malcolm, 'Ireland Sober, Ireland Free', pp. 332-3. Interestingly Mayhew reported contrary findings, observing the Irish to be less inclined to alcoholism than the surrounding London society. See Mayhew, London Labour and London
  396. Porcupine 28
  397. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, doi
  398. Temperance Movement', Catholic Truth Society Conference Papers (1890), pp. 82, 87.
  399. Cited in Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 50.
  400. Report of the Select Committee into Dnmkenness, 1834, p. 694.
  401. MG, 1, 19, 22, 26 July, 2 August 1843; LM, 7, 21 July 1843.
  402. Faucher, Manchester, p. 30.
  403. MG, 26 July 1843.
  404. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, p. 157. doi
  405. MG, 26 March 1846; LM, 15 July
  406. C.
  407. Manchester Courier
  408. 1
  409. IsTWC, 2 January 1852.
  410. NWC, 23 April 1881, 14 January, 20 May 1882.
  411. LM 18 march 1865; Second Report
  412. MG, 18 March 1875, 18 March 1881, 18 March 1882. doi
  413. Bennett, Father Nugent, p. 111.
  414. MG, 18 March 1881, 18 March 1882, doi
  415. 1. Smith, Public Health on Tyneside', McCord (ed.)
  416. Love, Hand-book of Manchester, p. 101.
  417. B. Harrison, Drink and the Victorians, p. 223. doi
  418. Love, Manchester As It Ls p. 74.
  419. P. A. Pickering, Chaitism and the Chartists in Manchester and Salford, p.125. doi
  420. Marr, Housing Conditions in Manchester and Salford p. 27.
  421. Hewitt,
  422. Neal, 'Criminal
  423. of Liverpool', p. 13;Waller, Democracy and Sectarianism, doi
  424. A. Huine, Missions at Home.
  425. McNeile denounced teetotallers as revolutionaries and
  426. A submerged class,
  427. J. H. Claphain, An Economic
  428. Herald 17 November 1855, cited
  429. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 141.
  430. Porcupine 1 May 1875.
  431. Porcupine 10 march 1866.
  432. Marx and Engels, Ireland and the Irish Question, p. 40. doi
  433. Report of
  434. Street, The Night Side of Newcastle, p.4.
  435. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 59. 544) Kay, Moral and
  436. LM 1 August 1848.
  437. Carlyle, 'Chartism', Selected Writhigs p. 171.
  438. Kay,
  439. 352SEL/1/2/5 Parish Committee
  440. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 20, 27;
  441. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. ill.
  442. Kay, Moral and Physical Condition,
  443. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. xxxviii, 59;
  444. LC,
  445. W. A. Carrothers, Emigration from the British Isles, p. 62. doi
  446. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 20, 23, 26, 27, 29, 32, 37, 48, 49, 58, 59, 61-3, 67-9, 72, 73, 74, 76, 81.
  447. the Irish Poor, doi
  448. December 1837; LM 11 August 1848 ('It
  449. Porcupine (3 June 1865) commended their 'thoughtless generosity'; LM October 184.0; LWM (20 March 1858)
  450. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 49, 61,
  451. The general character of the Irish for honesty is good; they are much trusted in this town', Rev. V. Glover of
  452. Rev.
  453. are perhaps superior to us; they are affectionate parents
  454. Redman
  455. This was established doi
  456. March 1854; Cooter, 'The Irish
  457. O'Day, Survey of the Irish doi
  458. xxv.
  459. LWM, 16 July 1864, 6 November 1869.
  460. Napier
  461. Status: An Index of Relations and a Source of Hostility?. pp. 58-90
  462. Marx and Engels, On Britain, p. doi
  463. Modern Britain, vol.1 pp. 57-66, vol. ii p. 494.
  464. S. Pollard, 'Labour in Britain', doi
  465. Jackson, Irish in England. doi
  466. Handley,
  467. Redford, Labour Migration, pp. 41, 42, 159-64; Hunt, Regional
  468. 353SEL/1/2/5 Parish Committee and Select Committee Vestry Minute Book, 3 February 1824, LCL
  469. Walton, Lancashfr4 pp. 183, 254.
  470. Shallice,
  471. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 109. doi
  472. Hunt, Regional doi
  473. G. doi
  474. For similar queries see also Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 49, 64, 67, 70, 78, 82; D. Bythell, The Hand-loom Weavers, pp. 10, 63; A. O'Day, 'Varieties of Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain, 1846-1922', Panayi, (ed.), Racial Violence, p. 13.
  475. As Irish immigration begins to increase migration from British agriculture into industry starts to decrease, and as the
  476. First Annual Report of the Poor Law Commission, 1835, p. 188; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. xxvi.
  477. Williamson, 'The impact of the Irish on British labour markets' pp. 139, 157; Lowe agrees with 322these findings. Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 97, 98.
  478. Williamson, 'The impact of the Irish on British labour markets' p. 157.
  479. Ibid., p. 145. doi
  480. Ibid., p. 141. doi
  481. Ibid., p. 159. doi
  482. Report from the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, p. 456.
  483. Alison, Principies of Population, volume 1, P. 497; Maylhew, London Labour and the London Poor, volume 2, p. 334.
  484. Alexis de Tocqueville, Journeys in England and Ireland doi
  485. Engels, Condition of the doi
  486. Carlyle, 'Chartism', in Selected Writings, doi
  487. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp.
  488. MG, 14 November
  489. 3 March, 15 May, 22 May 1847. doi
  490. Hunt, Regional Wage Variations In Britain, pp. 288-99; Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', pp. 110, 111; Taplin, 'Dock Labour at Liverpool: occupational structure and working conditions in the late nineteenth century', THSLC, 127, 1977, p. 141.
  491. Cited in Collison B1ack, Economic Thought and the Irish Question, pp.209-210.
  492. LM 21 May 1850.
  493. iii,
  494. and Engels, On BritaIn, doi
  495. Alisorz,
  496. Report from doi
  497. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 27.
  498. LM, 1 August 1848.
  499. Liverpool Review 8 doi
  500. Democracy doi
  501. (1826). Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 37, 70;
  502. Bramble,
  503. May,
  504. Paz,
  505. Beichem,
  506. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 133.
  507. Contemporary Review, XLffl (1883), p. 295. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 128, 144).
  508. Liverpool Herald 7 November 1857. Cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 176. 66 LC, 10 December 1867.
  509. Harris, Ne&est Place, p. 152. Mayhew registered similar feelings in London: I found among the English costennongers a general dislike of the Irish. In fact, next to a policeman, a genuine London costermoriger hates an Irishman, considering
  510. Freeman's Journal, 4 December 1840. Cited in Neal,
  511. E D. 'The doi
  512. MG, 3 July 1852. P. Milward however finds that though the Stockport Irish had economic objections
  513. Foster,
  514. Report on doi
  515. Newcastle Journal, 27 February, 20
  516. P. Joyce, Worlç,
  517. Tale of Two
  518. MoynThan
  519. Hand-loom
  520. London
  521. Collins, 'The Irish doi
  522. Labour
  523. Busteed
  524. (1899). Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 73; MG, 17 April
  525. Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland": Ribbonism in early nineteenth century Liverpool', International Review of Social History, 39, 1994, p. 43. doi
  526. Denvir, Life Story, pp. 5, 50.
  527. Duff', 'Carrying the Hod', p. 37.
  528. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 32.
  529. R. Lawton, 'Jrish immigration to England and Wales in the mid-nineteenth century', Irish Geography, iv (1959), pp. 35-54; O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England, pp. doi
  530. Denvir, Life Story, p. 23; LM, 25 June 1841; Shallice, 'Orange & Green', p. 21; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 70; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianismç p. 10.
  531. C. L. Taplin, Liverpool Dockers and Seamen 1870-1 890, pp. 10, 11; Finnegan, 'The Irish doi
  532. Irish in Nineteenth Century Tyneside', p. 46. doi
  533. NWC, 16 April 1847: A considerable number of
  534. Durham Industry in the Nineteenth Century, pp.4,5,7,20,27,32,40.
  535. Collins, 'The Irish in Britain', p. 387.
  536. Report on the State of doi
  537. in Reformed England, p. 153. doi
  538. Lavery, fish Heroes in
  539. Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 79.
  540. Fielding, Class
  541. Busteed and Hodgson, 'Irish Migration and Settlement', p. 11. doi
  542. Irish women worked in
  543. 187;
  544. the Irish Poor (p.1) contrarily noted that compared with
  545. on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 28.
  546. Harris, Nearest
  547. Thid., 1854, p. 456.
  548. 173; Report of the Select Committee on Settlement and Poor Removal, 1847, p. 465;
  549. that many Irish emigrants to Britain were typical of that vast force of surplus labourers from many
  550. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. iii, ix, xxxii, 22, 25, 28, 66, 69, 72, 81; Royal Corrunission on Children's
  551. D. Fitzpatrick writes 'the Irish
  552. the Poor Law Commission, 1835, pp. 295, 296, 325; Redford (Labour Migration, p. 159)
  553. Lowe, The
  554. Pooley, Irish Settlement in the North West of England, p.
  555. the lush in
  556. Report of the Liveipool Medical Officer
  557. History of doi
  558. Irish Immigration', p. 52; Collins, lie Irish in Britain', p. 374.
  559. Irish Migration and Settlement', p. 11. doi
  560. This is confirmed by Lowe's survey of particular Manchester streets
  561. Carrying the Hod, p. 37; Claphani, Economic History of Modern Britain,
  562. Report from the Select Committee
  563. See, for
  564. emigration', pp. 134, 135.
  565. LM,
  566. MG, 18 March 1867. doi
  567. Report ... as doi
  568. November 1870, 19 July 1879; Marx and Engels, On
  569. Report from the Select Committee on PoorRemoval, 1854-5, p. 312;
  570. The Regional Variation in Emigration', doi
  571. Neal, 'Criminal Profile of the Liverpool Irish', p. 192.
  572. Hunt, Regional Wage doi
  573. Harris, Nearest Place, p.223 n. 93. Begging was more common in Ireland than in England before 1838, because of the lack of Poor Law provision.
  574. Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, voL 1, pp. 104, 105. doi
  575. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 168.
  576. Roberts, The Classic Slum, pp. 92-3. doi
  577. Report on The State of the Irish Poor, pp. 61,74.
  578. Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 286. doi
  579. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 22. doi
  580. 0' Tuathaigh, 'The Irish in nineteenth century Britain', p. 156. doi
  581. LWM 23 March 1867.
  582. Denvir, Life Story, pp.7, 50; Denvir, Irish in BrItain, pp. 435-7.
  583. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 25. doi
  584. Lawton, irish Immigration', pp. 45,50; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 27.
  585. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 26.
  586. Report from the Select Committee on Settlement and PoorRemoval, 1847, p. 465.
  587. LM, 11 August 1848.
  588. LM 21 March 1845; LWM, 21 March 1857, 18 March 1865.
  589. LWM 28 February 1880.
  590. LWM 20 March 1858.
  591. Lawton, Population of Liverpool', p. 102.
  592. Lawton, 'Irish Immigration', pp. 48-54. doi
  593. Pooley, 'Segregation or integration?, p. 71.
  594. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 87.
  595. Report on the State of the IrishPoor, p. 76.
  596. Belchen-i, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 73, 74.
  597. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 32, 479.
  598. 92ORUS/1 E. R. Russell's Personal Book, 1866-82, MCL; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 20; Bennett, Father Nugen4 p. 74.
  599. Report on the State of the lush Poor, P. 26.
  600. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 505.
  601. Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 73.
  602. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 31; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 37.
  603. M. Ryan, Fenian Memories, p. 17.
  604. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 490.
  605. LWM, 5 July 1873; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 32, 485; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p.
  606. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 29.
  607. Ibid., p. 484. doi
  608. Ibid., pp. 99,500.
  609. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p.32.
  610. Beichern, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 74.
  611. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 28.
  612. Lawton, 'Irish Immigration', p. 53. doi
  613. NDC 10,24 December 1867.
  614. D. H. Thomas, 'The Certified Industrial Schools for Catholic Boys and Girls in the North of England', p. 26.
  615. Newcastle Chronicle, Jnquiiy into the Condition of the Poor, pp. 19,20.
  616. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p.117; NWC, 24 March 1854.
  617. ODay, Suriey of the Irish in Englan4 p. 117. See also pp. 118, 119, 122; See also Neal, 'EnglishIrish Conflict in the North East', p. 21.
  618. ODay, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 119.
  619. 1841 Census enumerators books, St Nicholas parish, Newcastle; List of Guardians and Paid Officers 1866-1901, TWRO, 359/35/1.
  620. Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 290. doi
  621. Lowe, frisk in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 88-9.
  622. Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 289. doi
  623. Busteed and Hodgson. 'Jrish Migration and Settlement', p. 10.
  624. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 30. doi
  625. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 84. doi
  626. E. and R. Frow, Biographies of Irish Chaitists, pp. 86-7; MG, 26 October 1833.
  627. Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, vol. 2, p. 49.
  628. Clarke, Erin's Heirs, p. 38. doi
  629. M. P. Hornsby Smith and A. Dale, 'The assimilation of Irish immigrants in England', British Journal of Sociology, 39, 1988, p. 520. doi
  630. Ibid., p. 283.
  631. MG 19 March 1825, 22 March 1828; Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North-East', p. 21.
  632. Harris, Nearest Place, p. 141.
  633. Lawton, 'Irish immigration', p. 45. doi
  634. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 26,27.
  635. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 83. doi
  636. NWC, 23 March 1895.
  637. MG November 1841; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 275,278,379,380.
  638. Steele, 'Irish in the North of England', p. 236. doi
  639. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, p. 253. doi
  640. Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, p. 314.
  641. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 491.
  642. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 53. doi
  643. Beware of the Pope and the Devil". pp.91-132
  644. Title of a pamphlet published in Joseph Pratt of Manchester in 1823
  645. Colley, 'Britishness and Othemess: An Argument', Journal of British Stuthes, 31, 1992, pp. 317, doi
  646. Cited in Norman, Anti-Catholicism in Victorian England, p. 20. doi
  647. Liverpool Mail 19 July 1851. Cited in Neal, 'A Criminal Profile of the Liverpool Irish', p. 162; See also Rev. Verner White, The Influence of Romanisrn, pp. 10-20.
  648. Joseph Cowen too regarded the Catholic church with trepidation. Ashton, W. E. Adams - Chartist, Radical and Journalist', p. 113
  649. Peacock, A Newcastle Boyhood, p. 46.
  650. See Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict lathe North West', pp.22-3.
  651. MacRaild, William Murphy', p. 44; O'Day echoes this sentiment See 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', p. 31.
  652. MacRaild, 'William Murphy', p. 44.
  653. M. Durey, 1'he Survival of an Irish Culture in Britain, 1800-45', Historical Studies (Australia), 20 (1982), p. 23. doi
  654. The No-Popery Agitation by Philalethes pp.5,20.
  655. LM, 4 December 1846, 11 August 1848, 19 March 1850.
  656. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 12; See also Walton and Wilcox, Low Life and Moral Improvement, (p. 31) for Shimniin's opinions.
  657. Porcupine 31 March 1866.
  658. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p.114.
  659. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 18. doi
  660. Cooter, 'Lady Londonderry', p. 288.
  661. Giiley, Protestant London', p. 213.
  662. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 38.
  663. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 81; G. Connoily, 'Irish and Catholic: Myth or Reality?', R. Swift and S. Giiley (eds.), The Irish in the Victorian City, p. 237.
  664. Anon., Brief Memoim of Reverend Rowland Broombead of Manchester (Manchester, 1820); Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic: Myth or Reality?', pp. 237-8; Connolly, 'The Transubstanliation of Myth', p. 95.
  665. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 95. doi
  666. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic: Myth or Reality?, p. 238.
  667. M270 Theological Tracts, A Candid Appeal to the Common Sense of the People of Manchester and its Vicinity on the Present Controversy respecting Bible Reading, Popery and Priestcraft (London, 1822); MG, 6 October, 1821.
  668. The Catholic Defender, or an answer to the publication erroneously entitled The Catholic' by an Irish Weaver (Manchester, 1821), T271, MCL Theological Tracts; MG, 24 November 1821.
  669. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 96, 98; Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic: Myth or Reality?', p. 238.
  670. Colley, Biitishness and Othemess', p. 318.
  671. Gilley, Protestant London', p. 213.
  672. First Annual Report of the Manchester and Salford Catholic Association, Report of the Committee of the British Catholic Association (London, 1825), p. 25; Rules of Newcastle Catholic Religious Defence Society (Newcastle, 1825), p. 3.
  673. Second Half Yearly Report of Newcastle Catholic Religious Defence Society (Newcastle, 1826).
  674. The Evangdical Champions, a Satire (Newcastle, 1827).
  675. Burke, The Catholic Histoiy of Liverpool, p. 42.
  676. Ibid., p. 43. doi
  677. MG, 23 April, 30 April, 14 May, 21 May 1825, and 15 November 1828, 21 March, 28 March 1829; A. Prentice, Historical Sketches and Personal Reflections of Manchester 1792-1832, p. 334.
  678. MG, 14 May 1825.
  679. MG, 5 March, 23 April, 7 May, 21 May 1825, 12 July, 22 November, 1828; Prentice, Manchester, pp. 256-8, 334.
  680. MG, 21 May 1825; There was considerable distress among Irish immigrants at the rejection of Burdett's Bill. John Doherty threatened a workers combination if an amendment was passed. See Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 417,449.
  681. B. Whittingham-Jones, The Pedigree of Liverpool Politics: White, Orange and Green, p. 33; Wailer, Democracy and Sectaiianisin, p.1 1; Neal, Sectarian Violence p. 54.
  682. Neal, Sectarian Violenc4 p. 41.
  683. LM 12 March 1813, 13 May, 3 June 1825,3, 10,31 April 1828.
  684. E. Calmny, Help! Help! The Church in Danger!, pp.7,9.
  685. LM, 7 July 1837; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p.11.
  686. G. I. T. Macbin, Politics and the Churches 1832 to 1868, pp. 97, 188; LM 25 June, 2, 30 July 1847 LC, 21, 28 July 1847.
  687. Richardson's Local Historian's Table Boolç 10 March 1829, p. 15.
  688. Address from the Members of the Catholic Association to the People of England, Dublin 12 February 1829', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  689. To Liberal and Enlightened PROTESTANT MECHANICS' and 'TO ThE LABOURERS OF NEWCASTLE', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  690. Lord Kenyon's Address to the Protestants of Great Britain', 'Arguments for Catholic Claims Examined and Refuted, by Abraham Scott', PROTESTANTS!', 'OF POPERY', PEEL'S BILL' Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  691. The Rev. G. S. Faber on the Catholic Question', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO; The warring parties even spread their message in poetry.See Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  692. See Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  693. NWC, 31 March, 7 April, 1821, 28 May 1825, 21 June, 5, 12 July, 23 August, 6, 27 September, 18 October, 1,22, 29 November 1828,7, 14 February, 7, 14 March, 11, 18, 25 April 1829.
  694. See 'A Sermon and Petition!', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  695. See flier for J. Clarke (printer) to advertise 'Argument for Catholic Claims Examined and Refuted by Abraham Scott', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  696. Public Meeting' and Place of Public Meeting Changed' posters, Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO; NWC, 7 March 1829; Smith, Catholic Tyneside, p. 56; Sykes and Fordyce, Local 346Records, vol. ii, p. 246; P. Cadogan, Early Radical Newcastle, p. 51.
  697. NWC, 14 March 1929; PROTESTANTS of Newcastle', Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  698. NWC,l4March 1829.
  699. NWC, 14 March 1829.
  700. NWC, 14 March 1829; Newcastle Courant, 14 MarciL 1829; Smith, Catholic Tyneside, p. 56; Sykes and Fordyce, Local Records, vol. ii, p. 246; Lash, Diaries, pp. 78, 80; Cadogan, Early Radical Newcastle, p. 52.
