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Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures

By Peter Glick, Susan T. Fiske, Antonio Mladinic, Jose L Saiz, Dominic Abrams, Barbara Masser, Bolanle Adetoun, Johnstone E. Osagie, Adebowale Akande, Amos Alao, Barbara Annetje, Tineke M. Willemsen, Kettie Chipeta, Benoit Dardenne, Ap Dijksterhuis, Daniel Wigboldus, Thomas Eckes, Iris Six-Materna, Francisca Exposito, Miguel Moya, Margaret Foddy, Hyun-Jeong Kim, Maria Lameiras, Maria Jose Sotelo, Angelica Mucchi-Faina, Myrna Romani, Nuray Sakall, Bola Udegbe, Mariko Yamamoto, Miyoko Ui, Maria Cristina Ferreira and Wilson Lopez Lopez


The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism IHS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)-subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination. Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nations showed that (a) HS and BS are coherent constructs that correlate positively across nations, but (b) HS predicts the ascription of negative and BS the ascription of positive traits to women, (c) relative to men, women are more likely to reject HS than BS, especially when overall levels of sexism in a culture are high, and (d) national averages on BS and HS predict gender inequality across nations. These results challenge prevailing notions of prejudice as an antipathy in that BS tan affectionate, patronizing ideology) reflects inequality and is a cross-culturally pervasive complement to HS

Topics: BF, HM
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Year: 2000
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