Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

English language teaching in Iran and communicative language teaching

By Mahdi Dahmardeh

Abstract

This is a study to investigate English Language Teaching (ELT) in Iran as well as the extent of its compatibility with communicative pedagogy. \ud It has been accepted that language is more than a simple system of rules. Language is now generally seen as a dynamic resource for the creation of meaning. According to the advocates of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), it is generally accepted that there is a need to distinguish between learning that and knowing how. In other words, there must be a distinction between knowing various grammatical rules and being able to use the rules effectively and appropriately when communicating. \ud In 2007, the first Iranian national curriculum for teaching foreign languages was being developed by a team who was working under the supervision of the Ministry of Education based on CLT. Considering the extent of compatibility of the curriculum with CLT was felt to be important in evaluating the degree of success in achieving the goals of CLT. There were also efforts taken into consideration in order to consider the ELT in Iran from other perspectives. To do so, since the current programme and textbooks had been designed prior to introducing the new curriculum; therefore, it was felt necessary to consider them as well. \ud In order to investigate the situation, varieties of research instruments were applied in order to collect valid and reliable data. These instruments were mainly composed of a review of literature, a desk based analysis of the curriculum, administering questionnaires as well as conducting interview sessions. The questionnaires were mainly distributed among English language teachers and the interviews were conducted with some authors of the curriculum, textbooks and English language teachers. \ud The analysis and interpretation of the collected data suggested that while the newly designed curriculum document is to a great extent compatible with communicative pedagogy, the materials being used by teachers, as well as the current ELT programme, are mainly structurally based and cannot be considered as communicative. \ud The thesis goes on to discuss some of the implications of these findings both for ELT in Iran and for future research

Topics: LB1603, PE
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2748

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1999). 30 th
  2. (1998). A Classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning.
  3. (1998). A Cognitive approach to language learning.
  4. (1996). A Course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge:
  5. (1985). A critical look at the communicative approach (1).
  6. (1996). A Framework for the implementation of task-based instruction.
  7. (1995). A Guide for the teaching of second language listening. San Diego:
  8. (2006). A Preliminary research on textbook evaluation: How to make the Iranian secondary school’s English language textbooks communicative? Unpublished master's thesis,
  9. (1997). A Reconceptualisation of the research into university academics' conceptions of teaching.
  10. (1990). A Study of the attitudes, motives, and strategies of university foreign-language students in relation to authentic oral and written input.
  11. (1995). Academic listening: Research perspectives. Cambridge:
  12. (1985). Against dogma: A reply to Michael Swan.
  13. (2007). An alternative paradigm: From a communicative to a context-based approach.
  14. (1975). An introduction to curriculum research and development.
  15. (2001). An Introduction to foreign language learning and teaching.
  16. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  17. (1992). Approaches to pronunciation.
  18. (2006). Asking questions. In
  19. (1997). Assessing the effectiveness of monolingual, bilingual, and ''bilingualized'' dictionaries in the comprehension and production of new words.
  20. (1995). ATLAS 4: Learning-centred communication. student's book 2.
  21. (1981). Authentic listening activities.
  22. (2004). Authentic materials and cultural content in EFL classrooms.
  23. (2002). Authentic materials: An Overview. Retrieved 31/10/2006, from Karen's Linguistic Issues from http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/authenticmaterials.html
  24. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction.
  25. (1999). Beginning to write: Writing activities for elementary and intermediate learners. Cambridge:
  26. (2001). Beliefs about knowledge and the process of teaching and learning as a factor in adjusting to study in higher education.
  27. (2001). Building awareness and practical skills to facilitate crosscultural communication.
  28. (1992). Change and the curriculum.
  29. (1995). Choosing your coursebook.
  30. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development.
  31. (1983). Communicative competence: theory and classroom practice; texts and contexts in second language learning.
  32. (1997). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Texts and contexts in second language learning.
  33. (1992). Communicative grammar practice: Student's book. Cambridge:
  34. (1999). Communicative language teaching (CLT): Practical understanding.
  35. (2001). Communicative language teaching for the twenty-first century.
