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Interprofessional mentoring - exploration of support and professional development for newly qualified staff.

By Farnaz Heidari

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine whether newly qualified healthcare staff can be supported in their journey to become a practitioner using an interprofessional framework to mentoring. The study involved the mentoring of\ud newly qualified doctors (pre-registration house officers - PRHOs) by senior nurses for the first six months of their clinical practice. The setting for this study were the wards within four NHS Trusts across the South West of\ud England where all the participating newly-qualified staff were practising. An ethnographic approach, which allows the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, was adopted for this study. Data collection involved predominately qualitative methods (one-on-one\ud interviews). Quantitative methods (questionnaires) were, however, also employed. The total number of participants in this study included 69 mentors (senior nurses), 64 mentees (PRHOs), four project leaders, four clinical tutors and three post-graduate managers, of which four clinical tutors, four project leaders, two postgraduate managers, 12 mentees and 12 mentors were interviewed. The objectives, pursuant to the aim, were to: • Examine the experiences of interprofessional mentoring for mentors, PRHOs and those involved in implementing the scheme; • Identify factors that support or hinder interprofessional mentoring among\ud nurses and doctors; • Identify any benefits for the learning path of nurses and doctors; • Explore perceived benefits for healthcare delivery. The mentoring period for this study was six months and data collection occurred at the beginning and at the end of this period. All those involved Interprofessional mentoring Abstract completed a pre- and post- questionnaire. Additionally, some of the mentors, junior doctors, clinical tutors and project leaders from each of the four participating Trusts were interviewed prior to the commencement of mentoring\ud and after six months. The data was thematically analysed using a personcentred approach. The findings from this study show that mentoring usmg an interprofessional method is a viable approach to supporting professionals,\ud particularly during the early stages of their professional lives and in the current health service climate. Interprofessional mentoring was perceived as a means\ud for supporting the personal and professional development of newcomers as well as the professional development of the mentors. Professionally it involved learning clinical skills through observation, increasing knowledge about the\ud roles and responsibilities of other professional groups and their contribution to healthcare, and developing working relationships with other professionals. In terms of personal development, it helped develop increased confidence and thereby an ability to cope with stress, enhanced interpersonal skills, and improved communication skills. These benefits ultimately influenced the care\ud received by patients, and provided improved staff job satisfaction and a more effective use of resources. The main recommendations for interprofessional mentoring and the\ud research process based on the findings of this study are as follows: • The use of various means, e.g., shared learning, should be employed in the preparation of students during their training for collaborative work • Training for medical staff should give attention to mentoring\ud • Interprofessional mentoring can be applied to any grade. For example, consultants or senior registrars can easily support the educational needs of senior nurses, such as nurse consultants or nurse practitioners, in the same\ud clinical speciality. • Clear guidelines for mentors, mentees and all hospital staff about the aims and objectives of interprofessional mentoring programmes.\ud • The process must receive the full support and backing of management and senior staff. Interprofessional mentoring Abstract• Time should be allocated for training mentors and for meetings between mentor and mentee. • The incorporation of interprofessional mentoring as one of the support\ud systems within the hospital would be advantageous. This would necessitate the inclusion of interprofessional mentoring in hospital policy. This study demonstrates that junior doctors can be mentored and receive support from senior nurses in the early days of their practice. Furthermore, this study provides an example of how interprofessional initiatives can be implemented on general acute wards

