Interspecific associations between three species of anuran tadpole differing in vulnerability to predation and competition were tested. The common toad, Bufo bufo, an unpalatable and competitively superior species, associated with both the same and different species. The natterjack toad, B. calamita, an unpalatable but competitively inferior species, displayed little preference. The common frog, Rana temporaria, a palatable, competitively superior species avoided, associating with any species. Interspecific association may be beneficial to aposematic, unpalatable, keen competitors, but is risky to cryptic palatable species irrespective of competitive ability. Species that are unpalatable but poor competitors should maintain a flexible strategy adapted to the prevailing levels of competition and predation
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