  36. (2000). Communicative language teaching in a multimedia language lab.
  37. (1988). Communicative language teaching in practice. London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
  38. (1993). Communicative language teaching: An Introduction and sample activities.
  39. (1981). Communicative language teaching. Cambridge:
  40. (1987). Communicative language teaching. Theory Into Practice,
  41. (1984). Communicative methodology in language teaching. Cambridge:
  42. (1982). Communicative syllabus design and methodology.
  43. (1978). Communicative syllabus design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Bibliography Page |
  44. (1985). Conducting educational needs assessment.
  45. (1972). Conducting educational research.
  46. (2004). Consulting pupils: What's in it for schools? London ;
  47. (1990). Contexts of competence: Social and cultural considerations in communicative language teaching.
  48. (1990). Conversational competence and social development. Cambridge:
  49. (1985). Conversational competence through role-play activities.
  50. (1999). Cultural mirrors materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In E. Hinkel (Eds.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 149-176). Cambridge:
  51. (1986). Culture bound: Bridging the cultural gap in language teaching. Cambridge:
  52. (1999). Culture in second language teaching and learning. Cambridge:
  53. (1990). Currents of change in English language teaching.
  54. (1975). Curriculum design. London: Croom Helm in association with the Open
  55. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge:
  56. (1979). Curriculum development: A Guide to practice. Columbus: Charles E.
  57. (1990). Curriculum in context. Basingstoke:
  58. (2000). Curriculum theory and practice. Retrieved October 30, 2008, from The Encyclopedia of informal education from www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm Spelleri,
  59. (1980). Curriculum: Design and development.
  60. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge:
  61. (2001). Developing communication skills. Cambridge:
  62. (1972). Developing curriculum: A Practical guide. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  63. (2003). Developing grammar in context: Intermediate with answers. Cambridge:
  64. (1981). Developing reading skills. Cambridge:
  65. (1988). Developing second-language skills: Theory and practice (3 rd ed.).
  66. (1994). Dictionary use while reading: The Effects on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students of different verbal abilities.
  67. (1997). Direct approaches in l2 instruction: A Turning point in communicative language teaching?
  68. (2003). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
  69. (2002). Effective ways to use authentic materials with ESL/EFL students.
  70. (1985). Elements of pronunciation. Cambridge:
  71. (1987). ELT textbooks and materials: Problems in evaluation and development.
  72. (1998). English and the discourse of colonialism.
  73. (1981). English language teaching in Kuwait. Teaching English Abroad Newsletter.
  74. (2005). ESL textbook evaluation checklist (no.
  75. (1984). Evaluating and selecting EFL teaching materials.
  76. (2004). Evaluating classroom teaching materials.
  77. (1988). Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials.
  78. (1991). Evaluating teachers' guides.
  79. (1978). Evaluation of foreign language textbooks: A simplified procedure. In
  80. (2000). Exploring grammar in context: Upper-intermediate and advanced. Cambridge:
  81. (1998). Exploring through writing: A Process approach to ESL composition (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  82. (2004). Extensive reading activities for teaching language. Cambridge:
  83. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge:
  84. (1997). Extensive reading: What is it? Why bother? The Language Teacher,
  85. (1970). Foreign language learning: A Psycholinguistic analysis of the issues.
  86. (1995). Foreign language phonology: Field independence, attitude, and the success of formal instruction in Spanish pronunciation.
  87. (2001). Foreign language textbook selection.
  88. (2002). Fostering and managing curriculum change and innovation.
  89. (2006). from http://www.cal.org/resources/Digest/digest_pdfs/0309peterson.pdf
  90. (1993). from PSG College of Technology from http://www.psgtech.edu/OPENSRC/index_files/IPR%20between%20S%2 0&%20T.ppt
  91. (1997). From Reader to Reading Teacher. Cambridge:
  92. (2004). From writing to composing (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  93. (2005). From writing to composing teacher's manual: An Introductory composition course for students of English (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  94. (1995). Getting started: Materials writers on materials writing. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
  95. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching.
