An automated closed-loop insulin delivery system based on subcutaneous glucose sensing and subcutaneous insulin delivery was evaluated in 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes (2 men, 8 women, mean [SD] age 43.4 11.4 years, duration of diabetes 18.2 13.5 years). Closed-loop con-trol was assessed over 30 h and compared with open-loop control assessed over 3 days. Closed-loop insulin delivery was calculated using a model of the -cell’s multiphasic insulin response to glucose. Plasma glucose was 160 66 mg/dl at the start of closed loop and was thereafter reduced to 71 19 by 1:00 P.M. (preprandial lunch). Fasting glucose the subsequent morning on closed loop was not different from target (124 25 vs. 120 mg/dl, respectively; P> 0.05). Mean glucose levels were not different between the ope
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