  701. Lash, Diaries, p. 78. doi
  702. Flier from W. A. Mitchell, printer, Papers of William Bramble, 1074/89, TWRO.
  703. Richardson's Local Historian's Table Boolç 10 March 1829, p. 15; Cadogan, Early Radical Newcastle, p. 52.
  704. Lash, Diaries, letter to Lard Grey, 28 March 1829, p. 167.
  705. Cadogan, EarlyRadical Newcastle, p. 52.
  706. Losh, Diaries, letter to Lord Grey, 28 March 1829, p. 168.
  707. Ibid., p. 167.
  708. Cadogan, Early Radical Newcastle, p. 52.
  709. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 24, 27.
  710. MG, 4 October 1827.
  711. Giley, Protestant London', p. 212; Handley regards the Scottish press as much more inclined to identify the Irish immigrants with their theological objections. See Irish in Modem Scotland, pp. 93-121; Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 80.
  712. MG, 27 March 1839, 29 April 1840, 23 April, 14 May, 4 June 1845, 16 May 1855; LM 11 June
  713. Rev. H. Stowell, The Proposed Endowment to Maynooth (London, 1845); Hugh McNeile, A Course of Sermons on Romanism; 12.4 28 March 1845
  714. McNeile, A Course of Sermons on Romanisin.
  715. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 67. doi
  716. IM, 28 February, 7 March, 4, 11 April 1845.
  717. LM 4, 11, 18 April 1845.
  718. L?.44April 1845.
  719. MG, 16, 19,23, 26 April, 3, 14 May, 25 June 1845.
  720. MG, 16 April 1845.
  721. Macbin, Politics and the Churches, p. 170; Norman, Anti-Catholicism in Victorian Englan4 p.33.
  722. MG, 21 July 1841.
  723. MG, 30 April 1845.
  724. MG, 19 April 1845; Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, vol. 2, p. 45.
  725. LM 25 June, 2, 30 July 1847; LC, 21, 28 July 1847; Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 188;Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 205.
  726. M38/1/1/1 Records of St Paul's Literary and Educational Society, 5 November, 19 November and 3 December 1852, MCL; MG, 16 May 1855; LM, 11 June 1852.
  727. MG, 22, 25 April 1856.
  728. LM 25 June, 2, 30 July 1847; LC, 21, 28 July 1847; Whittingham-Jones, Pedigrce of Liverpool Politics p. 39; Macbin, Politics and the Churches, pp. 188, 242; Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 198, 203.
  729. Macbin, Politics and the Churches, p. 243.
  730. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 183. doi
  731. W. J. Nicholson., 'Irish Priests in the North East in the Nineteenth Century', Northern Catholic History,21,1985,p. 18.
  732. NWC, 17 May 1845.
  733. Diary of Mr. Thomas Davidson, 29 May, 3 June 1845, DX55/1/2-3, TWRO.
  734. NWC, 31 May 1845.
  735. NWC, 5 September 1846.
  736. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 131.
  737. MacDenriott, 'Irish Workers on Tyneside', p. 167.
  738. Gateshead Observer, 27 March 1852 cited in Cooter, 'Lady Londonderry', p.2% n. 13.
  739. NWC, 26 March 1852.
  740. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 112.
  741. Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, 27 March 1857; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 123.
  742. NWC, 27 March 1857.
  743. No Popery' was a frontal assault on the Irish immigrants', Beichern, Industrialization and the Working Class, p. 175; J. Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile: Irish Emigrants and the Revolutions of 1848', Past and Presen4 146 (1995), p.134.
  744. Denvir, Life Story, pp. 58-60.
  745. Cooter 'The Irish in County Durham', pp.116,120, 141; Cooter,'Hibernians and Geordies', p. 26; Neal, 'Irish Conflict in the North West', p. 22.
  746. MG, 6, 16, 20, 23, 27 November, 14 December 1850; LM 26 November, 3 December 1850; LC, 6 November, 4,11 December 1850; Latirner, Local Records of Durham and Noithumberland, p. 288.
  747. MG, 7, 24 December 1850.
  748. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism in Mid- Victorian Britain, p. 41. doi
  749. Newcastle Courier, 21,28 March 1851.
  750. MG, 21 January 1852; LM 2 December 1851; Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 158.
  751. MG, 6, 16 November and 7 December 1850,27 August 1851.
  752. MG 19 April 1851;Paz, Popular And-Catholicism, pp. 208,209.
  753. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 65. doi
  754. M136/213/3529 letter from Hewitt C. Watson 6 March 1851.
  755. M38/1/1/1 Records of St Paul's Literary and Philosophical Society, 14, 28 February 1851, 6 Februaiy, 5 March 1852.
  756. Denvir, Life Story, p. 58.
  757. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 131. doi
  758. LM, 5, 12, 19, 22 November, 10 December 1850; LC, 6, 27 November, 4 December 1850; MG, 23 November 1850. doi
  759. LM, 5 November 1850; LC, 27 November, 11 December 1850; MG, 16, 20,23 November.
  760. LM 8 November 1850.
  761. LM, 22 November 1850. See also LM, 19 November 1850; LC, 27 November 1850; MG, 23 November 1850; doi
  762. LM, 25 October, 1, 26 November 1850.
  763. Liverpool Standanl29 October 1850. Cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 131
  764. LC, 23 October, 6,27 November, 4, 11 December 1850, 12 March, 16 July 1851.
  765. LC, 16 July 1851.
  766. MG, 6,23 November 1850.
  767. Manchester Courier 19, 26 October, 2, 9, 23, 30 November, 7 December 1850; MG, 23 November
  768. Newcastle Chronicle, 21 March 1851.
  769. TabIei xiii, 3 April 1852, cited in Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 111.
  770. Kirk, Working Class Reformism, p. 317. doi
  771. LM, 29 November, 3 December 1850; LC, 4 December 1850; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 131, 132, 133.
  772. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 156. doi
  773. 352M]N/WAT/1/5 Minutes of Watch Committee 25 July 1851, LCL
  774. R. Samuel, 'The Roman Catholic Church and the Irish Poor', R. Swift and S. Giley, The Irish in the Victorian City, pp. 272,273.
  775. Newcastle Journal, 17 May 1851; Newcastle Chronicle 16 May 1851.
  776. NWC, 16 May 1851.
  777. The "Horrid War i' Sandgeyt" is celebrated in the local poem. See Allan's Illustrated Tyneside Songs and Readings (Newcastle, 1891), p. 381; PJDC, 16 May 1851; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. 112114,115.
  778. Lord Strangford interestingly said about 1851 that at the next election the Orange card would be the one for Derby to play. See Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North West', p. 20; Milward, 'The Stockpoit Riots of 1852', p.207
  779. NWC, 26 March 1852; MG, 14 July 1852; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 28; Kirk, Working Class Reformism, p. 318; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 153, 154; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p.
  780. MG, 3 July 1852; NWC, 9 June 1852; The Times blamed Papal Aggression' for the outbreak. See Macbin, Politics and the Chwvhes p. 239.
  781. MG, 14 July 1852.
  782. MG, 24 September 1853. For the parliamentary encouragement of such sentiments, see W. L Arnstejn, Protestant Vemus Catholic in Mid-Victorian England: Mr Newdegate and the Nuns
  783. Kirk, Working Class Refoirnisin, p. 316.
  784. W. J. Lowe, 'The Irish in Lancashire 1846-71: A Social History', IES 2,1975, p. 65.
  785. J. Beichem, Industrialization and the Working Class, p. 129; Kirk Working Class Rcfomzisrn, pp. 45, 46, 310, 314, 315, 316, 329; Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 226.
  786. MG, 6, 9, 12 June 1857.
  787. MG,9June 1857.
  788. Macbin, Politics and the Churches, pp. 368, 370, 377; Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 163; NDC, 5, 6 June 1868.
  789. Paz Pop ular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 26-30.
  790. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 44. doi
  791. In 1868 McNeile became Dean of Ripon. Bentley, Ritualism and Politics, p. 10.
  792. LM11 June 1841.
  793. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 49. doi
  794. Ibid., p. 58. doi
  795. Porcupine 10 March 1866. See also Liverpool Weekly Chronicle 16 February 1866, 13 April
  796. City of Liverpool Council Proceedings, 1902-3, Report of Head Constable on a Protestant Demonstration; R. F. Henderson, Pastor George Wise, p.6; ODay, 'Anti-Irish Behaviour in Britain', p. 35; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 117, 140, 175.
  797. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 114. doi
  798. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 204. doi
  799. A correspondent with the LM (1 December 1840) complained 'One cannot stir out but one's deafed with Irish pigs and parsons'.
  800. LM2 February 1844.
  801. Handley, Irish in Modern Scotland, pp. 95,96.
  802. Ibid., p. 104; Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 253; Paz, Popular And-Catholicism, p. 26.
  803. LWM 1 June 1861.
  804. Porcupine 13 July 1867.
  805. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 166, 167; LM 16, 21, 30, June 1859.
  806. Porcupine 12 January 1861.
  807. The No-Popery Agitation by Philalethes, pp.5,6,7,20.
  808. Inglis, Churches and the Working Class, p. 141; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 191.
  809. Manchester Catholic Times 11 July 1870, cited in Kirk, Working Class Reformism, p. 338.
  810. MG, 9 August 1837. See also MG, 16 November 1839, 5, 12, 18 September, 21, 28 November, 2, 16 December 1840, 1 December 1841. For details of the trial see Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 115, 116.
  811. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 205. doi
  812. 50 was raised at the 1848 annual general meeting of the Manchester Operative Protestant Association from the sale of tickets and the collection. The Association also published its own newspaper from 1848. See Paz, PopularAnti-Catholicism, pp. 116,205.
  813. Ibid., p. 117.
  814. P. Joyce, Woriç Society and Politics: The Culture of the Factory in later Victorian Society, p. 258.
  815. See MCL Theological Tracts, M 270.
  816. MG, 25 March 1837, 9, 12 September 1840, 4 June 1845.
  817. In 1897 the Watch Committee stopped Slattery speaking for fear that he would provoke a riot. Manchester City Watch Committee Minutes 22, 24, 25 November 1897; S. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 35.
  818. MG, 29 September 1837. doi
  819. MG, 11 August 1841.
  820. Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry into the Newcastle Poor, p. 34.
  821. Allan's Illustrated Tyneside Songs and Readings (Newcastle, 1891), p. 381; NWC, 16 May 1851.
  822. Newcastle-upon-Tyne Catholic Tract Society, Report 1835, pp. 3-4.
  823. NWC, 8 December 1854,6 November 1857, 21 May 1859, 12 December 1863, 16 January 1864, 10 February 1866, 9 September 1871, 9 September 1876; NDC, 9, 10 October 1865, 5 September
  824. NDC, 7 August 1858.
  825. T. P. MacDermott, 'Charles Larkin', p. 14.
  826. NDC, 19 May 1859; NWC, 21 May 1859.
  827. NWC, 26 November 1859. -
  828. MG, 7 September 1868; Kirk, Working Class Reformism, pp.338-9.
  829. P. M. H. Bell, Disestablishment in Ireland and Wales, p. 97; MG, 5,7,8,9, September 1868.
  830. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 268. doi
  831. Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 158; Hanham, Elections and Party Management; p. 307.
  832. MG, 25 March 1837.
  833. MG, 25 March 1837, 11 August 1841.
  834. MacRaild, William Murphy', p.46.
  835. Miles, Labour Migration and Racism, p. 137. doi
  836. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism in mid-Victorian England, p. 257. doi
  837. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 171. doi
  838. LWM 13 July, 3 August 1867.
  839. 352P0L/2/4 Report of the Watch Committee, 30 July 1867; LIVM 6 June 3 August 1867, 14 July 1868; Porcupine 13 July, 3 August 1867.
  840. Manchester CourierS September 1868. The Guardian (5 September 1868) by contrast applauded the police action.
  841. NWC, 9 September 1868; P. Quinlivan, The Fenians in England 1865-72, p. 36.
  842. MG, 11, 19 May and 1,2,5,7,8, 9,14, 16 September 1868; Manchester Courier 7 September 1868; MDC, 9 September 1868; Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 372.
  843. NDC, 22 March 1869. doi
  844. NWC, 22 March 1869.
  845. NDC, 11 December 1868, 16, 22 March, 12 April 1869; NWC 16, 20, 22 March, 12, 17, 24 April 1869; Arastein, Protestant versus Catholic. p. 100.
  846. Porcupine 13 July 1867. See also Joyce, Worlç Society and Politics, p. 258; MacRaild, William Murphy, The Orange Order and Communal violence', p. 60; R J. Hanham, Elections and Party Management: Politics in the Age of Gladstone and Dismeh p. 305.
  847. MacRaild, 'William Murphy', p.46.
  848. At his last meeting in Manchester only a small crowd gathered, who heckled Murphy. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 172; Richter, Riotous Victorians; p. 48.
  849. R. L. Greenall, Popular Conservatism in Salford, 1868-1886', Northern History, lx (1974), p. 136. doi
  850. D. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 179. -. doi
  851. Cited in Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections; p. 247. doi
  852. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 248. doi
  853. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 37. doi
  854. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 55. doi
  855. LM 16 June 1837.
  856. LM 15 May 1812; Power, 'The Growth of Liverpool', p. 35.
  857. LM 9 October 1812.
  858. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 18.
  859. LM 7 July 1837; Picton, Memorials of Liverpool, vol. 1, p. 485.
  860. LM28 July 1837; LC, 2 August 1837; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 55, 56.
  861. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 54, 57, 58; MINIWAT/1/2 Minutes of Watch Committee 12 June 1841; LM 4, 11 June, 2, 16 July 1841; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 67.
  862. Machin, Politics and the Churches pp. 71, 72; Neal regards the Tory success in 1841 as due to 'an injection of anti-Catholicism into local politics on a scale unparalleled hi England and Wales', Sectarian Violence, p. 44.
  863. LM 25 June, 2, 30 July 1847; LC, 21, 28 July 1847.
  864. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p.203. doi
  865. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 28; Macbin, Politics and the Churches p.197; Neal, Sectarian Violence; pp. 153, 154.
  866. The MG, (3 July 1852) observed: 'Jn no locality has the flame been more systematically and recklessly provoked'; Milward, 'The Stockport Riots of 1852', pp. 209,217,219.
  867. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 122.
  868. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 253. doi
  869. MG, 3 July 1852.
  870. Whittinghain-Jones, Pedigree of Liverpool Politics, p. 40; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp.21,56.
  871. The overwhelming victory of an Orangeman in the 1888 school board election impressed Liverpool Tories to maintain their allegiances. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 29, 30, 93.
  872. Thid., pp. 29, 30, 56, 94, 141; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 184.
  873. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 96.
  874. Ibid., pp. 37, 56, 126, 153.
  875. Bohstedt, 'More than One Working Class', p. 173.
  876. WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 175; Bobstedt, 'More than One Working Class', p. 175.
  877. Bohstedt, 'More than One Working Class', pp. 175, 176, 210, 212; Waller, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. xvi; Macbin, Politics and the Churches, pp. 252-3.
  878. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 205,207.
  879. MG, 1, 29 May 1852; Paz, PopularAnti-Catholicism, pp. 211,212,213.
  880. Cooter, lie Irish in County Durham', p. 112.
  881. NY/C, 26 March 1852.
  882. NDC, 27 March 1857.
  883. D. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 156. doi
  884. Greenall, Popular Conservatism in Salford', p. 133. doi
  885. MG, 31 October and 11 November 1862.
  886. MG, 30 September 1868; This was not the only issue of the election. Working class alienation from the Manchester school was also important See Hanham, Elections and Party Management, pp. 303, 304.
  887. See chapter 4. doi
  888. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 222, 223.
  889. Report on Orange Lodges, 1835, xvii, p. 370, H. Senior, Orangeism in Ireland and Britain 1795-3551836, p. 151; R. M. Sibbett, Orangeism in Ireland and Throughout the Empire. vol.2, pp. 114-5.
  890. Senior, Orangeisin, p. 152; Neal, Sectarian Violence p. 21.
  891. Neal, Sectarian Violenccj, p. 35.
  892. Ibid., p. 32. doi
  893. Report on Orange Lodges, 1835, xvii, pp. 337-41.
  894. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 25, 32. doi
  895. Senior, Orangeism, p. 172; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 172; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 34.
  896. Lowe, Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 163. doi
  897. Ibid., pp. 162, 163.
  898. Greenall, Popular Conservatism', p. 136. doi
  899. MG, 11 July 1870.
  900. 1. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 116. doi
  901. MG, 9, 13 July 1880.
  902. MG, 6 November 1883. doi
  903. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 34. doi
  904. Ibid., p. 34; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. 239, 266, 269, 270; Cooter, 'On Calculating the Population', p. 22; Cooter, 'Lady Londonderry', p. 289.
  905. Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North-East', p.1 1.
  906. Cooter, 'Lady Londonderry', p. 296, a. 14.
  907. NWC, 7 November 1818.
  908. A New Songbook or The Omageman's Companion (Newcastle, 1817).
  909. LM,26December 1817.
  910. Senior, Omngeisrn, p.259.
  911. Report on Orange Lodges, 1835, xvii, p. 341.
  912. NWC, 10 November 1866; LM, 13 July 1863.
  913. sThVC, 28 February 1822.
  914. NDC, 13 July 1881; NWC, 16 July 1881.
  915. MacRaild, 'William Muiphy', p. 61.
  916. Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 51.
  917. McCord, British History, p. 226.
  918. Report on Orange Lodges, xvii, p. 61; Wailer writes that Manchester Orangemen 'acted as a praetorian guard against radical insurgents', Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p.1 1.
  919. Senior, Orangeism, p. 156. doi
  920. Cited in Senior, Orangeism, p. 152.
  921. Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, vol. 1, p. 106; To the main character in Donal MacAmblaigh's An Irish Navvy the English are 'astoundingly philistine'. See Foster, Paddy and Mn Punch, p. xii.
  922. R. Samuel, 'The Catholic Church and the Irish Poor', Swifl and Gilley, The Irish in the Victorian City,p.281.
  923. MG, 29 August 1835.
  924. MG, 18 July 1835.
  925. MG, 9 August 1851.
  926. MG, 31 July, 18 September 1830, 19 July 1834.
  927. MG, 19 March 1836.
  928. MDC, 19 July 1856; MG, 14 July l854Fordyce's Local Records, p. 317; Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North-East', pp. 15, 16.
  929. NWC, 4 June 1858; Fordyce Local Records, pp. 342-3.
  930. Report on Orange Lodges, xvii, p. 31; Senior, Orangeism, p. 154.
  931. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 158. doi
  932. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 172. doi
  933. K. McManus, Ceilihs, Jigs and Ballads. Irish Music in Liverpool, p.5.
  934. LWM 17 July 1875.
  935. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 184. doi
  936. Ibid., p. 185. doi
  937. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 12; Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', p. 209.
  938. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 252. doi
  939. Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', p. 201; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 32, 171.
  940. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 196. doi
  941. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 37, 159. doi
  942. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 32; Many Conservatives convinced themselves that Orangemen were peaceful and defensive and that Catholic aggression threatened traditional English liberties. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 138.
  943. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 26.
  944. 13 July 1871. doi
  945. Walton and Wilcox, Low Life and Moral Itnprovemen4 p.31; Liberal Review 15 July 1882.
  946. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 18. doi
  947. Gilley, 'Irish Catholicism in Britain', p. 243. doi
  948. LM3O July 1819.
  949. LM, 7, 14 July 1820; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 109; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 30, 40.
  950. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 30,40. doi
  951. LM 17 July 1835; MG, 18 July 1835; Report on Orange Lodges 1835, iv, p. xvii, xviii; Orangeism in hvland and throughout the Empire, p. 154; Senior, Orangeisin, p. 171; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 41, 42, 43.
  952. LM 16 July 1824; Clashes in pubs occurred in 1821, 1822, 1823 and 1824. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 30, 41.
  953. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 118.
  954. Neal, Sectarian Violenc4 p. 58.
  955. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 113.
  956. LM 30 July 1824; Bryson,, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 118.
  957. MG, 20 July 1850, 16 July 1851, 14 August 1852; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 129, 135, 136.
  958. MG, 16 July 1851, 14 August 1852.
  959. LM, 24 June 1842, 18 July 1851; MG, 10 August 1850.
  960. 352M]N/WAT/1/5 Minutes of Watch Committee, 26 July 1851; LM 15, 18, 22 July 1851; LC, 16 July 1851.