  96. (1997). Graded and extensive reading - questions and answers.
  97. (1988). Grammar practice activities. Cambridge:
  98. (1967). Guided composition exercises.
  99. (2005). Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning.
  100. (1990). How authentic is the language in our classroom?
  101. (1928). How to make a curriculum.
  102. (1998). How To Teach English.
  103. (1999). How to teach grammar.
  104. (2000). How to teach pronunciation.
  105. (2005). How to teach speaking.
  106. (2002). How to teach vocabulary:
  107. (2007). Impersonal relationship between teachers & students.
  108. (1989). Improving speaking fluency.
  109. (1994). Inauthentic authenticity or authentic inauthenticity?
  110. (1999). Innovation and best practice.
  111. (1985). Input and interaction in the communicative language classroom: A Comparison of teacher-fronted and group activities.
  112. (1994). Integrating language and content: Lessons from immersion (no.
  113. (1987). Integrating methods and materials: Developing trainees' reading skills.
  114. (1977). Interference and intervention in language learning.
  115. (2004). Interpersonal relationship between teachers and students: An Intercultural study on Chinese and Australian universities.
  116. (2002). Interpreting communicative language teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education. New Haven:
  117. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data.
  118. (2005). Interviewing as qualitative research: A Guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (2nd ed.).
  119. (1999). Interviewing for social scientists.
  120. (1994). Introducing Listening.
  121. (2002). Is communicative language teaching a thing of the past?
  122. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know.
  123. (1979). Language learning through communication practice.
  124. (1999). Language teaching: New insights for the language teacher. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
  125. (2006). Language, culture, and society. Cambridge:
  126. (2000). Languages, cultures and cultures of learning in the global classroom. In
  127. (1996). Learner-centredness as language education. Cambridge:
  128. (1988). Learner-centredness: Views of Canadian distance education educators. Unpublished manuscript. Institute for Studies in Education.
  129. (1998). Learner's perspectives on authenticity.
  130. (1994). Learning foreign languages from authentic texts: Theory and practice.
  131. (2003). Learning in the field: An Introduction to qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
  132. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge:
  133. (1985). Learning words from context.
  134. (1978). Linguistics and Language (2 nd ed.):
  135. (1990). Listening to spoken
  136. (1992). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics.
  137. (1975). Loss and change.
  138. (2003). Making communicative language teaching happen. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies.
  139. (1999). Making the textbook more communicative. Retrieved 6th
  140. (2006). Materials development and research - making the connection.
  141. (1998). Materials development in language teaching.
  142. (2002). Materials evaluation and design for language teaching.
  143. (1988). Materials for language learning and teaching. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
  144. (2002). Methodology in language teaching. New York:
  145. (1989). Models, standards, targets/goals and norms in pronunciation teaching.
  146. (1994). Motivation in foreign and second language learning: An Interactive perspective.
  147. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom.
  148. (1996). National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project.
  149. (1990). National syllabus and textbook design on communicative principles – English every day.
  150. (1991). Negotiation: negotiating what?
  151. (1995). New ways in teaching grammar.
  152. (1995). New ways in teaching listening.
  153. (1994). New ways in teaching vocabulary.
  154. (2006). Observational research. In
  155. (1971). On Communicative competence.
  156. (1997). Organizing for learning: A New imperative.
  157. (1998). Partnership with pupils,
  158. (2003). Popular culture, methods, and context.
  159. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on
  160. (2003). Practical English language teaching.
  161. (2001). Practical research: Planning and design (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
  162. (2002). Practical understandings of CLT and teacher development.
  163. (2001). Practical word power: Dictionary-based in pronunciation and vocabulary development.
  164. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4
  165. (1993). Producing teaching materials (2 nd ed.).
  166. (1989). Projects for the EFL classroom: Resource material for teachers. Walton-on-Thames Surrey,
  167. (1995). Pronunciation, pedagogy, and theory: New views, new directions.
  168. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
  169. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education (2nd ed.).
  170. (1998). Qualitative research for education: An Introduction to theory and methods.
  171. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. London; New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  172. (1993). Reading in the real world and its correlates.
