The recently publishedmeta-analysis byZhang et al. (1) shows that the Ala12variant of peroxisome proliferator– activated receptor g is a significantly pro-tective factor for diabetic nephropathy. This association was observed in Cauca-sians, but no similar association was shown in Asians. The absence of a significant effect in the Asian subgroup was explained by the authors by the low frequency of the Ala12 allele in theAsian populations leading to insufficient statistical power. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions have been indicated as additional explanations for the ethnic difference. However, theconflicting resultsobtained could be in part explained by a surviva

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