  961. 352P0L/1/3 Orders of the Watch Committee, 27 November 1852; LM, 24 August 1852,12, 15 July 1853; LC, 13 August 1853; MG, 14, 25 August 1852, 16 July 1853.
  962. LM, 13 July 1870.
  963. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 92.
  964. Ibid., p. 92.
  965. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 134.
  966. LWM 8 November 1879, 6 November 1880. doi
  967. LM, 31 May 1839; Liverpool Chronicle 12 March 1836; Moore, '"This Whig and Tory Ridden Town", p. 56; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 118.
  968. LM 31 May 1839.
  969. LM, 23 September, 9 December 1842, 11 July 1845.
  970. LM, 28 April, 5 May, 16 June 1843, 19 April, 3 May 1844.
  971. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool p. 45.
  972. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 167; LM 30 May, 9 June 1848, 15 January, 6 December 1850, 7 August 1857, 14, 21 July 1858, 29 January 1859; MG, 20 July 1850, 13 July 1858, 11 May 1868.
  973. LM 29 January 1836, 11 June 1841, 15 September 1843,29 March, 13 September 1844.
  974. (Home rule was labelled "a diabolical plot of the Papacy"); Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 80.
  975. Porcupine 1 November 1862.
  976. Porcupine 14 December 1867. See also 352P0L/2f5 Reports of Head Constable to Watch Committee, 9 December 1867; LM, 14,21 December 1867; LC, 10, 12 December 1867. 378 LWM, 20 February, 24 July 1869; LM 14 July 1868.
  977. Porcupine 15 February 1868. See also Porcupine 17 December 1864, 15 February 1868, 20 June
  978. Tablet 1 October 1859. Cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 188.
  979. Porcupine 18 July 1874.
  980. Liverpool Review 17 July 1886; Shallice, 'Orange and Green', p. 17; Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 161; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 129.
  981. Whittingham-Jones, Pedigree of Liverpool Politics, p. 46; Henderson, Pastor George Wise, p. 6; Macbin, Politics and the Churches, p. 242; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 198, 201.
  982. G. L T. Machin, 'The Last Victorian Anti-Ritualist Campaign, 1895-1906', Victorian Studies, 25, 1982, p. 293; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 202.
  983. Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North East', pp. 8,9.
  984. Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry, p. 18.
  985. Archer, The Two Roman Catholic Churches, p. 54.
  986. MacDermott, 'Irish Workers on Tyneside', p. 163.
  987. NWC, 12 November 1847; Newcastle Journal 13 November 1847; Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North East', p. 51; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 120.
  988. Newcastle Courant 29 June 1866.
  989. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 60. doi
  990. An Irish-London costermonger told Henry Mayhew: "They'd hang a praste - glorry be to God! they would." See London Labour and the London Poor, vol. 1, p. 106.
  991. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 60, 62, 63, 64.
  992. MG, 17 June 1846.
  993. LM, 5 March, 6,19, 29 June 1847, 25 May 1852; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 87.
  994. NWC, 5 November 1847.
  995. NWC, 12 November 1847.
  996. R. Swindells, Manchester Streets and Manchester Men, vol. 5, p. 179; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 48.
  997. NWC, 20 March 1857, 21 August 1873; NDC, 1 August 1873.
  998. Letters of Herbert Cardinal Vaughan, p. 404. doi
  999. LWM, 20 March 1880, 18 March 1882, 24 March 1883.
  1000. LWM 20 March 1880; Denvir, Life Story, p. 155.
  1001. Liverpool Review 10 July 1889; Liverpool Citizen 28 May 1890. Cutting in 92ORUS/3 E. R. Russell Personal Book 1886-90.
  1002. Cited in 'Catholic Liverpool 100 Years Ago', Arch-Diocese of Liverpool Directory, 1932.
  1003. Blundell, Old Roman CatholicLancashire, vol. 1, p. 65.
  1004. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 64; Walker, 'Religious Changes in Liverpool', p. 199.
  1005. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 87; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 119.
  1006. Pastoral, Tablet xxviii, 28 October 1880, p. 713, cited in Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p.
  1007. 353SEL/10/1 Workhouse Committee Minute Book 4 May 1843. Protestant mothers got very excited if Catholic clergy came into contact with their children, LCL; 3S3SEL/10/2 Workhouse Committee Minute Book 28 July 1853, LCL.
  1008. Tablet xxviii, 11 November 1882, cited in Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 165.
  1009. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 67.
  1010. Ibid., p. 67. doi
  1011. Ibid., 88 ii. 2;Newcastle Board of Guardians Minutes 1854-6, 359/1/11, TWRO.
  1012. Report of the Select Committee on Poor Removal 1854, pp. 467,468.
  1013. Walton and Wilcox, Low Life and Moral Improvement, p. 31.
  1014. Neal, Sectarian Violenc.e, p. 177.
  1015. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 145.
  1016. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 22; Report of the Select Committee on Prisons and Prison Ministers Acts, 1870, pp. 871, 879; Bennett, Father Nugent of Livempool, p. 42; Macbin, Politics and the Churches, p. 305.
  1017. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p.6.
  1018. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 35. doi
  1019. Census of Great Britain : Religious Worship: England and Wales. 1852-3. Lxxxix; Engels detected amongst the Lancashire operatives 'an utter indifference to religion'. See Condition of the Working Class, p. 141.
  1020. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 143.
  1021. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, p. 155. doi
  1022. Hobsbawm, Labouring Men, p. 27; W. S. F. Piskering, 'The 1851 religious census - a useless experiment?', British Journal of Sociology, 18, 1967, pp. 397, 403.
  1023. J. Heywood, Report of an Inquiry into 170 families in Miles Platting in 1837, p. 36.
  1024. de Tocqueville, Journeys to England and Ireland p. 108. doi
  1025. Street, The Night Side of Newcastle, p. 4.
  1026. O'Day, Survey of the irish in Englan4 p. 119.
  1027. Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry, p. 34.
  1028. E. R. Jones, Life and Speeches of Joseph Cowen, p. 329; Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections, p. 324.
  1029. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 160-184.
  1030. J. A. Banks, Population Change and the Victorian City', Victorian Studies, 11, 1968, p. 283.
  1031. McLeod, Religion and Irreligion in Victorian England, p. 48.
  1032. Hume, Missions at Home, pp. 11-14.
  1033. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 184; Neal affirms: 'Though the Protestant labourers were indifferent to the claims of the established Church,, the claims of Orangeism struck a more responsive note'. Sectarian Violence, p. 128.
  1034. Paz, 'Anti-Catholics, Anti-Irish', p. 604; Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 58. doi
  1035. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 10, 32. doi
  1036. Cooter, 'On Calculating the Population', p. 22.
  1037. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 236.
  1038. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 62; Redford, Labour Migration, p. 155.
  1039. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 81. doi
  1040. Hume, The Condition of Liverpoo1 p. 15; See also Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections, p. 241.
  1041. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, p. 42.
  1042. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 98.
  1043. M74/26/3 Records of Gravestones Interred from St Augustine's, Granby Row, 1909.
  1044. NWC, 10 July 1846; MG, 7 October 1846;An Exposure of Mummeries' (1846), p. 1; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 42; K. S. Inglis, Churches and the Working Class in Victorian England, p. 17.
  1045. Paz, PopularAnti-Catholicisin, p. 51.
  1046. Ibid., p. 89. doi
  1047. Beales, Castlereagh to Gladstone, p. 160; M. Heirnann identifies that in comparison with English Catholicism Irish Catholicism was ostentatious. See Catholic Devotion in Victorian England, pp. 4,5, 12, 137, 141.
  1048. See pp. 234-5. doi
  1049. Porcupine 16 May 1874; R. Samuel, 'The Roman Catholic Church and the Irish Poor', R. Swift and S. Gilley, The Irish in the Victorian City, p. 282; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 54.
  1050. LC, 15 July 1846; Faucher, Manchester in 1844, p. 33; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 18, 23, 74.
  1051. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 229. doi
  1052. Ibid., p. 229.
  1053. MG, 17 June 1846; Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 88, 90; Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 230.
  1054. MG, 17 June 1846; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 43,62.
  1055. J. Heywood, Report of an Enquizy into 170 Families in Miles Platting in 1837, p. 36.
  1056. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 89, 90.
  1057. Holmes, Moi Roman than Rome, p. 212; Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, pp. 406, 4.07, 411, and Chapter seventeen.
  1058. Oates, 'The Lost, Strayed and Stolen', p. 162; Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, p. 427.
  1059. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 49. doi
  1060. Ibid., p. 51. doi
  1061. Census of Great Britain (1851). Religious Worship, England and Wales, 1852-3, Lxxxix, p. 421; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 89.
  1062. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 22.
  1063. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 230.
  1064. Hume, Missions at Home. doi
  1065. Norman, The English Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Centui p. 206.
  1066. Lowe, 'The Lancashire Irish and the Catholic church', pp. 144, 145. There is an interesting discrepancy between diocesan statistics and optimistic local calculations.
  1067. Inglis, Churches and the Working Class, p. 125; Lowe, 'The Lancashire Irish and the catholic church', p. 145.
  1068. E. Baines, History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster, p. 329; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 38; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 25.
  1069. Denvir, Life Story, p. 6. '1 have seen them crowded out into the chapel yards and into the open streets; satisfied if they could even get a glimpse of the inside of the sacred building through an open window'; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 39.
  1070. Catholic Registeis of the Secular Mission of Newcastle, Catholic Record Society, London, 1936, vol. 35, p. 314; Collins, 'The Irish in Britain', p. 386; Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 230.
  1071. D. R. Gwynn., Father Luigi Gentili, pp. 208-9. See also M136/2/3/3560 Dr Watts' Notes of Evidence, 21 April 1853, MCL.
  1072. Connolly estimates that less than 30% were acquainted with Tridentine Catholicism before the 1840s. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic', p. 229; Larkin 'Devotional Revolution', p. 651.
  1073. Porcupine 1 May 1875; LC, 16 June 1847.
  1074. F. Oakeley, 'The Position of a Catholic Minority', H. E. Manning, Essays on Religion and Literature (1865); J . Morris, Catholic England in Modern Times (1892), p. 95; Lowe, 'The Lancashire Irish and the catholic church', p. 147.
  1075. Lowe conversely regards the church as continuing to have a strong influence on immigrant lives. See 'The Lancashire Irish and the catholic church', p. 144.
  1076. T. Bell, Memoranda Relative to the Several Roman Catholic Chapels in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and in the counties of Dutham and Northumberland (Newcastle, 1826).
  1077. Sykes and Fordyce, Local Records, vol. ii, p. 318.
  1078. MG,27June 1838.
  1079. MG, 30 June 1838. doi
  1080. Love, ManchesterAs It Is, p. 91.
  1081. WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 22.
  1082. MG, 7 June 1897.
  1083. M68/6/4/l-105 City of Manchester Jubilee Celebrations, breakfast for children, 21 June 1887, MCL
  1084. Bennett, Father Nugen4 p. 133.
  1085. WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 180.
  1086. See Papers of William Bramble, TWRO, 1074/89.
  1087. Msf 942.72 R121 v. 47 P. 29. Opening of St Chad's School, Cheetharn Hill Road, 4 November 185!.
  1088. Neal, 'Criminal Profile of the Liverpool Irish', p. 161.
  1089. Porcupine3O March 1861;LC, 19 March 1859.
  1090. Walton, Lancaslzfre p. 253; Shallice, 'Orange and Green', p. 15; Taplin, 'False Dawn or New Unionism?'.
  1091. Kirk, Working Class Reformism, p. 310. 522 Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 80.
  1092. Politics as a Means of Assimilation and Isolation. pp. 133- 220
  1093. Dr Collins agrees: 'They are not more remarkable for their political ebullitions than any other class, except where the question takes a religious or Irish character'. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, pp. 22, 25.
  1094. Devoy, Recollections of an Irish Rebel, p. 114.
  1095. Lavery, Irish Henes in the War, pp. 21-2; Steven Fielding sets out to demonstrate that the Irish could be motivated by their class and ethnicity. See Class and Ethnicity.
  1096. House of Lords Select Committee, 1859, Session 2, vii. doi
  1097. MacDermott, 'Irish Workers on Tynethde', p. 168; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 253; T. M. Healy, Letters and Leaders, I, p. 36.
  1098. Cited in MG, 31 October 1872.
  1099. MG, 21 November 1881.
  1100. Clarke, Lancashire and The New Liberalism, p.431. doi
  1101. Clarke, Lancashire and The New Liberalism, p.127. doi
  1102. O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain, 1867-9(Y, Giley and Swift, The Irish in Britain, 1815-1939, p. 186.
  1103. OTuathaigh, 'The Irish in Nineteenth Century Britain', p. 171.
  1104. Gilley and Swift, The Irish in Britain, 1815-1 939, p.7. doi
  1105. Culverwell in Faucher's Manchester, p. 32.
  1106. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. 225-9; Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell', p. 48; Harris, Nearest Place, pp. 167, 168, 226; Thernstrom reaches similar conclusions in Boston. See Thernstrorn, The Other Bostonians.
  1107. B. Aspmwall, 'The Catholic Irish and Wealth in Glasgow', T. M. Devine (ed.), Irish Immigrants and Scottish Society in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, pp. 92, 93, 94,95, 101, 108.
  1108. Connoily, 'Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trade Unions in the Age of the Industrial Revolution', TLCAS, 83, 1985, pp. 139, 142, 145, 146, 148.
  1109. Cited in Cooter, The Irish in County Durham', pp. 48-50; NDC, , 24 December 1867; LM 14 -371February, 1834; 'A Note on the Hibernian Society', Northern Catholic History, 26, 1987, P. 27.
  1110. Cited in MG, 7 March 1838.
  1111. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 71.
  1112. Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 89. doi
  1113. LM31 May, 28 June 1839.
  1114. NDC, 26 March 1859.
  1115. Connolly, 'Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trade Unions', pp. 146, 148, 150, 151, 152, 155.
  1116. Harris, Nearest Place, p. 167.
  1117. Connolly, 'Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trade Unions', pp. 150, 151, 154, 155; Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 102.
  1118. Connolly, 'Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trade Unions', pp. 155, 156, 157; Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 102.
  1119. Connolly, 'Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trade Unions', p. 152.
  1120. MG, 2 June 1841, 9 November 1844, 17 June 1846; Treble, 'The Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church', p. 112; Kirby and Musson,, Doherty, p. 448; Connally, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 92, 102.
  1121. MG, 28 January, 17 June 1846; Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 92, 102.
  1122. MG, 17,27 June, 23 September 1846; Connolly, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 92.
  1123. Connolly, The Transubstantiation of Myth', p. 92. doi
  1124. Duff5r, Carrying the Ho4 p. 40.
  1125. Treble, 'The Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church', pp. 111, 112. doi
  1126. See Vaughan's letter of January 1886 in Snead-Cox, The Life of Cardinal Vaughan, p. 472.
  1127. Denvir, Life Story of an Old Rebel, p. 119.
  1128. Aspinwall, 'The Catholic Irish and Wealth in Glasgow', pp. 92, 93, 94,95, 101, 108.
  1129. ODay, Revising the Diaspora', p.209.
  1130. J. P. Kay, Thoughts and Suggestions on certain social problems contained chiefly in addresses to rneetingr of workmen in Lancashire, pp. 25, 74. Irish workmen are described as 'passionate and easily misled'(p. 74).
  1131. Connolly, 'The Catholic church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 128,129.
  1132. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 64,71.
  1133. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism, p. 330; Kirk, 'Ethnicity, class and popular Toryism, 1850-70', K. Lunn, Hosts, Izmnigrants and Minorities, p. 74; ODay, 'Anti-Irish Behaviour in Britain', p. 30.
  1134. Taplin, False Dawn or New Unionism?', pp. 136, 137; Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', pp. 175,203; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 2,97.
  1135. Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', p. 203; Gallagher, 'A Tale of two Cities', p. 110; For the defence of Irish labour by Ribbon societies see Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland"', pp. 33,
  1136. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 10,20,23.
  1137. Treble, 'The Catholic church and Trade Unionism', p. 97. doi
  1138. Report oh the State of the Irish Poor, p. 28.
  1139. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 30.
  1140. LM, 29 January 1836.
  1141. J. Belchem, Industrialization and the Working Class, p. 130. doi
  1142. Walton, Lancashire, p. 253.
  1143. Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 81. doi
  1144. LWM, 26 July 1879.
  1145. Waller, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 148.
  1146. Taplin, 'Irish leaders and Liverpool dockers', pp. 36,38,39
  1147. LWM 22 March 1890.
  1148. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 104.
  1149. Ibid., pp. 102-3. doi
  1150. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 120. doi
  1151. Beichem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 5.
  1152. Cooter, Irish in County Durham', p. 219; Lavery, Irish Herces in the War, p. 21; Archer, The Two Catholic Churches, p. 54.
  1153. NDC, 19 August 1893.
  1154. Minutes of Executive Council Meetings, April 6-27 1894, NCL Lts; Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 210.
  1155. Thompson and Epstein, The Chartist Experience, p. 130; See also MG, 30 October 1829, 18 June 1831, 30 June 1832,26 October 1833.
  1156. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 33-6. doi
  1157. Swift, 'Historiography of the Irish in Nineteenth Century Britain', p. 612. doi
  1158. Report from the Select Committee on Combinations of Workmen, 1838, viii, p. 259; 0. D. H. Cole, The Common People 1746-1946, p. 237.
  1159. Report from the Select Committee on Combinations of Workmen, 1838, viii, p. 259.
  1160. Harris, Nearest Place, p.154.
  1161. MG, 24 September 1831, 2 April 1835; P. A. Pickering, Chartism and The Chartist.s in Manchester and Salforc4 p. 191.
  1162. Pickering, Chartism, p. 190. doi
  1163. MG, 29 November, 13 December 1837.
  1164. Pickering, Chartism, pp. 45-6. doi
  1165. Epstein and Thompson, The Chartist Experience, p. 168. doi
  1166. MG, 29 November 1837; Pickering, Chartisrn, p. 194.
  1167. Pickering, Chartism, pp. 70, 201. doi
  1168. MG, 8, 12 April 1848.
  1169. J. R. Clynes, Memoires, 1869-1 924.
  1170. LWM 19 march 1864.
  1171. Taplin, 'Jrish Leaders and Liverpool Dockers', p. 36; Taplin, Liverpool Dockem and Seamen, p. 73; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. xv, 103.
  1172. Taplin, 'Irish Leaders and Liverpool Dockers', pp. 36, 39; Moody, 'Michael Davitt and the British labour movement', p. 61; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. xv, 143, 144, 145, 150, 510; Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 195.
  1173. Taplin, 'Irish Leaders and Liverpool Dockers', p. 43.
  1174. Thid., p. 36; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. xv, 143, 144, 145, 150, 510; Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 195.
  1175. H. R. Hikins, Building the Union. Studies on the Growth of the Workers Movement: Merseyside, 1756-1907, pp. 110, 111; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 101,513.
  1176. L Edgar, 'Catholic Life in Newcastle Seventy Years Ago', Northern Catholic History, 6, 1977, p.
  1177. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 322, 327, 328; Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 211; T. Barrow, The Labour Representation Committee Conference at Newcastle, p. 39; Bellamy and Saville's, Dictionary of Labour Biography, vol.4, p. 65.
  1178. D. P. MoynThan in N. Glazer and D. P. Moynihan's Beyond the Melting Po4 p. 241;Handley, Irish in Modern Scotlan4 pp. 320-1. W. M. Walker disagrees. See 'Irish Immigrants in Scotland', p. 651.
  1179. Engels cited in G. Mayer, Friedrich Engels. A Biography, p. 43. doi
  1180. Cited in Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, p. 91.
  1181. E J. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire, p. 311. doi
  1182. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', pp.7,8; Belchem, 'English WorkingClass Radicalism and the Irish, 1815-50', Swift and Gilley (eds.), Irish in the Victorian City, p. 87; Beichem, Industrialization and the Working Class, p. 79.
