is available at the end of the articleIntroduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from humans and most veterinary and laboratory animal spe-cies, including horses [1,2]. In horses, MSCs have primar-ily been isolated and characterized from adipose tissue (AT), bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood, and um-bilical cord tissue . The ideal MSC dose for any medical application has not been determined. Autologous and allogeneic doses of 10 to 80 × 106 equine MSCs are cur-rently used in clinical applications for tissue regeneration and repair as well as immunomodulation [3,4]. Allogeneic MSCs offer considerable advantages over autologous MSCs as they do not require patient-specific tissue harvest, they are available for immediate applica-tion, and cell batches can be well characterized, provid-ing a consistent source of multiple cell doses . In addition to MSC tissue source, the route of MSC admin-istration is an important consideration for therapeutic applications. Equine autologous and allogeneic MSCs have been safely administered by regional and local in
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