  173. (2001). Reading, writing & learning in ESL: A Resource book for K-12 teachers.
  174. (2000). Remembering the future: Compiling knowledge of another culture.
  175. (2004). Retrieved 07-12-2008, from Santalka from http://www.coactivity.vgtu.lt/upload/filosof_zurn/a_liuoliene_metiuniene_ filologija_nr2.pdf Lynch,
  176. (2007). Retrieved August 31, 2008, from Science applications international corporation from http://www.fas.org/irp/dni/osc/irantext.pdf Iranian textbooks content and context.
  177. (1987). Roles of teachers and learners.
  178. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. In
  179. (2006). Second language learning motivation.
  180. (2005). Second language listening: Theory and practice. Cambridge:
  181. (1993). Second language reading and vocabulary learning.
  182. (2005). Second language teacher education: International perspectives. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  183. (1990). Second language teacher education.
  184. (1998). Second language teaching and learning.
  185. (1997). Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge:
  186. (1996). Second language vocabulary learning: The Role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency.
  187. (1990). Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom. Cambridge:
  188. (2004). Second language writing. Cambridge:
  189. (2005). Second thoughts on teaching listening.
  190. (1979). Selecting and evaluating textbooks.
  191. (2006). Ship or Sheep? (3 rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Bibliography Page | 283
  192. (1979). Social-psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In
  193. (1980). Some first impressions of EFL teaching in china.
  194. (1990). Speaking clearly. Cambridge:
  195. (2004). Strategies for successful writing (7 th ed.). Englewood Cliffs,
  196. (1984). Structuring the information gap.
  197. (2004). Study reading: A Course in reading skills for academic purposes (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  198. (2004). Study speaking (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  199. (1994). Success communicating in English:
  200. (2005). Successful teaching placement. Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd.Bibliography Page |
  201. (1971). Survey methods in social investigation.
  202. (1988). Syllabus design.
  203. (1981). Task listening. Cambridge:
  204. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching.
  205. (2004). Task-based language teaching.
  206. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence.
  207. (2003). Teaching and learning a second language: A Review of recent research.
  208. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom.
  209. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary.
  210. (2001). Teaching by principles: An Interactive approach to language pedagogy (2 nd ed.).
  211. (1994). Teaching conversational skills intensively: Course content and rationale.
  212. (1994). Teaching English as a second language: A Resource guide.
  213. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.).
  214. (1987). Teaching English pronunciation.
  215. (1993). Teaching ESL writing.
  216. (1981). Teaching foreign-language skills (2 nd ed.).
  217. (1985). Teaching in further education. An Outline of principles and practice (3rd ed.).
  218. (1978). Teaching language as communication.
  219. (2001). Teaching language in context (3rd ed.).
  220. (1984). Teaching listening comprehension. Cambridge:
  221. (2005). Teaching practice: A handbook for teachers in training.
  222. (1995). Teaching pronunciation through voice quality.
  223. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: A Reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge:
  224. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language (2nd ed.).
  225. (1984). Teaching talk: Strategies for production and assessment. Cambridge:
  226. (1983). Teaching the spoken language. Cambridge:
  227. (2005). Teaching vocabulary.
  228. (1979). Teaching writing skills.
  229. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford:
  230. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching.
  231. (2003). Testing for language teachers (2 nd ed.). Cambridge:
  232. (2005). Textbook Evaluation and ELT management: A South Korean case study.
  233. (1994). Textbook illustrations: A Cross-cultural study and its implications for teachers of language minority students.
  234. (2002). Textbook selection for the ESL classroom.
  235. (1997). The art and science of portraiture.
  236. (2006). The Attitude to ‘the other’ and to peace in Iranian school books and teacher’s guides. Retrieved
  237. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge:
  238. (1979). The Communicative approach to language teaching. Oxford:
  239. (1997). The Communicative value of intonation in English. Cambridge:
  240. (1997). The Curriculum experiment: Meeting the challenge of social change.
  241. (1989). The Curriculum: A Comparative perspective.