  1183. Beichem., 'English Working-Class Radicalism and the Irish, 1815-50', Swift and Gilley (eds.), Irish in the Victorian City, pp. 87, 88.
  1184. MG, 22 January 1830.
  1185. MG, 26 February 1832.
  1186. Pickering, Chartism, p. 95. doi
  1187. Thid., p. 190.
  1188. Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, p.92.
  1189. MG, November 1841; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 275, 278, 379, 380.
  1190. MG, 20 December 1838; Pickering, Chartisrn, p. 191; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 276,288, 428, 429.
  1191. MG, 26 October 1833.
  1192. Foster, Class Struggle and The Industrial Revolution, p. 111; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. vii, 4, 58, 273, 439, 442, chapter x.
  1193. Foster, Class Struggle, pp. 110-1; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, p. 321.
  1194. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 190, 215, 255, 433.
  1195. Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, pp. 86, 89; D. Jones, Chartism and the Chartists, pp. 120, 174, 186.
  1196. Pickering, Chartism, p. 204. doi
  1197. MG, 18 August 1841.
  1198. E. R. Jones, The Life and Speeches of I. Cowan, p. 4; A Full Account of the Meeting... for the Purpose of taking into Consideration the Late Proceedings in Newcastle, p.5.
  1199. Lash, Diary, 15 May 1832, pp. 143-44; T. P. MacDerinott, 'Charles Larkin, Radical Reformer, 1800-79', Northern Catholic History, 28, 1988, p. 13.
  1200. T. A. Devyr, The Odd Boolg p. 157.
  1201. Laveiy, Irish Heroes in the War, p.322.
  1202. Belchem, 'The peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 4; Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 49, 50; Taplin, False Dawn or New Unionism?', pp. 137, 138, 149.
  1203. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpcol, p. 36.
  1204. LM 28 June 1839. doi
  1205. Connolly, 'The Catholic church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', p. 14 n.
  1206. Taplin, 'Irish Leaders and Liverpool Dockers', p. 37; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 16, 25, 37, 48, 128-9.
  1207. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 60, 61.
  1208. Ibid., pp. 50, 63, 65; Belchem, 'The Church, the Throne and the People', p. 52.
  1209. LM 21 January 1842. doi
  1210. Beichem, 'The Church, the Throne and the People', p. 52; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 120; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 12; McNeile spoke against reform of the Corn Laws. See LM, 18 June 1841.
  1211. 352M1N/WAT/1/2 Minutes of Watch Committee 12 June 1841, LCL; LM, 11 June 1841; Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 56-7; Cockroft, 'The Liverpool Police Force, 1836-1902', in Bell's Victorian Lancashire, p. 160; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 57.
  1212. J. Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and The Irish', North-West Labour History Society Bulletin, 8, p. 7.
  1213. Hunt, British Labour History, pp. 229,230,231.
  1214. Jones, Chartism and the Chartists, p. 183; Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 285; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 68.
  1215. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell', p. 35; Treble believes that the Irish had little contact with Chartism until 1848. Saville, 1848, p. 73.
  1216. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell', p. 46; Epstein and Thompson, The Cliartist Experience, p. 121; Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 124.
  1217. D. Read and E. Glasgow, Feargus O'Connor. Irishman and Chartis4 pp. 73,138; See Ernest Jones in MG, 28 October 1868.
  1218. Pickering, Chartism, p.96. doi
  1219. MG, 2,5,9 June 1841.
  1220. H045/46 if. 22 23 Manchester police report, 5 June 1841.
  1221. Pickering, Chartism, p.93. doi
  1222. Ibid., p.93.
  1223. MG,5 January 1842. doi
  1224. LM 11 April 1848; MG, 12 April, 23 August 1848.
  1225. MG, 12 April, 23 August 1848.
  1226. Pickering, Chartism, p.94. doi
  1227. MG, 1, 4 September, 27 October 1841.
  1228. MG, 20 February 1839.
  1229. MG, 18 November 1826.
  1230. MG, 2June 1841.
  1231. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 42,60,64,276,401,417,418,419,420,425,442.
  1232. Jones, Chartism and the Chartists, pp. 127, 130. doi
  1233. Pickering, Chartism, p. 88. doi
  1234. MG, 29 September 1841.
  1235. S. Giley, 'Irish Catholicism in Britain', Kerr (ed.), Religion, State and Ethnic Groups, p. 233.
  1236. MG, 21 August 1841.
  1237. MG, 2,6 March 1839, 18 August, 1 September 1841.
  1238. MG, 20 October 1841.
  1239. J. H. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell and The attitude of Irish immigrants towards The Chartism in The north of England, 1833-1842', 1. Butt and L F. Clarke (eds.), The Victorians and Social Protest, pp. 55, 58; Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 57.
  1240. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell', pp. 41-2.
  1241. Ibid., p. 251. doi
  1242. MG, 26 September 1838.
  1243. MG, 26 September 1838; Pickering, Chartism, p. 95.
  1244. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', p. 42.
  1245. LM 12 July 1844. doi
  1246. Account of a public meeting in the Music Hall, 23 November 1839, 166/7/2, TW RO; Richardson, Local Historians Table Book; vol. 5, p. 88.
  1247. W. H. Machi, 'The Dynamics of Violence in Chartism: A Case Study in North-eastern England', Albion, 1973, pp. 102, 103; D. J. Rowe, 'Tyneside Chartism', N. McCord, Essays in Tyneside Labour History, pp. 76-8.
  1248. Thompson 'Ireland and the Irish in English Radicalism, before 185(Y,p. 138.
  1249. Fordyce, Local Records, p. 118; Richardson, Local Historians Table Book, vol. 5, p. 82; Devyr, The Odd Book, p. 193.
  1250. Devyr, The Odd Book, pp. 163-9.
  1251. Rowe, 'Some Aspects of Chartism on Tyneside', p.39. doi
  1252. Belchem, 'The Peculiarities of Liverpool', pp. 4, 5; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 68; Taplin, 'False Dawn or New Unionism?', p. 138; Moore, 'This V/big and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 38, 40, 43, 47.
  1253. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 38, 39, 50.
  1254. LM, 31 May 1839.
  1255. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 41,49, 50, 52.
  1256. Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', pp. 126, 131. doi
  1257. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', p. 50.
  1258. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p.9; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 86; Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', p. 42.
  1259. Thid., p. 191.
  1260. Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, pp. 92,93; Frow, Essays on the Irish in Manchester, p. 25.
  1261. Frow, Essays on the Irish in Manchester, p. 17; Kirby and Musson.Doheity, p. 441.
  1262. Epstein and Thompson, The Chartist Experience, p. 168; Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, p.
  1263. Pickering, Chartism, p. 201; MG, 12, 15 April 1848.
  1264. Pickering, Chartism, p. 120. doi
  1265. MG, 13, 24 August 1842.
  1266. Pickering, Chartism, p. 204 doi
  1267. MG, 13 August 1842.
  1268. Beichem, 'English working class radicalism and the Irish', p. 13.
  1269. MG, 13 August 1842, 8 April 1848; Rowe, 'Tyneside Chartism', p. 67; Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, pp. 91, 92,93.
  1270. MG, 13, 24 August 1842, 15, 22 March, 15, 22 April, 17 May, 7 June 1848; LM 11, 25 April, 9, 13 June 1848.
  1271. Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, p. 92.
  1272. O'Higgins, 'The Irish Influence in The Chartist Movement', p. 90; Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists, p. 92. doi
  1273. Frow, Essays on The irish in Manchester, p. 26; Frow, Biographies of Irish Chartists p. 87; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 184.
  1274. Richardson, Local Historians Table Book; vol.5, p.74.
  1275. MachI, 'Chartist Disturbances', p. 394; Machi, 'The Dynamics of Violence in Chartism', p. 110; Rowe, 'Some Aspects of Chartism on Tyneside', p. 27; Thompson 'Ireland and the Irish in English Radicalism, before 1850',p. 138.
  1276. Frow, Essays on The Irish in Manchester, p. 25; Pickering, Chartiszn, p. 70; Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', p. 41.
  1277. S. Gilley, 'The Garibaldi Riots of 1862', Historical Journal, xvi, 4(1973), pp. 697-732. doi
  1278. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 228; For the popularity of Garibaldi with the Liverpool people see .NDC, 14 September 1859, 16, 28, 31 August, 5, 11, 12,J3, 14 September, 1, 2, 9 October 1860, 1, 2 October 1862.
  1279. Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 302. doi
  1280. Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldi Riots of 1862', p. 90.
  1281. 0. D. Edwards and P. J. Storey, 'The Irish Press in Victorian Britain', Swift and Gilley (eds.), Irish in the Victorian City, p. 171. doi
  1282. Porcupine 13 October 1860.
  1283. LM, 14 October 1862; Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldi Riots of 1862', pp. 91, 93; Gilley, 'The Garibaldi Riots of 1862', pp. 720-22. doi
  1284. Porcupine 18 October 1862; LWM 18, 25 October 1862; Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldi Riots of 1862', pp. 93, 96.
  1285. Cited in Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldil Riots of 1862', pp. 93,96.
  1286. Porcupine 18 October 1862; LWM 18, 25 October 1862; Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldi Riots of 1862', pp. 102, 103.
  1287. Porcupine 18 October 1862.
  1288. LC, 18 October 1862.
  1289. Neal, 'The Birkenhead Garibaldi Riots of 1862', pp. 105, 106, 108.
  1290. Porcupine 25 October 1862.
  1291. 0. Melly, Stmy Leaves 1856-63. Pamphlets, Speeches, Addresses, &c., on Social and Political Questions, pp. 11, 12; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 155.
  1292. Porcupine 16 April 1864.
  1293. Porcupine 17 December 1864; LWM, 14 January 1865.
  1294. LWM 30 April 1864.
  1295. Cooter, Irish in County Durham', p.228; Neal, English-Irish Conflict in th North East of Englanc4 pp. 32-3.
  1296. NDC, 9 October 1867.
  1297. NWC, 24 March 1854, 13 September, 4 October 1862.
  1298. NDC,4July 1860.
  1299. NWC, 21 May 1864.
  1300. NDC, 7 January 1893, 15 September 1894.
  1301. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. xv.
  1302. NDC, 11 November 1893, 18 January 1896; C. H. Hunter Blaire, The Mayois and Lord Mayois of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1216-1940, p. 119.
  1303. NDC, 11 November 1893; NWC, 18 January 1896; Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p.330.
  1304. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 28.
  1305. NDC, 24 December 1867, 23 March 1895; NWC, 24 December 1854.
  1306. NDC, 7 January 1893; Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 330; Hunter Blake, The Mayors and Lord Mayors, p. 119; Edgar, 'Catholic Life in Newcastle Seventy Years Ago', p. 31.
  1307. NDC, 27 December 1870, 15 September 1894; Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 328-9; List of Guardians and paid officers 1866-1901, 359/35/1, TWRO; Pickering, A Social History of the Diocese of Newcastle 1882-1982, p. 282.
  1308. Pickering, A Social History, p. 282.
  1309. ODay, A Survey of the irish in England p. 87.
  1310. Porcupine, 6 November 1875 (I should like to know what "Home-rule"...can possibly have to do with the municipal government of Liverpool'), 6 December 1879 ('Why do our town-councillors neglect their duty to attend to "it"?').
  1311. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 31. doi
  1312. Porcupine 16 April 1864, 1 April 1865, 28 April 1866; Shimniin, Pen ad Ink Sketches, p. 87; Bennett, Father Nugen4 p. 63.
  1313. Porcupine 28 April 1866; Bennett, Father Nugent, p. 63; Shiimnin, Pen and Ink Sketches, p. 87.
  1314. Bohstedt, 'More than one Working Class', p. 209; Wailer, Democrncy and Sectarianism, p. 33
  1315. Denvir, Life Story, pp. 172, 176; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 146, 479, 485.
  1316. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpoo1, p. 216.
  1317. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 187, 190, 479, 500,513.
  1318. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 119; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 137.
  1319. WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 481, 499.
  1320. Beichem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 14; Bohstedt, 'More than one Working Class', p. 206; Shallice, Orange & Green, p. 19; WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 186.
  1321. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 492.
  1322. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 162.
  1323. Connoily, 'The Transubstantiation of Myth', pp. 83, 85.
  1324. MG, 9 April 1892, 27 November 1893,18 February 1895, 20 march 1900; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 83, 90,96.
  1325. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 61. doi
  1326. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p.31. doi
  1327. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 95.
  1328. MG, 7 June 1897; 0' Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', pp. 191, 205.
  1329. NWC, 29 October, 5 November 1881.
  1330. NWC, 8 September 1877.
  1331. NWC, 19 March 1881, 8 April 1882, 21 February 1885, 19 March 1887,22 March 1884; .NDC, 3 January 1874; Jones, The Life and Speeches of I. Cowen, p.99; O'Connor, 'The Irishin Great Britain', p.55.
  1332. NWC, 22 March 1884; MG, 22 April 1886.
  1333. NWC, 22 March 1884.
  1334. NWC, 19 March 1887.
  1335. NWC, 20 December 1890.
  1336. NWC, 26 March, 9 July 1887.
  1337. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 268; Cooter regards the pojtical structure of the north-east as facilitating Irish integration. See 'Lady Londonderry', p. 288.
  1338. NWC, 4 March 1893.
  1339. NWC, 15 September 1894.
  1340. MG, 3 November 1874. doi
  1341. MG, 14 September 1881, 14 August 1882.
  1342. MG, 10 November 1881.
  1343. NWC, 19 August 1882.
  1344. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 88. doi
  1345. MG, 10, 29 April, 8 May 1886.
  1346. LWM 17 March 1888, 7 December 1889.
  1347. MG, 26 November 1887. doi
  1348. MG, 28 July 1890.
  1349. LWk4 17 March 1888, 7 December 1889..
  1350. MG, 25 March 1893, 20 March 1899; Clynes, Memoires, p. 307.
  1351. Machin, Politics and the Churche.s, p. 203; MG, 9 April 1892.
  1352. MG, 27 January, 7 November 1893.
  1353. M283f 1/1/3 The Liberal 1200 of Manchester, Minutes 1894-1902, MCL
  1354. MG, 18 February 1895.
  1355. Clarke, Lancashire and The New Liberalism p.11. doi
  1356. MG, 9 July 1894.
  1357. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 85. doi
  1358. MG 9 April 1892, 27 November 1893, 18 February 1895, 20 March 1900; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 83, 90,96.
  1359. MG, 8, 17 February 1897; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 81.
  1360. MG, 31 January 1891.
  1361. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p.90. doi
  1362. MG, 16 November 1895, 14 October 1891.
  1363. LM 29 March 1844.
  1364. LM 28 July 1837.
  1365. Whittingham Jones, The Pedigree of Liverpool Politics, p. 39.
  1366. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 28; Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 154, 156.
  1367. LWM 21 March 1857.
  1368. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 34.
  1369. Denvir, Life Story, p. 185.
  1370. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 36.
  1371. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 211; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism,'p. 29; Brady, T. P. O'Connor p. 40.
  1372. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, pp. 212, 213; Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 64; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 30.
  1373. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, pp. 212, 213.
  1374. Brady, T. P. O'Connor p. 38. doi
  1375. Porcupine, 6 November 1875; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 215;Waller, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 31.
  1376. Clark, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, p.253. doi
  1377. Porcupine 6 December 1879, 10 January 1880. doi
  1378. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, pp. 216, 217; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 31, 32; Brady, T. P. (YConnor, pp. 37, 38.
  1379. Burke, CatholicHistoxyofLiverpool, p.217.
  1380. Cited in Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 217.
  1381. Porcupine 19 May 1877, 3 August 1878; LWM 15 September, 23 August 1879
  1382. When the Irish decided to abstain they plastered posters throughout Irish wards and distributed bills outside every Catholic church. Rossi, 'Home Rule and the Liverpool by-election of 1880', pp. 160,
  1383. The concession was personally repugnant to Ramsay. Rossi., 'Home Rule and the Liverpool byelection of 1880', pp. 161-2.
  1384. LWM 22 November 1879, 31 January, 3,7 February 1880; MG, 4 February 1880. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 40; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 33; Macbin, Politics and the Churches; p. 115.
  1385. Rossi, 'Home Rule and the Liverpool by-election of 1880', pp. 162, 165, 167.
  1386. MG, 5 February 1880; Rossi accords with this assessment of the election. 'Home Rule and the Liverpool by-election of 1880', p. 167.
  1387. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 34, 36, 37, 39.
  1388. LWM, 3 November 1883; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 39, 40; Whittingham Jones, The Pedigree of Liverpool Polities p.46.
  1389. LWM 3 November 1883.
  1390. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 66, 72.
  1391. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 39.
  1392. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 81; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 59, 60, 69; 0' Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 205.
  1393. MG, 10 April 1886. doi
  1394. This only served to increase O'Connor's majority. Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections, p. 249; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 73, 76,481, 505.
  1395. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 78.
  1396. MG, 11 November 1897.
  1397. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 481.
  1398. 92ORUS/2, 3 and 4, E. R. Russell's Personal Books 1867-93, TW.RO.
  1399. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 91.
  1400. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in Englar4 p. xii; 0' Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', pp. 188, 192.
  1401. LWIE4 1 February 1890.
  1402. LWM 9 March 1889, 10 October 1891.
  1403. Fitzpatrick, 'A Curious middle place: the Irish in Britain', p. 39.
  1404. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 86, 120, 121, 122, 123, 135, 136, 138, 140, 143.
  1405. Li verpool Review, 25 March 1899.
  1406. Shallice, Orange & Green, pp. 19, 21; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 153; Macbin, Polities and the Churches, pp. 248, 249.
  1407. LWM 30 August, 8 November 1879; WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 32, 141, 143, 150, 154, 156, 158, 180, 183.
  1408. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 98.
  1409. MG, 21 January 1899.
  1410. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 181, 182. Not all Liverpool Irish were pro-Boer. indeed a Liverpool Irish Battalion served on the Imperial 387side. See Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 149.
  1411. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 182.
  1412. Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections, p. 248. doi
  1413. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Refoimism, pp. 137-41; H. J. Hanhani writes that the presence of the Irish 'confused and embittered Liverpool politics to a degree unknown elsewhere'. See Elections and Party Management, p. 285.
  1414. Cited in Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p.35.
  1415. Hanhain, Elections and Party Management, p. 285.
  1416. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 65. doi
  1417. Ibid., p. 74, n.51.
  1418. Ibid., p. 53. doi
  1419. Belchem, 'The Church, the Throne and the People', p. 47.
  1420. MeIly, Stray Leaves, pp. 11, 13.
  1421. Bohstedt, 'More than one Working Class', p. 176.
  1422. Whittingl'iain Jones, The Pedigree of Liverpool Politics, p. 40; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 34; Bohstedt, 'More than one Working Class', p. 176.
  1423. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 34; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 21.
  1424. Whittingharn Jones, The Pedigree of Liverpool Politics, pp. 46, 47; Shallice, Orange & Green p. 17; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 30,56.
  1425. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 75,77,92.
  1426. Ibid., p. 166.
  1427. Porcupine 3 August 1878, 8 November, 6 December 1879, 29 January 1881; LWM 8 November 1879; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp.73,75, 81, 82, 115, 122, 124, 126, 137, 140, 141, 150, 151, 154, 156, 158, 161.
  1428. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 117, 128, 140.
  1429. Beichem, 'The Peculiarities of Liverpool', pp. 187, 190.
  1430. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 51, 52, 54, 55.
  1431. Beichem, 'The Church, the Throne and the People', pp. 36, 46, 48, 51; Beichem, 'The Peculiarities of Liverpool', pp. 4,5; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 26.
  1432. Beichem, 'The Church, the Throne and the People', pp. 36, 42-6, 53.
  1433. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 116; Shallice, Orange & Green, p. 17; Belchem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 11.
  1434. Clarke, Lancashire and The New Liberalism, p. 537. doi
  1435. MG, 9 March 1844. doi
  1436. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism, p. 336; MG, 4 September, 9, 31 October, 11 November 1868.
