The taxonomic position of a Streptomyces strain isolated from an extreme hyper-arid soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain, isolate C60T, had chemical and morphological features typical of members of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree, together with the type strain of Streptomyces radiopugnans. The two strains were distinguished readily using a combination of phenotypic properties and by a DNA–DNA relatedness value of 23.17 (±0.95) %. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate C60T ( = CGMCC 4.7018T = KACC 15492T) be classified in the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces atacamensis sp. nov
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