African trypanosomes escape the host adaptive immune response by switching their dense protective coat of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG). Each cell expresses only one VSG gene at a time from a telomeric expression site (ES). The [`]pre-genomic' era saw the identification of the range of pathways involving VSG recombination in the context of mono-telomeric VSG transcription. A prominent feature of the early post-genomic era is the description of the molecular machineries involved in these processes. We describe the factors and sequences recently linked to mutually exclusive transcription and VSG recombination, and how these act in the control of the key virulence mechanism of antigenic variatio
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