  1437. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 82; MG, 28 June 1892.
  1438. Brady, T. P. O'Cormor, p. 42. )( 397. Beichem, 'The Peculiarities of Liverpool', pp. 490,491,492,499,500, 502, 505.
  1439. Holmes, More Roman than Rome, p. 179. doi
  1440. Ibid., p. 179; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p.55.
  1441. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 29,30,94,183; Neal, Sectarian Violence; p. 177.
  1442. LWM 14 November 1885; Machin, Politics and the Churches, p. 162.
  1443. Machin, Politics and the Churches, pp. 165, 179.
  1444. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 187.
  1445. Macbin, Politics and the Churches, pp. 65, 165.
  1446. MG, 16 February 1876.
  1447. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 253; T. M. Healy, Letters and Leaders, I, p. 36.
  1448. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 239. Circumstances were very different in Cuinbria, as McRaild notes. See 'William Murphy'
  1449. MG, 11 July 1885. doi
  1450. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 97. doi
  1451. Bohstedt, 'More than one Working Class', p. 203.
  1452. J. Smith, 'Labour Tradition in Glasgow and Liverpool', History Workshop, 17, 1984, pp. 39, 40, doi
  1453. White, History of the Corporation of Liverpool, pp. 134-5, 188; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 99, 100, 119, 120, 133, 137, 482,491.
  1454. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 122, 167; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 136; Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 195.
  1455. Cited in Fielding, a and Ethnicity, p. 80.
  1456. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 101.
  1457. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 99, 100, 101, 102, 136, 137,151, 499.
  1458. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 139, 140, 167.
  1459. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 143.
  1460. Ibid., pp. 145, 147. doi
  1461. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 167, 168.
  1462. B. Larkin, James Larkin. Irish Labour Leader 1876-1947, pp. 6,7, 10. doi
  1463. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 147, 152, 504.
  1464. MG, 7 June 1897; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 139, 140.
  1465. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 90,91,92,96.
  1466. MG, 24 October 1896.
  1467. MG, 21 October 1897. doi
  1468. J. liii!, 'Manchester and Salford Politics and the early development of the Independent Labour Party', International Review of Social History, 26, 1981, p. 182; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 114. doi
  1469. Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections; pp. 249, 250; Clarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, p. 127; Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 195; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 145; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 167.
  1470. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 98. doi
  1471. Report of The Committee of Secracy of The House of Commons, 1799, pp. xxxi, xxxii.
  1472. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', p. 127.
  1473. MG, 15 April 1848.
  1474. Lees, Exiles of En, p. 223; Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 179; Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', p. 136.
  1475. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 128, 129, 131, 132, 134,136, 137, 151, 152.
  1476. MG, 21 April 1832, 2 November 1844; Treble, 'The Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church', pp. 99, 104; Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 131,
  1477. Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 49.
  1478. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 49.
  1479. NDC, 6 January 1862.
  1480. Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 77; Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland": Ribbonism in Early Nineteenth-Century Liverpool', International Review of Social History, 39, 1994, p. 51. doi
  1481. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', p. 132; Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 125; Belchem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland"', p. 33.
  1482. Treble, 'The Catholic Church and Trade Unionism', p. 99. doi
  1483. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 133, 134, 136, 137.
  1484. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 23.
  1485. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 58; Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", pp. 37, 51.
  1486. Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 33.
  1487. Belchem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 39. doi
  1488. Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 52.
  1489. LM 21 December 1832.
  1490. Denvir, The Irish in Britain, pp. 128-9.
  1491. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', p. 136.
  1492. LM 29 April 1842; Beichem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", pp. 39, 40.
  1493. 352P0L/1/3 Watch Committee Orders to the Head Constable, 27 March 1852, LCL; 352/MIN/WAT/1/3 Minutes of Watch Committee 30 November 1844, LCL
  1494. Newcastle Chronicle, hiquny, p. 10.
  1495. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 110; Belchem, "Freedom and Friendship to Ireland", p. 51.
  1496. Belchem, '"Freedom and Friendship to Ireland"', pp. 33, 34, 35, 39, 41, 51.
  1497. Ibid. pp. 36, 37; Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 125; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 75.
  1498. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 222; Liverpool police repois noted that Ribboninen frequently changed their passwords and signals. See H045/249 if. 2,3, 10, 11.
  1499. Connolly, 'The Catholic Church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 126,
  1500. Read and Glasgow, Feargus O'Connor, p. 76; MG, 29 September 1841.
  1501. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell'.
  1502. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 449, 454.
  1503. MG, 6 March, 6 April 1833; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 122, 156, 162, 184, 311, 341 386, 449, 450, 452.
  1504. MacDermott, 'Charles Larkin', p. 15.
  1505. LM 29 January 1835, 16 February, 29 March 1844.
  1506. LM, 28, 29 March 1844.
  1507. LM, 10 June 1836.
  1508. H. 0. 45/46 foi 22. Shaw to H. 0., 5 June 1841.
  1509. NWC, 2 March 1844. See also LM, 7, 14 June 1844.
  1510. MG, 11 September 1844.
  1511. NWC, 11 July 1847.
  1512. LM, 3 August 1847.
  1513. LC, 20 March 1850.
  1514. LWM 31 July 1858.
  1515. MG, 26Apr11 1854; NWC, 14 January 1860.
  1516. Denvir, Life Story, p. 183.
  1517. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 452, 453.
  1518. LM31 May 1839.
  1519. Treble, 'O'Connor, O'Connell', p. 45; MacDermott 'Jrish Workers on Tyneside', p. 166..
  1520. LM15 January 1836.
  1521. LM, 21,28 January 1842,25 August, 15 September 1843; Moore, 'ThisVgdT(YR&lk1Ia Town', pp. 49, 50.
  1522. Moore, 'This Whig and Tory Ridden Town', pp. 49,50.
  1523. LM12 January 1844.
  1524. Epstein and Thompson, The Chartist Experience, pp. 123, 130; Frow, Essays 011 The ksh hit Manchester, p. 15.
  1525. Pickering, Chartism, p. 191. doi
  1526. Ibid., p. 194.
  1527. Frow, Essays on The Irish in Manchester, p. 32.
  1528. Epstein and Thompson, The Chartist Experience, p. 129. doi
  1529. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 450, 451.
  1530. LM 15 January, 10, 17 June 1836, 9 December 1842, 14 June 1844.
  1531. LM 14,28June 1844.
  1532. LM28 May 1847.
  1533. Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 72.
  1534. Llf, 29 January, 10 June 1836.
  1535. LM 15 September 1843; NWC, 23 September 1843.
  1536. LM 14 June, 13 September 1844.
  1537. Ibid., p. 72. doi
  1538. LM 12 June 1846.
  1539. LM, 12 June 1846; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 72, 73.
  1540. LJif, 17 July 1846.
  1541. LM 2, 9, 16, 25 October 1846; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp.72 n 16. 73,
  1542. LM, 9 October 1846.
  1543. Frow, Biogmphies of fish Chartists, p. 92.
  1544. Pickering, Chartism, p. 96. doi
  1545. Frow, Biogmphies of Irish Chartists, p. 90.
  1546. MG, 11, 18 March 1848.
  1547. MG, 15 February 1847. doi
  1548. MG, 15 March 1848.
  1549. MG, 15 March 1848; Pickering, Chartism, pp. 96, 201; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 184.
  1550. Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 99. doi
  1551. Strauss, Irish Nationalism, p. 66. doi
  1552. MG, 18, 22 March 1848; Read and Glasgow, Feargus O'Connor, p. 128; Pickering, Chartism, p. 96; Lowe, The Irish in MId Victorian Lancashir; p. 184.
  1553. MG, 18 March 1848. doi
  1554. MG, 18, 22 March 1848.
  1555. Pickering, Chartism, pp. 96, 201.
  1556. H045/2410 (part 2) f. 64 Poster dated 15 March 1848.
  1557. W. E. A. Axon, Annals of Manchester, p. 244.
  1558. MG, 22 March 1848.
  1559. Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 130 ii. 90; Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish, p. 13; Frow, Biogmphies of Irish Chartists, pp. 89,90.
  1560. MG, 10 May 1848.
  1561. MG, 5, 12, 15, 19, 22, 29 April, 10, 24, 31 May, 3, 7, 14 June 1848.
  1562. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashiiv, p. 185.
  1563. MG, 5, 12, 15, 19, 22, 29 April, 10, 24, 31 May, 3,7, 14 June 1848; LM 25 April 1848.
  1564. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashin, p. 186; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 179.
  1565. MG, 10,24,31 May 1848;ManchesterCourier3l May 1848.
  1566. MG, 10, 24, 31 May 1848; LM 28 July 1848.
  1567. Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p. 13. doi
  1568. MG, 3 June 1848; LM 2 June 1848. doi
  1569. MG, 3 June 1848.
  1570. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p.. 11.
  1571. LM,9, l3June 1848.
  1572. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 187; Lowe, lie Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 181.
  1573. MG, 19 August 1848.
  1574. MG, 22 July, 19 August 1848.
  1575. MG, 7 June 1848.
  1576. MG, 26 July 1848; NWC, 28 July 1848. The Chronicle's editorial related the alarm caused in Liverpool and Manchester 'by the movements of the numerous body of Irish residing in those places; LM28 July 1848.
  1577. MG, 29 July 1848.
  1578. H. 0. 4512410A, Mayor to H. 0., 15 August 1848; H. 0. 45/2410A, Telegraph message from superintendent of Intelligence Department to H. 0., 16 August 1848.
  1579. MG, 16 August 1848.
  1580. MG, 19, 23 August 1848; LM 25 August, 22 September 1848.
  1581. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 188; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', pp. 188, 196.
  1582. LM 25 August 1848.
  1583. Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 79.
  1584. MG, 26 July 1848; Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 126; Beichem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 13; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 73, 74 n. 27, 77.
  1585. LM 13 June 1848. doi
  1586. Belehem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 71,73.
  1587. 12428 March 1848; &lchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 74 n. 27,77.
  1588. LM 28 March 1848; Lowe, irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire p. 184; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 80.
  1589. LM 25 July 1848; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 83, 87.
  1590. Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 81.
  1591. Mather, Public Order in the Age of the Chartists, p. 84; Picton, Memorials of Liverpool, vol. 1, p. 505; Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 81, 82; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 121.
  1592. Picton, Memorials of Liverpool, vol. 1, pp. 505, 506.
  1593. Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 82. doi
  1594. LM 28 March 1848. doi
  1595. LM4,7, 28 April 1848.
  1596. LM, 7, 18, 28 April, 13, 27 June, 25, 28 July, 1 August 1848.
  1597. LM, 11 April 1848. doi
  1598. Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 127.
  1599. MG, 26 July 1848; LM, 28 April, 13 June, 25, 28 July, 18...August 1848; LC, 26 April 1848; Porcupine 3 May 1879.
  1600. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 187, 188; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 119.
  1601. Mather, Public Order in the Age of the Chartists, p. 194; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', pp. 88, 89, 90.
  1602. Beichem, 'Republican Spirit and Military Science', p. 44; Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 126.
  1603. Beichem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 86.
  1604. Ibid., pp. 87, 90.
  1605. Ibid., 86.
  1606. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 184; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 90.
  1607. Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 131; Belehem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p. 93.
  1608. Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 189.
  1609. MG, 29 July 1849.
  1610. 352P0L/1/2 Watch Committee Orders to the Head Constable, 27 July, 3, 10, 17, 25 August 1848, LCL; LM 25, 28 July 1 August 1848; Porcupine 3 May 1879; NWC, 28 August 1848; Denvir, Life Story, p. 55; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool p. 92.
  1611. 352M1N/WAT/24/2 Miscellaneous Sub-Committee Minutes, 13 April 1850, LCL.
  1612. LM, 1 August 1848; NWC, 28 August 1848.
  1613. NWC, 28 August 1848.
  1614. Porcupine 3 May 1879.
  1615. LM, 1 August 1848; Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire p. 187; Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 131; Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p. 13; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of revolution', pp.91 n. 94,92.
  1616. LM 18 August, 1 September, 12, 15 December 1848.
  1617. Neal, Sectarian Violence, pp. 118, 120, 123; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p.
  1618. Belchem, Liverpool in the Year of revolution', p. 92. doi
  1619. Beichem, liverpool in the Year of revolution', p. 93; Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, pp. 32-3; Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 187.
  1620. LM 21 July, 1, 11 August 1848.
  1621. MacDermott 'Irish Workers on Tyneside', p. 166; Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 46; Denvir, The shin Britais, pp. 140-1.
  1622. MacDermott 'Irish Workers on Tyneside', p. 166.
  1623. ISJWC, 14, 21 April, 2, 9 June 1848.
  1624. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 184, 186-9; Lowe, 'The Irish in Lancashire a Social History', p. 65.
  1625. MG, 31 May 1848.
  1626. H. 0. 4512410 (4) AR. Report from Lieutenant Arbuthnott, 14, 15 August 1848.
  1627. Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 104. doi
  1628. Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', pp. 7, 10, 11, 12. doi
  1629. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 184. doi
  1630. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', pp. 10, 11.
  1631. J. Belchem, 'Republican Spirit and Military Science: The 'Irish brigade' and Irish-American nationalism in 1848', IllS, xxix, 113 (1994), p. 44.
  1632. Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 104.
  1633. Belchem, Industrialization and the Working Class; pp. 131, 132; Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish 1815-50', Swift and Gilley, The Irish in the Victorian City, pp. 93, 94.
  1634. Lowe, 'The Chartists and the Irish Confederates', p. 194.
  1635. Beichem, Industrialization and the Working Class; p. 131; Belchem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish 1815-50', Swift and Gilley, The Irish in the Victorian City, p. 93.
  1636. Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 134; Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p. 16.
  1637. T. Gallagher, 'The Catholic Irish in Scotland: In Search of Identity' in T. M. Devine (ed), Irish Immigrants and Scottish Society in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries p. 26. doi
  1638. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 138, 205; Lowe, 'The Lancashire Irish and the 397Catholic Church', p. 154.
  1639. C. G. Smith, The Manchester Outrage, cited in M. Rose, The Manchester Martyis, p. 12; Gallagher estimates that at its height the Liverpool movement had 17,..000 members. See Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p. 119.
  1640. Head Constable McHale to Inspector General, 18 October 1866, PRO, HO 45/OS/7799/135. Cited in Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 192.
  1641. Denvir, Life Story, p. 53.
  1642. Miller, Boling and Doyle, 'Emigrants and Exiles', IFIS, xxii, 1980, p. 101.
  1643. Quinlivan, The Fenians in England 1865-72, p. 11; N. J. Frangopulo, Rich Inheritance, p. 150.
  1644. Clynes, Memofres, p. 38.
  1645. T. N. Brown, Irish American Nationalism 1870-1890, p. 23. doi
  1646. Denvir, Life Story, p. 51; Bennett, Father Nugen4 p. 104.
  1647. MDC, 28 October 1872.
  1648. Denvir, Life Story, p. 151.
  1649. Cited in Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 24-5.
  1650. OT)ay, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 94.
  1651. Cited in Frow, Essays on the Irish in Lancashire, p. 37.
  1652. Brown, Irish American Nationalism, p. 21. doi
  1653. MG, 9 December 1890. doi
  1654. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 67.
  1655. Cited in O'Day, 'Revising the Diaspora', p. 209.
  1656. ODay, Survey of the Irish in England p.9.
  1657. Fitzpatrick, 'A Curious Middle Place', p. 10
  1658. Brown, Irish American Nationalism, p. 38. doi
  1659. MG, 19 December 1863.
  1660. LWM, 30 September 1865.
  1661. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', pp. 163, 164, 165.
  1662. MG, 22 September 1865; LWM, 23 September 1865; NDC, 23 September 1865. doi
  1663. LWIVl, 15 December 1866.
  1664. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 169.
  1665. MG, 19 March 1866.
  1666. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', pp. 170, 176.
  1667. MG, 13, 14 February 1867; 352 POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 11 February 1867, LCL; LWM 16 February 1866; Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, p. 171; Quinlivan, The Fenians in Eng1an p. 21.
  1668. MG, 20 September 1867.
  1669. 352 POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 24 September 1867, LCL.
  1670. MG, 20 September 1867. See also 19 September, 3 , 5 (We are in the presence of a very active and extensive conspiracy') October 1867; LWA4 28 September 1867.
  1671. 352 POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 29 September 1867, LCL; Quinlivan, The Fenians in England, p. 49.
  1672. Daily News cited in Denvir, Life Story, p. 101.
  1673. The Nation, 12 October 1867, cited in O'Day, 'Anti-Irish Behaviour in Britain', p. 34.
  1674. MG, 23, 24, 25 September 1867.
  1675. Devoy, Recollections, p. 245.
  1676. Cited in Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p.1%.
  1677. McGill and Redmond, 'The Story of the Manchester Martyrs', p. 45.
  1678. A. Besant, Autobiogiaphical Sketches, p. 42.
  1679. Devoy, Recollections of an Irish Rebel, p. 245
  1680. A. Glynn, High Upon The Gallows Tree, p. 123.
  1681. R. Challinor, A Radical Lawyer in Victorian England. W. P. Roberts and the Struggle for Workers Rights, , p. 233; NDC, 21 September, 15 October, 2 November 1867....
  1682. Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, p. 190.
  1683. Harris, Nearest Place, p. 145.
  1684. Manchester Courier 26 September 1867; LWM 28 September 1867.
  1685. O'Day, 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', pp. 34-5.
  1686. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 24 September, 7, 19 October 1867, LCL.
  1687. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 26 October 1867, LCL; MG, 8, 30 November, 7, 12 December 1867.
  1688. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 30 November 1867, LCL; MG, 25 November 1867.
  1689. NDC 21 September 1867.
  1690. Devoy, Recollections of an Irish Rebel, p. 247. Another man, Patrick Meledy, lived in London and had never been to Manchester, but he unfortunately boasted to friends that he had taken part in the
  1691. rescue, was arrested, convicted and spent ten years in prison.
  1692. Rose, Manchester Martyrs, p. 85; McGill and Redmond, 'The Story of the Manchester Martyrs', p.
  1693. MG, 22 November 1867; IVDC, 6 November 1867; Glynn, High Upon The Gallows Tree, p. 109; McGill and Redmond, 'The Story of the Manchester Martyrs', p. 47.
  1694. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', pp. 177, 178.
  1695. McGill and Redmond, 'The Story of the Manchester Martyrs', p. 48.
  1696. M. Harmon, Fenians and Fenianisni.
  1697. ODay, 'Anti-Jrish Behaviour in Britain', p. 34; O'Hegarty: the hanging 'raised up, everywhere where there was an Irishman, an enemy of England'. A History of Ireland Under the Union, p. 457.
  1698. MG, 6 November 1867; NDC, 6 November 1867. doi
  1699. MG, 23 November 1867; 352P0LI2/4 Head Constables Report to Watch committee, 24 September 1867, LCL.
  1700. 352P0LJ1/9 Watch Committee Orders to the Head Constable, 19 November 1867, LCL; 352 P01J2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 19,20 October 1867, LCL; MG, 25 November
  1701. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 180.
  1702. MG, 25 November 1867.
  1703. Devoy, Recollections of an Irish Rebel, p. 244.
  1704. J. O'Dea, The Story of The Old Faith in Manchester, cited in Rose, Manchester Martyrs p. 11; MG, 25 November 1867.
  1705. NDC, 2 December 1867.
  1706. A. Besant, Our Coiner, 1 May 1884.
  1707. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 30 November 1867, LCL; MG, 25 November, 2 December 1867.
  1708. LW!Vl, 22 November 1879.
  1709. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 84, 85.
  1710. Marx and Engels, On Ireland, p. 145. doi
  1711. 353P0L12/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 21, 28 March 1868, LCL
  1712. 353P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 4 Apr11 1868, LCL; MG, 23, 24, 25 September, 8 October, 9 December 1867.
  1713. LWM 21 February, 10 July 1880.
  1714. NDC, 22 April 1870.
  1715. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 41.
