Aims Bindarit is an original compound with peculiar anti-inflammatory activity due to a selective inhibition\ud of a subfamily of inflammatory chemokines, including the monocyte chemotactic proteins MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7, and MCP-2/CCL8. In this study, we investigated the effect of bindarit on neointima formation using two animal models of arterial injury: rat carotid artery balloon angioplasty and wireinduced carotid injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE2/2) mice.\ud Methods and results Treatment of rats with bindarit (200 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced balloon injury-induced neointima formation by 39% at day 14 without affecting re-endothelialization and reduced the number of medial and neointimal proliferating cells at day 7 by 54 and 30%, respectively. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of MCP-1 levels both in sera and in injured carotid arteries of rats treated with bindarit. In addition, in vitro data showed that bindarit (10–\ud 300 mM) reduced rat vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and invasion, processes\ud contributing to the injury-induced neointima formation in vivo. Similar results were observed in hypercholesterolaemic apoE2/2 mice in which bindarit administration resulted in a 42% reduction of the number of proliferating cells at day 7 after carotid injury and in a 47% inhibition of neointima formation at day 28. Analysis of the cellular composition in neointimal lesions of apoE2/2 mice treated with bindarit showed that the relative content of macrophages and the number of VSMCs\ud were reduced by 66 and 30%, respectively, compared with the control group.\ud Conclusion This study demonstrates that bindarit is effective in reducing neointima formation in both\ud non-hyperlipidaemic and hyperlipidaemic animal models of vascular injury by a direct effect on VSMC proliferation and migration and by reducing neointimal macrophage content. All of these data were associated with the inhibition of MCP-1 production
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