This study investigated the antibacterial activity of the plant alkaloid tomatidine (TO) against Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since the P. aeruginosa exoproduct 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) is known to cause a respiratory deficiency in S. aureus and respiratory-deficient S. aureus are known to be hypersensitive to TO, we assessed kill kinetics of TO (8g/ml) against S. aureus in coculture with P. aeruginosa. Kill kinetics were also assessed using P. aeruginosamutants deficient in the production of different exoproducts and quorum sensing-related compounds. After 24 h in coculture, TO increased the killing of S. aureus by 3.4 log10 CFU/ml in comparison to that observed in a coculture without TO. The effect of TO was abolished when S. aureus was in coculture with the lasR rhlR, pqsA, pqsL, or lasAmutant of P. aeruginosa. The bactericidal effect of TO against S. aureus in coculture with the pqsLmutant was restored by supplemental HQNO. In an S. aureusmonoculture, the combination of HQNO and TOwas bacteriostatic, indicating that the pqsLmutant produced an addi-tional factor required for the bactericidal effect. The bactericidal activity of TO was also observed against a tobramycin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in coculture with P. aeruginosa, and the addition of tobramycin significantly suppressed the growth of both microorganisms. TO shows a strong bactericidal effect against S. aureus when cocultured with P. aeruginosa
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