  1716. Cited in Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 41,42.
  1717. Porcupine 29 January 1881.
  1718. MG, 1 February 1881; Axon, Annals of Manchester, p. 379; K. R. M. Short, The Dynamite War. Irish-American Bombers in Victorian Britain., p. 50.
  1719. MG, 1, 2 February 1881; LWM 8 January, 5 February 1881; Short, The Dynamite War, p. 50.
  1720. Fitzpatrick, 'A Curious Middle Place', p. 34.
  1721. MG, 17 October 1881. Several women numbered amongst those on the platform.
  1722. LWM 18 March 1882.
  1723. Letters of Herbert Cardinal Vaughan, p. 347. doi
  1724. LWM, 28 April, 25 August, 1883; MG, 13, 16 May 1882.
  1725. The paper attributed this to police vigilance. MG, 30 April 1883.
  1726. MG, 2 February 1885; Axon, Annals of Manchester, p. 431; M. Bourke, John OLeary. A study in Irish Separatism, pp. 173, 178.
  1727. MG, 27 November 1893.
  1728. MG, 30 September 1889, 7 June 1897; M. Ryan, Fenian Memories, p. 189; Bourke, John Oieaiy, p. 220.
  1729. MG, 18 March 1898.
  1730. MG, 19, 26 March, 8, 9 August 1900.
  1731. Denvir, Life Story, p. 150.
  1732. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 191. doi
  1733. Porcupine, 30 March 1861.
  1734. LWM 20 July 1861.
  1735. Po.zvupine, 12 March 1864; 'A band apparently of Fenians' attacked A. M. Sullivan, accusing him of being an informer. See MG, 12 March 1864; Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 163.
  1736. LWM 10 June 1865; MG, 9 June 1865. doi
  1737. LWM, 23 September 1865.
  1738. Porcupine 14 October 1865.
  1739. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 164.
  1740. LWM 23, 30 September 1865; MG, 23 September 1865.
  1741. MG, 22, 23 September 1865.
  1742. 352P0LJ2/3 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 26 September 1865, LCL; LC, 25 September 1865; LWM, 23, 30 September 1865; NDC, 19 September 1865; MG, 25 September 1865.
  1743. NDC, 25 September 186; MG, 25 September 1865.
  1744. MG, 30 September 1865.
  1745. NWC, 20 Januaiy 1866.
  1746. LWM 30 September 1865.
  1747. 352 POLI2/3 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee,,. 26 September 1865, LCL; The Sunday Gazette wrote lhere is a powerful Fenian feeling among the Liverpool Irish'. See Ryan The Phoenix Flame, p. 142.
  1748. 352 POL/2/3 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 22 January 1866, LCL
  1749. NWC, 20 January 1866; LWM 1, 15 September 1866.
  1750. MG, 1, 5 February 1866.
  1751. MG, 5 February 1866.
  1752. 352 POL/2/3 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 27 January 1866, LCL
  1753. LWM3, 24 February 1866; MG, 1 February 1866.
  1754. MG, 25, 26 September 1865.
  1755. LWM 24 February 1866.
  1756. MG, 20 February 1866.
  1757. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 7, 11, 26 September, 19 November 1866, 21 October 1867, LCL
  1758. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 7, 11 September 1866, LCL
  1759. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 7, 11, 13, 26 September, 19, 23, 28 November, 21,22 December 1866, LCL MG, 8, 10 September 1866.
  1760. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 22 December 1866, 28 September 1867, LCL; LWM29 September, 13 October 1866, 30 November 1867.
  1761. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p.169.
  1762. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 7, 12, 15, 19 December 1866, 3 January 1867, LCL; L WIvI , 8, 15 December 1866.
  1763. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 15, 27 December 1866, LCL; 352P0LJ215 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11 February 1868, LCL; LWM 8 December 1866.
  1764. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 27 December 1866, LCL
  1765. LWM, 8, 15 December 1866.
  1766. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 15 January 1867, LCL.
  1767. 352POLJ214 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11, 12, 14, 18 February 1867, LCL; 404LWM, 16 February 1867; MG, 13, 14 Februar r 1867; Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, p. 171.
  1768. MG, 13, 14 February 1867.
  1769. LM 13 February 1867; LC, 14 February 1867; Porcupine 16 Fbruary 1867; MG, 12 February 18 67.
  1770. MG, 4 January 1867.
  1771. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11 September 1866, LCL.
  1772. 352P0L12/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11 September, 19 November 1866, LCL
  1773. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11 September, 19 November 1866, 30 October 1867, LCL.
  1774. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 19 November 1866, LCL
  1775. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 11 September, 19 November 1866, LCL
  1776. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 26 November 1866, LCL; MG, 7 December 1866.
  1777. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 7, 12, 15, 19 December 1866, 3 January 1867, LCL; LWM, 8, 15 December 1866.
  1778. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 15, 21, 23 February, 12, 13, 19 March 1867, LCL; LWM, 16 March 1867; MG, 18 March 1867.
  1779. 352POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 12, 13, 14 March 1867, LCL; LWP4 16 March 1867; LC 18 March 1867; MG, 18 March 1867; Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, p. 142.
  1780. LWM 16 March 1867.
  1781. LWM, 16 March 1867; 352POL/214 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 13 March 1867, LCL.
  1782. 352P0L12/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 19 March 1867, LCL;L WM 16 March 1867;LJ l8Marchl867;MG, l8March 1867.
  1783. LM 18 March 1867; LC, 18 March 1867. doi
  1784. Porcupine 23, 30 March 1867; LM, 18 March 1867; LWM, 23 March 1867. doi
  1785. LC18 March 1867.
  1786. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 7, 17 June, 16 August 1867, LCL; LWM 24 August 1867.
  1787. LWM 28 September 1867.
  1788. Denvir, Life Story, p. 93; 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 24 September 1867, LCL.
  1789. 352P0L,12/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 24 September, 16, 21 October 1867, LCL
  1790. 352P0L]2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 27 September 1867, LCL.
  1791. 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 25, 27 September, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28 October 1867, LCL; LWM 5 October 1867.
  1792. NDC, 14, 15 October 1867; 352P0L/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 8 October 1867, LCL
  1793. Liverpool Review 26 October 1889.
  1794. 352POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 1,7, 11,21, 29 October, 21, LCL; 352 POL/2/5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 26 November 1867, LCL; LWM 23 November 1867; MG, 21 22 November 1867.
  1795. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Comniittee 12, 15, 16, 28 October 1867, LCL; MG, 14 October 1867.
  1796. 352P0L/214 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 12, 25, 26, 28 October 1867, LCL 352 POL/2/5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 23 December 1867, 23 April 1868, LCL; LWM 12 October 1867.
  1797. 352P0LJ2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee, 15 October 1867, LU_
  1798. LWM 19, 26 October, 21 September 1867; MG, 26 October 1867.
  1799. 352POL/2/4 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 28 October 1867, LCL; 352 POL/2J5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 1 November 1867, LCL
  1800. 352 POLJ2/5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 5 February 1868, LCL.
  1801. Porcupine 23 November 1867; Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 196.
  1802. LM 26 November 1867.
  1803. LM, 26 November 1867.
  1804. 352P0L/1/9 Watch Committee Orders to the Head Constable, 19 November 1867, LCL
  1805. Porcupine 14 December 1867; MG, 10 December 1867. doi
  1806. LWM 21 December 1867.
  1807. MG, 18 December 1867.
  1808. Denvir, Life Story, p.92.
  1809. 352 POL2/5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 11, 13 February, 23 April 1868, LCL; LWM 25 January 1868.
  1810. 352 POL/215 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 13 February 1868, LCL; LWM 25 January 1868.
  1811. 352 P0112/S Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 23 April 1868, .LCL LWM 25 January 1868.
  1812. Shallice, Orange& Green, p. 17.
  1813. Denvir, Life Story, p. 212; 352 POL/2/5 Head Constable's Report to Watch Committee 3, 5, 19 February 1869, LCL; LWM, 13 March 1869.
  1814. MG, 25 October 1869.
  1815. MG, 26 July 1871.
  1816. Porcupine 25 November 1871.
  1817. Hammond, Gladstone and the Irish Nation, p. 655. doi
  1818. Porcupine 6 December 1879. doi
  1819. LWM 22 November 1879.
  1820. LWM 8, 29 January 1881; Short, The Dynamite Warp. 118.
  1821. MG, 11 June 1881.
  1822. LWM, 20 August 1881.
  1823. MG, 1 August 1881. doi
  1824. MG, 12 August 1881.
  1825. LWM l8March 1882.
  1826. Wailer, Sectarianism and Democracy, p. 22.
  1827. LWM 18, 25 August, 1, 15 September 1883; MG, 8 August 1883. doi
  1828. LWM 20 April 1883.
  1829. MG, 9 April, 8 August 1883; Short, The Dynamite War, pp. 118-23.
  1830. LWM, 19,26 April, 3 may 1884; NWC, 19 April 1884; MG, 21 April 1884.
  1831. LWM 2 February 1889.
  1832. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 187. doi
  1833. Porcupine 22 March 1862, 6 November 1875.
  1834. Porcupine 14 October 1871.
  1835. Porcupine 13 November 1875.
  1836. Porcupine 3 August 1878.
  1837. Porcupine 6 December 1879, 29 January 1881.
  1838. ODay, Survey of the Irish In Englan4 pp. 118-9.
  1839. MDC, 21 March 1885.
  1840. MDC, 19 March 1887.
  1841. NDC, 10 August 1880; MWC, 20 March 1869.
  1842. MacDermott, 'Irish Workers on Tyneside', p. 167.
  1843. NDC, 1 August, 18 September, 17 October 1860.
  1844. NDC, 22 March 1862; Cooter,' The Irish in County Durham', p. 229.
  1845. Edwards and Storey, 'The Irish Press in VIctorian Britain', p. 165.
  1846. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 58.
  1847. Ibid., pp. 46-7. doi
  1848. NWC, 5 October 1878,11 December 1880; Edgar, Catholic Life in Newcastle 70 Years Ago, p.
  1849. ('The Irish club was always a bit of a Fenian club'); Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 22, 51, 54; 408Healy, Leltexs and Leaders,!, pp. 55-7; Denvir, The Irish in Britain, p. 275.
  1850. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 58, 59.
  1851. N',VC, 5 October 1878.
  1852. NDC, 16, 18, 20 September, 29 December 1865.
  1853. NDC, 15, 17, 19 March 1866.
  1854. NDC, 9-15 October 1867.
  1855. NDC, 7 February 1867.
  1856. NDC, 10 October 1867; MG, 11 October 1867.
  1857. Cited in Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North East', pp. 34, 36.
  1858. NDC, 16 December 1867.
  1859. NDC, 6, 26 November, 10 December 1867.
  1860. NDC, 7 October 1867; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 232.
  1861. NDC, 11 December 1866; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 234.
  1862. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 234; Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict', p. 35.
  1863. NDC, 8-15 October, 28 December 1867; Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict', p. 36; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 232.
  1864. N1)C, 20 September 1867.
  1865. NDC 14 October 1867.
  1866. NDC 28 December 1867; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. 232, 235. For explosion see NDC 18 December 1867.
  1867. NDC 24 December 1867.
  1868. NDC, 2, 9 January 1868.
  1869. Cooter. 'Hibernians and Georclies', pp. 20, 24, 26.
  1870. NDC, 18, 20, 28 September, 13 December 1865, 20 February, 3, 28 March, 21 May 1866, 27 May, 21 September, 2 October, 6, 26 November, 10, 17 December 1867, 11 January 1868.
  1871. NWC, 6 January 1869.
  1872. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 239.
  1873. Newcastle Coumnt 29 August 1873, cited in Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 264.
  1874. NDC, 22 April 1870; Rose and Quinlivan, The Fenians in Englaa4 p. 30.
  1875. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 62.
  1876. Bourke, John OLeaiy, p. 178.
  1877. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 68.
  1878. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 185 ii. 79.
  1879. NDC, 28 October 1872; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 245; This event caused Charles Larkin to come out of retirement and appear on a public platform for the last time. See MacDermott, 'Charles Larkin', p. 17.
  1880. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 246.
  1881. NWC, 27 June 1874, 11 March 1878.
  1882. NWC, 22 March 1879.
  1883. NWC, 20 May 1882.
  1884. MG, 21, 24 November 1879, 8 July 1889, [1 February, 28 July 1890, 26 April 1892, 27 November 1893, 27 November 1896; LWM, 23 March 1878, 22 November 1879.
  1885. MG, 30 July 1889, 9 April 1892; NWC, 16 July, 6 August 1881.
  1886. MG, 31 October 1872; O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 190.
  1887. MG, 9 January 1873. doi
  1888. NDC, 22 August 1873; NWC, 24 May 1873; O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', pp. 194, 195.
  1889. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 39, 40.
  1890. Denvir, Life Story, p. 173; O'Day, 'The Political Organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 195.
  1891. O'Day, 'The Political Organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 195.
  1892. MG, 6 January 1874; O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 195.
  1893. MG, 16 February 1876, 8 September 1879.
  1894. MG, 1 September 1874, 8 September 1879.
  1895. Denvir, Life Story, p. 173; O'Day, 'The Political Organization of the Irish in Britain', pp. 195, 198; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 39, 40.
  1896. MG, 30 December 1875, 16 July 1877; Denvir, Life Story, p. 191; A. O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 200.
  1897. O'Day, 'The Political Organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 198; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 39,
  1898. Denvir, Life Story, p. 180.
  1899. NDC, 4 January 1872; LWM 25 October 1873.
  1900. MG, 16 July, 29 August 1877.
  1901. NWC, 9 March 1878.
  1902. LWM, 22,29 November, 6 December 1879, 10 October 1891; Denvir, Life Story, pp. 205,206.
  1903. NWC, 11 December 1880; O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 203.
  1904. NWC, 23 April 1881.
  1905. MG, 21 April, 22 July, 8, 14, 19, 20 September, 21 November 1881, 3, 24 April, 14 August, 11 December 1882; NV/C, 19 August 1882.
  1906. O'Day, 'The political organization of the Irish in Britain', p. 204.
  1907. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 136. doi
  1908. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 86.
  1909. MG, 30 September 1889, 7 June 1897; Ryan, Fenian Memories, p. 189; Bourke, John OL.eary, p.
  1910. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 83. doi
  1911. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 62; Macbin, Politics and the Churches, p.200.
  1912. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, p. 6; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 123.
  1913. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 60.
  1914. LWM 18 April, 20 June 1885.
  1915. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 185. doi
  1916. Ciarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, p.252.
  1917. MG, 26 March 1900.
  1918. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 211. doi
  1919. LWM, 21 June 1884.
  1920. Derwir, Life Story, p. 227.
  1921. LWM, 4, 11 July 1885; Burke, Catholic History of Liveipool p. 213; Clarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, p. 252.
  1922. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 3, 23, 44,72, 142, 144, 153; Denvir, Life Story, p. 229.
  1923. WaIler, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 67.
  1924. Brady, T. P. O'Cormor, pp. 23, 86, 87, 89, 143, 146, 152, 153.
  1925. An Appeal to the Freeholders of Newcastle against Catholic Doctrines and Catholic Claims, p. 31.
  1926. 124 l2February 1841.
  1927. MG, 2 June 1841, 9 November 1844, 17 June 1846; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 62; Coimolly, 'The Catholic church and the first Manchester and Salford Trades Unions', pp. 136, 137.
  1928. H045/46 if. 22, 23, report of Manchester police, 5 June 1841.
  1929. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p.242, ii. 2.
  1930. 12414 June 1844.
  1931. Report of the Second General Conference of the Catholic Young Men's Society, pp. 11-2, 18.
  1932. LM29March1862;LWM,29March 1862.
  1933. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 162.
  1934. LM, 23 September 1865; LWM 23 September 1865. doi
  1935. NDC, 13 November 1865.
  1936. ODay, 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', p. 39.
  1937. LC, 10, 12 December 1867; LWi'V4 130 November, 4, 21 December 1867; Porcupine 25 October 1875; Burke, Catholic Histoiy of Liverpool, pp. 180, 210.
  1938. NDC, 3 January 1874.
  1939. Treble, 'The Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church', 111, 112. doi
  1940. Walker, 'Irish Immigrants in Scotland', p. 664. doi
  1941. McGill and Redmond, 'The Story of the Manchester Martyrs', p. 47.
  1942. Boyle, Nineteenth Century frelan4 pp. 147, 148; The fact that they were buried in quicklime particularly enraged Catholic Ireland. See Ryan, The Phoenix Flame, p. 190.
  1943. E. R. Norman, The Catholic Church and Ireland in the Age of Rebellion 1859-1873, pp. 120, 121, 124, 183, 188, 345, 391, 427. Norman regards the affair as very important, attributing it as provoking Gladstone's decision to tackle Irish issues.
  1944. MG, 7 October 1867.
  1945. MG,6January 1874, l9March 1877.
  1946. MG, 8 January 1872. doi
  1947. LWM 2 December 1871.
  1948. Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', pp. 119, 120.
  1949. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 125. doi
  1950. MG, 18 January, 5 February 1874, 27 April, 6May 1882; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p.93.
  1951. Letters of Herbert Cardinal Vaughan, pp. 329, 341, 347; Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, pp. 470, 472, 473.
  1952. MG, 28 November 1898, 13 February l899.
  1953. NDC, 5 January 1872, 19 March 1881; MG, 18 March 1875, 19 March 1878, 18 March 1881, 18 March 1882, 20March 1900.
  1954. Denvir, Life Story p. 187.
  1955. Bennett, Father Nugeni; p. 72.
  1956. LWM 18 March 1876; Porcupine, 22 March 1862; Burke, Catholic History of LiverpooJ, p. 218; Bennett, Father Nugent p. 63.
  1957. Porcupine 22 March 1862, 20 September 1873.
  1958. LWM, 25 October 1873, 20 March 1875, 6 December 1879, 28 November 1885.
  1959. LWM 7 February 1880.
  1960. LWM, 22 July 1882.
  1961. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p.251.
  1962. NDC, 16 December 1867; 'A Note on the Hibernian Society', p. 27; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 242.
  1963. NDC, 5 January 1872.
  1964. NDC,, 22 August 1873; O'Day, lie political organization of the Irish in Britain', pp. 194-5.
  1965. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 92.
  1966. Shallice, Orange & Green, p. 24.
  1967. LWM 24 March 1866.
  1968. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool, p. 179.
  1969. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 89. doi
  1970. Walker, 'Irish Immigrants in Scotland', p. 667. doi
  1971. MG, 19 March 1885, 2 February 1892, 9 July 1894, 19 March, 31 January 1895, 7 June 1897, 20 March 1900; NDC, 4 January 1872; LWM, 19 March 1864, 20 March 1875; LM, 25 August 1843.
  1972. MG, 19, 20 March 1900.
  1973. MG, 19 March 1885, 2 February 1892, 9 July 1894, 19 March, 31 January 1995, 20 March 1900.
  1974. MG, 20 March 1900.
  1975. MG, 20 March 1899; LWM 25 October 1873.
  1976. MG, 5 June 1876, 19 March 1877,18 March 1890, 20 March 1899,18 March 1901.
  1977. LM, 21 December 1832; MG, 19 March 1877; NWC, 20 October 1883; Denvir, Life Stoiy, p.
  1978. NWC, 19 March 1861. -
  1979. LWM 25 October 1873; MG, 9 January 1873. 1002 Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 100.
  1980. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. 247-8, 263 11. 2.
  1981. Cole Common People, p. 248; Hoffis, The Pauper Press, p. 263; Beichem, 'English WorkingClass Radicalism and the Irish, 1815-50', R. Swift and S. Gilley (eds.), The Irish in The Victorian City, p. 88.
  1982. Belchem, 'English Working-Class Radicalism and the Irish, 1815-50', R. Swift and S. Gilley (eds.), The Irish in The Victorian City, p. 88.
  1983. The Objects and Rules of the Northern Political Union, p.22.
  1984. P. Hollis, The Pa uper Press. A Study in Working-Class Radicalism of The 1830s, p. 252. doi
  1985. MG, 16 December 1837.
  1986. LM9 June 1843.
  1987. NWC, 4 January, 30 May 1896.
  1988. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', p. 157.