Topics: nw
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk:10489

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Citations

  1. (2003). 1.2 The rationale for this study The high level of stress that newly qualified staff experience as they make the transition from students to practitioners has been well documented (Ratanawongsa
  2. (2001). Interprofessional mentoring Introduction 20 1.5 The initial process The study began in
  3. (2000). The General Medical Council (GMC) also identified factual overload in the curricula, with little evidence of self-directed learning, evaluation of evidence or critical reflection and thought (Rees
  4. (1996). and Firth-Cozen
  5. (1994). There are many reasons for this. First, public knowledge in all areas and fields has increased, particularly through the media and the internet, as well as through self help groups that provide information to individuals
  6. (2005). The trend In recent years has been for a move towards interprofessional education, training and working in order to enhance team working, ensure efficient use of resources and improve patient care (Marshall and Gordon
  7. (2000). Although RCTs are generally believed to be objective, free of bias and produce robust conclusions (as evidenced by Cochrane, which focuses on RCTs), many are questioning the use of RCTs to evaluate complex interventions. McCormack and Greenhalgh
  8. (2003). Interprofessional mentoring Literature Review 35 2.3.1 Definition of the term 'interprofessional' The first difficulty encountered in the literature was the lack of clarity and consensus around the term 'interprofessional'
  9. (2001). Interprofessional mentoring Literature Review 38 With the development of an occupational identity, professional boundaries and cultures are formed, which are often difficult to change. Freeth's
  10. (2004). 2.4.1 Definition of the purpose and benefits of mentoring The literature review showed that, like the term 'interprofessional', mentoring also lacks a clear definition and consensus (BMA
  11. (1994). There are many reasons for this. First, public knowledge in all areas and fields has increased, particularly through the media and the internet, as well as through selfhelp groups that provide information to individuals
  12. (1995). A Canadian study by Dibert and Goldenberg
  13. (2002). Mentoring in academia has also been investigated. A study by
  14. (2000). An evaluative study by Kaviani and Stillwell doi
  15. (1997). A mixed method study by Coates and Gromley
  16. (1986). Interprofessional men to ring Literature Review 56 Chapter 3 The Research Design The purpose of this chapter is to provide the rationale for, and details of, the research design. According to Allen
  17. (1999). 3.1 Ethnography Ethnography is primarily about the study of people, their patterns of behaviour and the meaning they give to their lives, all of which form their culture (Bernard 2002, Roper and Shapira 2000, Lecompte and Schensul
  18. (2000). 3.2 The study setting Within an ethnographic study, the setting is an important component and, as Brewer
  19. (1999). Interprofessional mentoring The study design 64 3.3 Data collection Data collection in this study involved predominately qualitative methods along with some quantitative methods.
  20. (1990). I was able to gain an insight into the world of the participants, which might not have been possible using questionnaires. For Van Manen
  21. (1997). 3.4 Validity and trustworthiness It was important to ensure that the methodology used within the study was sound and applicable if the findings were to add to the existing body of knowledge on interprofessional working and mentoring. McKenna
  22. (1995). Interprofessional mentoring The study design 72 The sampling was purposive and the criteria were explicit and systematic, as Hammersley and Atkinson
  23. (1998). Learning is the central feature of this continuum of growth. Wenger
  24. (1998). relates more closely with Carson and Kuipers'
  25. (1998). At the second level of the stress process, discussed by Carson and Kuiper
  26. (1998). Stress outcomes are the third level of stress in Carson and Kuipers'
  27. (2001). consisted of postal questionnaires developed on the competencies defined by the GMC
  28. (1996). generally the definition of NPs and their recognition by other staff and integration into the system (which needs time to develop) were seen as problematic.
  29. (1999). s doi
  30. (1985). In their mixed method study of doctors
  31. (1977). In relation to socialisation into a profession, Bucher and Stelling
  32. (2001). The Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry doi
  33. (2005). 5.3 Contribution of interprofessional mentoring for collaborative working From the literature on change management, many characteristics are required to facilitate change (Callaly and Arya
  34. (1995). For the purpose of this chapter I have used Johns'
  35. (1978). The epistemological basis of Johns' framework stemmed from Carper's
  36. (2000). Interprofessional mentoring Reflections on my personal journey 214 7.1 How the study began Holloway and Walker
  37. (1994). I nterprofessional mentoring Appendices 263 Appendix H Table 21 below demonstrates how the model of interprofessional mentoring developed from this study meets the aims of CPD as outlined by SCOPME

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