  242. (1971). The Curriculum: Context, design and development, readings. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd (for) the Open
  243. (1918). The Curriculum.
  244. (1992). The Effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on ESL reading comprehension.
  245. (2002). The ELT curriculum: A Flexible model for a changing world. In
  246. (1997). The Empirical evaluation of language teaching materials.
  247. (2003). The end of CLT: A Context approach to language teaching.
  248. (1980). The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language teaching.
  249. (1983). The Functional-notional approach: From theory to practice.
  250. (2003). The Good research guide: For small-scale research projects (2nd ed.). Buckingham:
  251. (2007). The Good research guide: For small-scale research projects (3rd ed.).
  252. (1994). The House of TESEP and the communicative approach: The Special needs of state English language education.
  253. (1993). The Integration of language, literature, and culture: Goals and curricular design.
  254. (1997). The Language learning benefits of extensive reading.
  255. (1990). The Language teaching matrix. Cambridge:
  256. (1988). The Learner-centred curriculum. Cambridge:
  257. (2001). The New meaning of educational change (3rd ed.).
  258. (1966). The Organisation of linguistic performance. In
  259. (1993). The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. Canadian Modern Language Review,
  260. (2004). The Place of culture in the Iranian ELT textbooks in high school level. Paper presented at the 9th Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics Conference,
  261. (1991). The Plausible myth of learner-centredness: or the importance of doing ordinary things well.
  262. (1994). The Postmethod condition: (E)merging strategies for second/foreign language teaching.
  263. (2004). The Power of reading: Insights from the research (2nd ed.).
  264. (2001). The Practice of English language teaching (3rd ed.).
  265. (1991). The practice of English language teaching.
  266. (1992). The Pronunciation book. London: Longman.Bibliography Page |
  267. (2000). The relationship between culture and language.
  268. (1985). The role of group work in classroom second language acquisition.
  269. (1976). The Role of vocabulary teaching.
  270. (1994). The Study of second language acquisition.
  271. (1995). The Survey research handbook: Guidelines and strategies for conducting a survey (2nd ed.).
  272. (1992). The Tapestry of language learning: The Individual in the communicative classroom.
  273. (2002). The Teacher's role in supporting a learner-centred learning environment: voices from a group of part-time postgraduate students in Hong Kong.
  274. (1994). The Textbook as agent of changes.
  275. (1992). The Textbook: Bridge or wall?
  276. (2006). The Use of authentic materials in the teaching of reading.
  277. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language testing and teaching.
  278. (1987). Theories of second-language learning.
  279. (1990). There is no best method - why?
  280. (1992). Three approaches to task-based syllabus design.
  281. (1994). Transactional instruction of comprehension strategies: The Montgomery County, Maryland, SAIL program. Reading And Writing Quarterly,
  282. (1994). Transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies.
  283. (1983). Understanding values, TEIL and the third world.
  284. (2003). Using authentic video in the language classroom. Cambridge:
  285. (1979). Using intonation.
  286. (2000). Using students as researchers in educational research: Beyond silenced voices, unpublished discussion paper for the Students Completing Schooling Project,
  287. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge:
  288. (2006). Validity and reliability in educational research. Handout presented at a Foundation Research Methodology (FRM) seminar at the University of Warwick,
  289. (1986). Video and language comprehension.
  290. (1990). Video in action: Recipes for using video in language teaching.
  291. (1992). Vocabulary and applied linguistics.
  292. (1988). Vocabulary and language teaching.
  293. (2004). Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing.
  294. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching.
  295. (1995). Vocabulary, semantics and language education. Cambridge:
  296. (1998). Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy. Cambridge:
  297. (1991). What does research say about reading? Oak Brook: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.Bibliography Page | 294 Kramsch,
  298. (1982). What is communicative?
  299. (1982). Why use textbooks?
  300. (1996). Writing for advanced learners of English. Cambridge:
  301. (1989). Writing matters: Writing skills and strategies for students of English. Cambridge:
  302. (1992). Writing one's way into reading.
  303. (1983). Writing skills: Student's book. Cambridge:

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.