  1989. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 90. doi
  1990. NWC, 5Februaiy, 19 March 1881, 25 February 1882; NDC, 17 December 1867, 28 December 1872; Ashton, 'Adams: Chartist, Radical and Journalist', pp. 112, 113.
  1991. NWC, 30Apr11 1870; NDC, 27 April 1870.
  1992. Steele, 'The Jrish Presence in The North of England', p. 235; Cooter, 'The hish in County Durham', p.246.
  1993. NWC, 12 April, 12 July, 9 August 1873.
  1994. NWC, 5 February 1881; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 55.
  1995. A Watson, A Great Labour Leader, pp. 262-4; Welbourne, The Mineis Unions; pp. 141, 199.
  1996. NWC, 23Apr11 1881.
  1997. NWC, 28 January 1882.
  1998. NWC, 3 July 1897.
  1999. LW?,4 6 June 1885. doi
  2000. LWM 25 March 1882.
  2001. LWM 23 March 1889; MG, 19 March 1900.
  2002. MG, 10 June 1886,3 March, 16Apr11, 22 November 1887, 21, 26 January 1888.
  2003. MG, 8 July 1889. doi
  2004. NWC, 11 December 1880; L P. Curtis, Anglo- Saxons and CeIts pp. 98, 101-3, 115; Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 182.
  2005. Foster, Paddy and Mr Punch, p. 180. doi
  2006. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 238.
  2007. Cultural Distinction. pp. 221-247
  2008. Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p. 282. doi
  2009. O'Tuathaigh., 'The Irish in Nineteenth Century Britain', p. 23.
  2010. See quote in Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Refomilsni, p. 320; Shallice( 'Orange & Green', p. 15) sees culture as an important element in influencing relations.
  2011. M. Hechter, Internal Colonialism, p. 137. doi
  2012. M. P. Hornsby-Sinith and A. Dale, 'The assimilation of Irish immigrants in England', British Journal of Sociology, 39, 1988, p. 519. doi
  2013. M. A. Busteed, R. L Hodgson and T. F. Kennedy,'The Myth and Reality of Irish Migrants in Mid Nineteenth Century Manchester: a preliminary study?', The Irish World Wide, vol. 2, p. 45.
  2014. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, pp. 23, 26,27.
  2015. Mayhew, London Labour, p. 460; Faucher, Manchester, pp. 29, 32; Hayes, Reminiscences of Manchester, p. 102-4; Street, Night Side of Newcastle, p.14; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, pp. xiv, 48, 58, 62, 64,73,74.
  2016. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England pp. 9, 95,125-6, 128; Bogue, 'The Irish in England'; J. Denvir, The Brandons, p. 13.
  2017. See Seamus Deane, ' Heroic Styles: The Tradition of an Idea', in hrland's Field Day (London, 1985) , p. 45-58.
  2018. Harris, Nearest Place, p. 227, n. 173.
  2019. Report on the State of the irish Poor, 1836, p. 27, 29; LM 7 March 1834, 6 February 1835, 12 July 1844; LWM, 14 July 1883; Belchem, 'Republicanism, Nationalism and Exile', p. 125; Beichem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 10.
  2020. L Colley, 'Britishness and Othemess: An Argument', Journal of British Studies, 31, 1992, p. 314. doi
  2021. Report on State Irish Poor, pp. 62,74.
  2022. IM, 4 December 1846. doi
  2023. Akenson, The Irish Diaspora, p.211. doi
  2024. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 125. doi
  2025. Belchem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', pp. 104, 134. doi
  2026. Paz, Pop ularAnti-Catholicism, p. 80.
  2027. Report on State IrishPoor, pp. 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29.
  2028. Report on State Irish Poor, pp. 22, 27.
  2029. Denvir, Life Story, pp. 2, 109, 118, 124; Denvir, Irish in Britain, pp. 390, 392, 433-4.
  2030. O'Mara, Autobiography of a Liverpool Irish Slummy, p. 75.
  2031. J. A. Banks, 'The Contagion of Numbers', in H. I. Dyos and M. Wolff's The Victorian City. Images andRealities, vol. l,p. 118.
  2032. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p.7; Pooley, 'Segregation or integration?', p. 73.
  2033. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity. doi
  2034. Hornsby-Smith and Dale, 'The assimilation of Irish immigrants in England', p. 520. doi
  2035. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 15. doi
  2036. Denvir, Irish in Britain, pp. 390,433-4.
  2037. Harris, Nearest Place, p.4. doi
  2038. O'Day, 'Anti-Jrish behaviour in Britain', p. 40.
  2039. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', pp. 20,21.
  2040. Colley, 'Britishness and Othemess', pp. 309-29.
  2041. MG, 24 November 1847.
  2042. Gallagher, 'The Catholic Irish in Scotland', p.24. doi
  2043. See O'Day, Survey of the Irish in Englan4 pp. 119, 126.
  2044. Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 31-2.
  2045. O'Tuathaigh, 'The Irish in Nineteenth Century Britain', p. 24.
  2046. B. Williams 'The Anti-Semitism of Tolerance : Middle-Class Manchester and the Jews', A. J. Kidd and K. W. Roberts City, Class and Culture, p.9 1-2; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 12.
  2047. Larkin, 'Church, State and Nation in Modem Ireland', American Historical Review, lxxx, 5(1975), p. 1244; Gallagher, 'The Catholic Irish in Scotland', pp. 21, 22; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 72, 77,78.
  2048. Beichem, 'English Working Class Radicalism and the Irish', p. 6.
  2049. O'Tuathaigh, 'The Irish in Nineteenth Century Britain', p. 26; Fielding concurs. Class and Ethnicity, p. 57.
  2050. Mayhew, London Labour, part i, p. 460.
  2051. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', pp. 21, 103.
  2052. L Lees, Exiles of Erin, p. 193. doi
  2053. Mayhew, London Labour; vol. i, p. 108. doi
  2054. Finnegan, Poverty and Prejudice, p. 157.
  2055. W. M. Walker, 'Irish Immigrants in Scotland: their Priests, Politics and Parochial Life', Historical Journal, 15, 1972, p. 651. doi
  2056. Lowe, 'Lancashire Fenianism', pp. 76, 166, 167, 168, 171.
  2057. MG, 11 December 1882.
  2058. MG, 24 August 1891. doi
  2059. Liverpool Review, 26 October 1889; 352P0L/2/5 Reports of Head Constable to Watch Committee, 1867-9, reports of 3, 12 February 1869, LCL; 92ORUS/4 E R. Russell Personal Book, 1890-3, LCL; O'Day, The English Face of Irish Nationalism, p. 115.
  2060. Denvir, Life Story, p. 118.
  2061. LWM 28February 1880.
  2062. Denvir, Life Story, p. 234; Irish World Wide (2), p. 240.
  2063. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 120, 141; Lavery, Irish Heroes in the War, pp. 53-4; NWC, 30 July 1881, 21 February 1885, 7 January 1893.
  2064. Catholic Young Men's Society. Report of the Second General Conference (1861), p. 20; Catholic Family Annual and Almanac for the Diocese of Liverpool (1888), p. 124; Report of the General Conference of the Catholic Young Men's Societies (1888), p. 26.
  2065. J. A. Banks, Population Change and the Victorian City', Victorian Studies; 11, 1968, p. 283.
  2066. Archer, The Two Roman Catholic Churches, p. 94.
  2067. T. Mason, The Blues and the Reds', THSLC 134, 1984, pp. 123, 124, 125.
  2068. Shinimin, Liverpool Life, 'The Aintree Meeting' and 'The Aintree Carnival'.
  2069. Pat Duffy, Can lug the Ho4 p. 40.
  2070. 352POLj2/4 Reports of the Head Constable to the Watch Committee, 18 66-7. Reports of 28 November 1866, 30 October 1867, LCL.
  2071. Bennettt, Father Nugent of Liverpool, p. 104; Denvir, Life Story, Pp. 3,4, 52.
  2072. P. Joyce, Visions of the People. Industrial England and the Question of Class, p. 232. doi
  2073. LWM 15 December 1866.
  2074. LM, 18 March 1865; LWM, 22 March 1873, 16 January 1875; Porcupine, 20 September 1873; Second Report of the Select Committee on Intemperance, 1877, xi, p. 800; Bennett, Father Nugcn4 p.113.
  2075. Street, Night Side of Newcastle, p. 6; Newcastle Chronicle, Inquiry, p. 10.
  2076. Bennettt, Father Nugcnt p. 112
  2077. Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', p. 209; Report on the General Conference of Catholic Young Men's Societies (1888), p. 26.
  2078. NDC, 19 March 1865.
  2079. LW?4 24January 1885.
  2080. LWM l4August 1880.
  2081. Lavery, fish Heroes in the War, p. 47.
  2082. NWC, 14 May 1825.
  2083. P. O'Sullivan, The fish World Wide, vol. 3, p. 9; Middlebrook, Newcastle, p. 304; NWC, 24 March 1866; .NDC, 11 March 1872.
  2084. NDC, 4 March 1868.
  2085. NDC, 15 September 1871.
  2086. NDC, 11, 14 March 1872.
  2087. NDC, 12 August 1873.
  2088. Diary of Mr Thomas Davidson, 22 January 1845, DX5511/2, TWRO.
  2089. LM. 21 June 1822.
  2090. Porcupine 15 June 1861.
  2091. Porcupine 11, 18,25 May, 1 June 1861.
  2092. Porcupine 3 June, 28 October 1865.
  2093. Porcupine, 17 December 1870.
  2094. Porcupine 10 February, 16 March, 20 June, 10 August 1872.
  2095. Porcupine 26 April 1873.
  2096. Porcupine 1 May 1875, 22 April 1876.
  2097. LWM, 18 March 1882.
  2098. Shiinmin, Liverpool Sketches, 'Smothering Children'; Shinimin, Liverpool Life, p.9.
  2099. Hayes, Reminiscences, p. 279; NWC, 13,20 February 1857.
  2100. MG, 30 September 1843, 4 October 1843, 8 November 1843, 13 January 1844, 22 April 1846, 23 May 1846; LM, 23 December 1842, 20 January, 3 February 1843, 13, 20 March 1846. 112 NDC,22 December 1859.
  2101. 92ORUS/3 E.R. Russell, Personal Book, 1886-90, LCL.
  2102. MG, 8 January 1845, 24 December 1847; NWC, 21 May 1870, 12 July 1873, 5 Octbber 1878, 1 February 1879; NWC, 13 March 1857; 92ORUS/3 E.R. Russell, Personal Book, 1886-90, LCL
  2103. NWC, 2,9 June 1827.
  2104. MG, 27 March 1844.
  2105. MG, 22 May 1844, 14 May 1845, 21 February 1849, 4 March 1849; NWC, 7 December 1844; LM 1 May 1849.
  2106. LM 11 December 1840.
  2107. LM, 6,9 January, 19 March 1852.
  2108. LWM 21 November 1857.
  2109. Porcupine, 24 May 1879.
  2110. NWC, l3March 1857.
  2111. Porcupine, 13 September 1873.
  2112. Lynn Lees, Exiles; p. 250. doi
  2113. Clark, Ethi's Heirs; p. 50.
  2114. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', TIBG, 1971,p.3'78. doi
  2115. MG, 24 June, 1892; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 67, 68,70.
  2116. Faucher, Manchester, p. 32.
  2117. Catholic Rent to Support a Free and Independent Press, Report of the Meeting of the Friends of Civil and Religious Liberty in London (London, 1826);To the Catholics of Great Britain (London, 1824); Kirby and Musson, Doherty, p. 449.
  2118. Paz, Pop ular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 91, 92.
  2119. NDC, 18 March 1862.
  2120. LC, 16 July 1851; LM 19 March 1852; Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p.134.
  2121. Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 37, 38 n. 56.
  2122. Hilton, Catholic Lancashire, p. 94; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 487; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 41, 66.
  2123. Porcupine, 8 December 1877.
  2124. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', p. 377. doi
  2125. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 230.
  2126. Edwards and Storey, 'The Irish Press in Victorian Britain', pp. 172,173, 174, 175, 176.
  2127. Edwards and Storey, 'The Irish Press', pp. 173, 175.Sadly nineteenth-century copies of none of these papers have, to my knowledge, survived.
  2128. Bohstedt, More than One Working Class', p. 209; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, pp. 159, 160.
  2129. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p., 25.
  2130. Durey, 'Survival of an Irish Culture', p. 29. doi
  2131. LC 6, 13, 20, 27 June 1832; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 18, 57; Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', pp. 108, 109; Durey, 'Survival of an Irish Culture', p. 29,31.
  2132. NWC, 2 January 1841; Kearns, Laxton and Campbell, Duncan and the Cholera Test', p. 98.
  2133. Kirby and Musson, Doherty, pp. 433, 434.
  2134. H045/1816 Report onthe state of the town, 13 March 1847; Miller, Poverty Deserved?, p. 14
  2135. Porcupine, 1 May 1875.
  2136. LW.M 4 October 1879.
  2137. Porcupine, 1 May 1875. -
  2138. Times 9 July 1877. doi
  2139. Bryson, 'Riotous Liverpool', p. 118; Beichem, '"Freedom and Friendship to Ireland"', p. 54.
  2140. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 40. doi
  2141. MG, 19 March 1825, 22 March 1828, 20 March, 1830.
  2142. NWC, 21 March 1801.
  2143. Diary of Mr Thomas Davidson, 17 March 1846, DX55/1/2, TWRO. -
  2144. LM 3 April 1835, 11 March 1836; Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool pp.38,45.
  2145. LM, 11 March 1836.
  2146. LM, 22 March 1839.
  2147. Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 58. doi
  2148. LM, 5 May 1843.
  2149. LM, 21 March 1845.
  2150. LM, 18,21 March, 15 July, 18 July 1851; LC, 16 July 1851.
  2151. H045/249 if. 2, 3, 10, 11. Liverpool police report 18 March 1842; LM 18 July 1851.
  2152. LWM, 16 March 1867, 21 March 1868, 22 March 1873, 20 March 1875, 22 March 1890; Porcupine 22 March 1862, 16 March 1872. doi
  2153. Porcupine 22 March 1862.
  2154. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 133. doi
  2155. MG,20 March, 1830. doi
  2156. MG, 25 March 1846, 18 March 1848, 20 March 1852.
  2157. NWC, 19 March 1852.
  2158. NWC, 2 April 1852.
  2159. NWC, 23 March 1855, 21 March 1856, 20 March 1869, 22 March 1879, 28 March 1884, 21 March 1885, 19 March 1887, 9 March 1889, 19 March 1881; MDC, 19 March 1861, 18 March 1862, 19 March 1865. doi
  2160. MG, 15, 22 March 1834; Kirby and Musson, Doherty, p. 452.
  2161. MG, 19 March 1866, 18 March 1867.
  2162. As it happened not even the usual parades, concerts and meetings took place. NDC, 19 March
  2163. Porcupine, 22 March 1862; LWM 20 March 1875, 23 March 1878, 27 March 1879; Llvf, 19 March 1852; MG, 18 March 1876, 18 March 1878, 16 March 1881; NWC, 22 March 1879, 28 March 1884,21 March 1885, 9 March 1889; Brady, T. P. O'Connor, p. 153.
  2164. NWC, 22 March 1879,28 March 1884,21 March 1885, 9 March 1889.
  2165. NDC, 18 March 1870, 18 March 1871. doi
  2166. NWC,9March 1889.
  2167. MG, 18 March 1864.
  2168. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 482; By 1902 the G.A.A. and U.LL were organizing Gaelic athletics tournaments in the town. D. Fitzpatrick, 'A Curious middle place', p. 36.
  2169. MG, 16 March 1881.
  2170. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 17,86.
  2171. B. Hyland, 'Eva Gore Booth', p. 53.
  2172. A. Archer, The Two Catholic Churches, p. 56; H. 0. Evennett, The Catholic Schools of England and Wales, p. 2; S. Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians, cited in Finnegan, Poverty and Prejudice, p.
  2173. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. xvii.
  2174. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 66. doi
  2175. Report from the Select Committee on Education in England and Wales, 1835, vii, p.791.
  2176. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 29, 30.
  2177. Thid., pp. 29, 31, 55, 93, 123; Brady, T. P. O'Connor and the Liverpool hich, pp. 146, 147; Correspondents wrote to the Catholic Times in 1885 asking who they should vote for in the light of their education concerns. See LWM 14 November 1885.
  2178. Holmes, more Roman than Rome p. 214. doi
  2179. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, p. 74; Harris, Nearest Place, p. 33.
  2180. M98/267 Third Annual Report of Manchester and Salford Education Aid Society, 1867, MCL.
  2181. M136/2/3/3560 Dr. Watts' Notes of Evidence, MCL; The 1852 Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Saltord Education calculated a not dissimilar figure of 4660. See Report p. 39.
  2182. According to the Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salfoiti Education, 1852, (p. 38) the figure was 6211; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 58, 69; MG, 6, 7 June 1865; Reach, Manchester, p. 44; Faucher, Manchester, p. 32.
  2183. Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education (1852), p. 243.
  2184. Huine, Missions at Home.
  2185. Hume, On the Education of the Poor in Liverpool; Hume, Con dition pf Liverpool.
  2186. O'Day, Survey of the Irish in England, p. 93.
  2187. Holmes, More Roman than Rome, p.207. doi
  2188. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 179.
  2189. LWM 13 March 1869; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 63; Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 242, n. 2.
  2190. Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education (1852) , pp. 61.
  2191. Coffins, 'The Irish in Biitain', p. 389.
  2192. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, pp. 41,62, 63.
  2193. Denvir, Life Story, pp. 13, 14.
  2194. O'Mara, Autobiography of a Liverpool Irish Slurnmy, pp. 74-5.
  2195. Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education (l&52),pp. 91,93.
  2196. W. A. Richardson, The Hugh Oldham Lads Club, p. 340, 345; M136/2/3/3560 Dr. Watts' Notes of Evidence, MCL; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 63; Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education (1852), pp. 42,91.
  2197. Report of the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, p. 467.
  2198. Report of the Select Committee on Poor Relief 1861, ix, p. 551.
  2199. See notes of assistance awarded by Manchester and Salford Education Aid Society, MG, 3 June
  2200. Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education, 1852, p. 31.
  2201. Ibid. , p. 307; Report ... as to the Employment of Children in Factories, 1833, p. 697.
  2202. Love, ManchesterAs It Is, p. 98.
  2203. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. xiv; Harris, Nearest Place, pp. 156, 178; Walton, Lancashire, p. 183; Hilton, Catholic Lancashire, p. 88.
  2204. Hechter, Internal Colonialism, pp. 184, 197; Akenson, The Irish Diaspora, pp. 39, 40.
  2205. Hume, Missions at Home (1850), p. 29. St Stephen's District Catholics who speak Irish 869 Catholics who speak English only 211 1580 Vauxhpll District Catholics who speak Irish 487 Catholics who speak English only 1142
  2206. Carlyle, 'Chartism', Selected Writings p. 170.
  2207. Punch, vol. 43 (18 March 1862) p. 165.
  2208. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, pp. 117, 123. doi
  2209. Street, Night Side of Newcastle, p.14. This could, possibly, however refer to the Newcastle dialect.
  2210. MG, 22 July 1843.
  2211. NWC, 24 March, 12 May 1854.
  2212. Report of the Second General Conference of the Catholic Young Men's Society (1861), p. 20; Gilley, Irish Catholicism in Britain', p. 241.
  2213. MacDermott, 'Jrish Labour on Tyneside', p. 163.
  2214. Nicholson., 'Irish Priests in the North East', p. 22; Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 100.
  2215. MG, 15 June 1833, 27 November 1844, 2 May 1849, 26 April 1851, 21 April 1852, 30 April 1853; LM 28 November 1845; LWM, 26 December 1857; Hume, Missions at Home, pp.32,33.
  2216. LM, 10 March 1843,
  2217. MG, 22 February 1837.
  2218. Hume, Missions at Home, p. 32.
  2219. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 21; 352P0L/2/4 Head Constables Reports to Watch Committee, 1864-5, LCL See report 11 September 1866 - some of the middle classFenian leaders have a 'thorough English accent'.
  2220. K. P. Coriigan, "1 gcuntas Dc Mum", in O'Sullivan (ed.) Irish World Wide, vol.2, p. 143-61.
  2221. Fielding, 'Irish Politics in Manchester', p. 273; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 15.
  2222. Akenson, The Irish Diaspora, p. 40. doi
  2223. See Kay, Moral and Physical Condition, p. 44; Newcastle Chronicle, Inqithy, pp. 30, 39; Hunt, Regional Wage Variations, p. 288.
  2224. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 22, 26.
  2225. L H. Lees and J. Modell, 'The Irish Countryman Urbanized', Journal of Urban History, 3,1977, pp. 392, 393; Lees, 'Mid-Victorian Migration and the Irish Family Economy', p. 43.
  2226. Alison, Principles of Population, volume i, p. 507.
  2227. E. M. Elderton, Report on the English Birth rate vol. 1, p. 70. Cited in Hunt, British Labour History, p. 163; Hunt concurs with the presumption, but without providing any evidence. See Regional Wage VafiationsinBritain, p.288.
  2228. R. Dennis, English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Centwy. A Social Geography, p. 39. doi
  2229. Lees, Exiles of Erin, p. 138; Lees and Modell, 'The Irish Countryman Urbanized', p. 393.
  2230. Cooter, 'Irish in County Durham', p. 16 n. 1; R. J. Cooter, 'On Calculating the Nineteenth Century Irish Population of Durham and Newcastle', Northern Catholic History, 12, 1975, p. 18.
  2231. Busteed, 'lie Most Horrible Spot'?, p. 14; Busteed and Hodgson, 'Irish Migration and Settlement', p.7. doi
  2232. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, pp. 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60. Average number of persons per household 1851 Irish Non-Irish England/Wales 4.8 Liverpool streets 5.7 5.33 Liverpool courts 5.74 5.12 1861 Irish Non-Irish
  2233. 5
  2234. 21 5.05
  2235. 91 4.73 1871 Irish Non-Irish
  2236. 96 5.06
  2237. 73 4.41 By contrast in Cumbria D. MacRaild finds that Irish households were generally substantially larger than the of natives. See Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 54.
  2238. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire pp. 56,57.
  2239. Lawton, 'The Population of Liverpool', pp. 97, 111.
  2240. MacDermott, 'Irish in Nineteenth Century Tyneside', p. 44: 'There seems little evidence here of the broken families reported for instance among the Irish in London and Manchester'.
  2241. Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p.287. doi
  2242. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 88, n. 3.
  2243. Catholic Family Annual (1888),p. 130.
  2244. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 59. doi
  2245. MG, 17 May, 1899.
  2246. See Roberts, The Classic Slum, p. 23.
  2247. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian liverpool', pp. 375, 376, 377. doi
  2248. Denvir, Irish in Britain, p. 415.
  2249. Oats, Inquiry into the Education and other Conditions of a District in Deansgate, p. 161; M100/1/7 Census of St Luke's Parish Chorlton, MCL; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 44,62, 69; Smith, 'Ten Acres of Deansgate in 1851'.
  2250. Busteed and Hodgson, Irish Migration and Settlement', p.8. doi
  2251. This suggests the pattern of migration. See 1851 Census Enumerators books, Newcastle.
  2252. See n. 284. doi
  2253. Roberts, The Classic Slum, pp. 22-3. doi
  2254. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 14. doi
  2255. Smith, 'Ten Acres of Deansgate in 1851', p.49.
  2256. Holmes, more Roman than Rome, p. 214. doi
  2257. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 70. doi
  2258. Clarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, p. 37. doi
  2259. Harris, Nearest Place, pp. 4, 13, 16, 181, 195.
  2260. Jackson, The Irish', in Jackson (ed.) London: Aspects of Change (London, 1964). Cited in Harris, The Nearest Place, p. 191.
  2261. Frank Neal, 'English-Irish Conflict in the North-East', p. 51; Gallagher, 'A Tale of Two Cities', p.
  2262. Beichem, 'English Working-Class Radicalism and the Irish', Swift and Gilley (eds.), fish in The Victorian City, p. 86.
  2263. C. G. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', T1BG, 1977, p. 364, 375, 376, 377, 378. doi
  2264. Ghettos'. 'Colonies' and 'Communities': Residential Integration, pp. 248-67
  2265. Kay, Moral and Physical Condition; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836; Report from the Committee of the Bill to regulate the labour of children in the mills and factories of the United Kingdom, 183 1-2, xv, 312.
  2266. Werly, 'Irish in Manchester', p. 345.
  2267. C. 0. Pooley, 'Segregation or integration? The residential experience of the Irish in mid-Victorian Britain', Swift and Gilley, The Irish in Britain, pp. 72, 75.
  2268. Foster, Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution, p. 129. doi
  2269. Contrary to myth, they did not congregate in Irish "ghettos" to the exclusion of other ethnic groups' writes Fitzpatrick, Irish Emigration, p. 32; Fitzpatrick, 'A Peculiar Tramping People', p. 634.
  2270. O'Connor, Irish in Britain, pp. 30, 31,36.
  2271. Werly, 'Irish in Manchester', pp. 345, 346, 358; Lowe, Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 69; Letford and Pooley, 'Irish Women in Liverpool', p. 94.
  2272. Hunt, British Labour History, p. 185. doi
  2273. Lees, Exiles, pp. 58, 59,60, 63, 68, 87, 88, 248; Pooley, 'Residential Mobility', pp. 258, 268.
  2274. Cited in Marcus, Engels, Manchester and the Working Class, pp. 195-7. doi
  2275. Foster, Class Struggle, p. 244; Beichem, 'Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile', p. 134, sees this occurring in 1848 and 1851; Beichem, 'English Working-Class Radicalism and the Irish', p. 94; Kirk, The Increase in Working Class Reformism, p. 45.
  2276. Denvir, Irish in England, p. 398; Inglis, Churches and the Working Class, p. 120.
  2277. Hornsby-Smith and Dale, 'The assimilation of Jrish immigrants in England', p. 520. doi
  2278. Werly, 'The Irish in Manchester', p. 345; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 440,546,522.
  2279. Cooter 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 20.
  2280. Kirk The Increase in Worldng Class Refonnism, p. 45.
  2281. Foster, Class Struggle, p. 244. doi
  2282. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836, p. xiv, xviii, 49. The emphasis is mine.
  2283. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', pp. 364, 367, 368, 371, 372, 378. doi
  2284. Pooley, 'Segregation or integration?', pp. 75, 76, 77.
  2285. Cooter 'The Irish in County Durham', p. 35.
  2286. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', pp. 364, doi
  2287. Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 56.
  2288. Kay, Moral and Physical Condition;Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836; Report from the Committee of the Bill to regulate the labour of children, 1831-2, xv, p. 312.
  2289. Werly, 'Irish in Manchester', pp. 345, 346, 347, 358. For a critique see Durey, 'The survival of an 434Irish culture in Britain, 1800-1845', Historical Studies (Australia), 20 (1982), p. 19.
  2290. Ryan, A Biography of Manchester, p. 28. doi
  2291. Connolly, 'Irish and Catholic: Myth or Reality?', p. 236. -
  2292. Swindells, Manchester Streets, p. 175; Report on the State of the Irish Poor, p. 48.
  2293. MG, 14 July 1832.
  2294. Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population, 1842, p. 308. doi
  2295. Manchester Courier 19 May 1847. Cited in Busteed, "The Most Horrible Spot'?', p. 18.
  2296. Report of the Select Committee on Manchester and Salford Education, 1852, p. 66.
  2297. Busteed, "The Most Horrible Spotl', p. 15.
  2298. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 62, 63, 65,81.
  2299. Faucher, Manchester in 1844, p. 28.
  2300. Report of the Select Committee on Poor Removal, 1854, p. 456.
  2301. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, p. 79; Cooke-Taylor, Notes on a Tour, p. 104.
  2302. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 62,63, 65, 81.
  2303. Faucher, Irish in Manchester, p. 28; Reach, Manchester, pp. 53-7; Waters, Report on the Sanitary Condition, p. 10.
  2304. Durey, 'The survival of an Irish culture in Britain, 1800-1845', p. 33; Busteed, "The Most Horrible Spot'?', p. 14.
  2305. Busteed, "The Most Horrible Spot'?', pp. 13, 14. doi
  2306. A lecture on the Sanitary Condition of Choriton upon Medlock, 1854, M126/5/1/17, MCL
  2307. Census of St Luke's Parish Choriton M100/1/7, MCL.
  2308. Report on the Sanitary Condition of certain parts of Manchester, 1853, M126/5/1/13, MCL.
  2309. Busteed, "The Most Horrible Spot'?', p. 15; Lowe, Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 70; Marcus, Engels, Manchester and the Working Class; pp. 195-7; Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 30.
  2310. Engels, Condition of the Working Class, (1892 reprint) p. 28.
  2311. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p. 28. doi
  2312. Report on the State of the fish Poor, p. 73.
  2313. Census of Households in St Michael's Ward (Angel Meadow), M330/2/6, MCL.
  2314. Busteed, Hodgson and Kennedy, 'Manchester Myth or Reality?', p. 34; Busteed and Hodgson, 'Irish Migration and Settlement'. doi
  2315. Busteed, Hodgson and Kennedy, 'Manchester Myth or Reality?', pp. 37, 46; Busteed and Hodgson, 'Irish Migration and Settlement', pp. 1, 6, 7, 8. doi
  2316. Adshead, Distress in Manchester.
  2317. Smith, 'Ten Acres of Deansgate in 1851', p. 43-59.
  2318. Ibid. p. 29. doi
  2319. Hayes, Reminiscences of Manchester, p. 102.
  2320. Lowe, Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 70. doi
  2321. Tom Gallagher for example regards Liverpool as divided into 'rival religious ghettos'. 'A Tale of Two Cities', pp. 108, 123.
  2322. Neal, Sectarian Violence; p. 15. doi
  2323. Belchem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 16. doi
  2324. Neal, Sectarian Violence; p. 196. doi
  2325. Pat OMara, Biography of a Liveipool Slumzny, p. 10.
  2326. Beichem, Peculiarities of Liverpool', p. 16; Bohstedt, 'More than one working class', p. 206; Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 196.
  2327. Report of the Select Committee on Drunkenness, 1834, p. 694.
  2328. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 20, 22, 25, 26; Pooley, 'Irish Settlement in the North West of England', p. 31.
  2329. Fizst Report on the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts, p. 29.
  2330. MG, 27 February 1847.
  2331. LWM, 7 February 1880.
  2332. Report of the Select Committee on Intemperance 1877, xi, pp. 70-1.
  2333. Denvir, Life Story, p. 24.
  2334. Paul Laxton's paper on the Irish in Liverpool, delivered at the Loughborough conference on Local and Regional History (1986).
  2335. Lowe, Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashire, p. 69; Belchem, 'Liverpool in the Year of Revolution', p.
  2336. Cited in Neal, 'Criminal Profile of the Liverpool Irish', p. 188.
  2337. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p.9.
  2338. Second report on the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts, 1845, p. 392. doi
  2339. Hume, Missions at Home, p. 27.
  2340. Laxton's paper on Liverpool (1986).
  2341. Lawton, Population of Liverpool', p. 92; Lawton, 'Irish immigration into England and Wales in the mid-nineteenth century', Irish Geography, 4, 1959-63, 49. doi
  2342. Jones, 'The Liverpool Bread Riots', p. 38.
  2343. Lawton, Population of Liverpool', pp. 104, 111; Lawton, 'Irish Immigration', p. 53.
  2344. L.awton, 'Irish immigration', pp. 49,50.
  2345. Pooley identifies that this was particularly true of Scotland and Great George wards as inhabitants moved out to the suburbs, but Irish remained. See 'Residential mobility in the Victorian city', p. 268.
  2346. Pooley, 'The residential segregation of migrant communities in mid-Victorian Liverpool', pp. 370, 371, 373. doi
  2347. O'Day, 'A Survey of the Irish in England', p. xvi.
  2348. O'Day, 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', p. 29; Pooley, 'Irish Settlement in North West England', pp. 29, 30.
  2349. Pooley, Irish Settlement in North West England', pp. 29, 30; O'Day, 'A Survey of the Irish in England', p. xvi.
  2350. O'Day, 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', p. 249.
  2351. Cited in Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 63.
  2352. Pooley, 'Irish Settlement in North West England', p. 31.
  2353. Lowe, The Irish in Mid Victorian Lancashiiv, p. 72.
  2354. Bohsteclt, 'More than one working class', p. 206. -
  2355. Cooter, 'The Irish in County Durham', pp. v,7, 21, 34, 34 n. 4, 38.
  2356. Ibid., pp. 34 n. 4, 35, 37.
  2357. Ibid., p. 37. doi
  2358. McDermott, 'Irish Labour on Tyneside', p. 16391
  2359. Hodgson, The Picture of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, p. 82. doi
  2360. Reid, Report on the State of Newcastle, 1845, p. 90; Newcastle Chronicle, Inquir, Newcastle Journal l7May 1851.
  2361. Newcastle chronicle, h2quiry, p. 37; Reid, Report on the State of Newcastle, 1845, p. 90; Edgar, Catholic Life in Newcastle Seventy Years Ago, pp. 28, 31; McDermott, 'The Irish in nineteenth century Tyneside', p. 44; NWC, 17 March 1854.
  2362. Report of the Select Coimnitteeon PoorRernova1, 1854-5, xiii, p.48.
  2363. Census of Newcastle 1841, HO 107/845, 107/847, 107/848; Census of Newcastle 1851, HO 107/2404, 107/2405, 107/2406, 107/2407, 107/2408.
  2364. Charleton, Newcastle Town, p. 531.
  2365. Racial Prejudice pp. 268-77 doi
  2366. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Refoimisin p. 323.
  2367. L. P. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts (1968). doi
  2368. Ibid., pp. 3, 28,74.
  2369. Cited in Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p. 287.
  2370. Miles, Racism and Migrant Labour, p. 146; Marx and Engels, On Britain; 'Marx to S. Meyer and A. Vogt, London.9 April 1870', p. 552.
  2371. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. xi, xii, 57, 58,59.
  2372. Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, vol. 1, pp. 105, 109, 110. doi
  2373. Engels, Condition of the Working Class; p. 105. doi
  2374. Carlyle embellishes 'he lodges to his mind in any pighutch or doghutch, roosts in outhouses', 'Chartism', in Selected Writings (London, 1988), pp. 171, 172; Carlyle, Past and Present', Selected Writings, p. 263.
  2375. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 50. doi
  2376. Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, vol. 1, pp. 105, 110. doi
  2377. Engels, Condition of the Working CIass p. 123.
  2378. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, 1836.
  2379. Punch 18 March 1862. Cited in Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p. 184.
  2380. Joyce, Work Society and Politics; p. 252. doi
  2381. Cooke-Taylor, Notes on a Tour, p. 128. doi
  2382. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts, p. 25. doi
  2383. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts, p.6. doi
  2384. Before the 18 SOs this terminology was aired by the middle classes but by the mid-century it had entered the language of radicals. J. Saville, 1848, pp. 38, 39.
  2385. Charles Kingsley, Aiton Locke, p. 342.
  2386. Paz, 'Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Irish Stereotyping and Anti-Celtic Racism in Mid-Victorian Working Class Periodicals', Albion, winter 1986, p. 604; Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 58, 78. doi
  2387. Jones, Life of Joseph Cowen, p. 189.
  2388. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicisrn, pp. 59, 70,73,79; Joyce, Visions of the People, p. 283.
  2389. Porcupine 3 June 1865.
  2390. Denvir, Life Story, p. 119.
  2391. Gilley, 'English Attitudes', p. 90; Gilley and Swift, Irish in the Victorian City, p.5. doi
  2392. Porcupine 12 August 1865; NWC, 1 November 1800, 15 March 1806, 11 March 1843, 17 September 1858, 2 July 1859, 19 May 1860; NDC, 3 May, 11, 20 September 1858, 4, 19 July 1859.
  2393. Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p. 286. doi
  2394. Porcupine 30 March 1861.
  2395. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and CelLs, p. 27.
  2396. mid., p. 28. doi
  2397. Gilley, 'English Attitudes', p. 93; Gilley and Swift, Irish in the Victorian City, p.5. doi
  2398. GlUey, 'English Attitudes', p. 94.
  2399. Report on the State of the Irish Poor, pp. 2, 25, 26,62, 64, 72, 81.
  2400. Hayes, Reminiscences of Manchester, p. 286; Frangopulo, Rich Inheritance, pp. 111, 112; Briggs, Victorian Cities, p. 106.
  2401. Cooter, Irish in County Durham and Newcastle', p. iii.
  2402. O'Day, 'Anti-Irish Behaviour in Britain', p. 35; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 18: 'Liverpool politics were impregnated with reigious-cum-national stereotypes'.
  2403. Gffley, 'English Attitudes', p. 93.
  2404. Paz, 'Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Irish Stereotyping and Anti-Celtic Racism', p. 616; Paz, Popular AntiCatholicism, pp. 78, 79; Gilley, 'English Attitudes'. doi
  2405. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism, p. 79. doi
  2406. Miles, Racism and Migrant Labour, p. 141; Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, pp. 171,287.
  2407. Nation 16 February 1856. Cited in Lowe, Irish in Mid-Victorian Lancashire, p. 12.
  2408. MacRaild, Culture, Conflict and Migration, p. 172. doi
  2409. Paz calculates that of Curtis' sources 43% date from 1880-1899 and 30% from 1900-1920. See Popular Anti-Catholicism, pp. 50,79.
  2410. Joyce, Worlç Society and Politics; p. 251; Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, p. 18.
  2411. Contemporary Review, XLffl (1883), cited in Clarke, Lancashire and New Liberalism, p. 37.
  2412. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism, pp. 116 (Forwood called them 'a race alien to themselves and hostile to their country'), 141 (Forwood: 'the lowest strata of society').
  2413. H. J. Hanham, Elections and Pazy Managemen4 p. 285.
  2414. Wailer, Democracy and Sectarianism. p. 252.
  2415. Paz, 'Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Irish Stereotyping and Anti-Celtic Racism', p. 616. doi
  2416. M38/4/2J17 St Paul's Literary and Education Society, Odds and Ends, vol. xvii, 1871, pp. 163-87, MCL
  2417. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts, p. 52. doi
  2418. IM, 11 August 1848. doi
  2419. Liverpool Herald 17 November 1855. Cited in G. Davis, Irish in Britain, p. 154.
  2420. Liveipool Mail 19 July 1851. Cited in Neal, Sectarian Violence, p. 138.
  2421. Bogue, 'Irish in England', pp. 470, 473.
  2422. NWC, 16 May 1851: 'The dispute, however, seems to have been of a national character, the Irish having made common cause with each other, and giving very distinct expressions of their antipathy to the English'.
  2423. NDC 18 March 1862.
  2424. ODay, 'Anti-Irish behaviour in Britain', p. 33.
  2425. Greenall, Popular Conservatism in Salford', p. 132. doi
  2426. Fielding, Class and Ethnicity, p.9. doi
  2427. T. N. Burke in Father Burke's Answem to Froude, the English Historian (1872), cited in Archer, The Two Roman Catholic Churches, p. 49.
  2428. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts, pp. 4,5, 13, 25.
  2429. MG, 19 March 1877.
  2430. it S. Watson, England's Dealings with kelan4 p.4.
  2431. Foster, Paddy and Mr. Punch, p. 171. doi
  2432. O'Day, A Survey of the Irish in England p. 125-6.
  2433. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts, p. 15. doi
  2434. T. Gallagher, ' The Catholic Irish in Scotland: In Search of Identity', T. M. Devine (ed.), Irish Immigrants and Scottish Society in the Nineteen and Twentieth Centuries, pp. 33,34.
  2435. W. L. Arnstein, 'Victorian Prejudice Re-examined', Victorian Studies, 12, 1969, p. 457.
  2436. Miles, Racism and Migrant