Since its inception in 1996, the CO2 injection operation at Sleipner has been monitored by four repeat 3D seismic surveys. Striking time-lapse seismic images of the CO2 plume have been obtained, but some aspects of reservoir structure and properties remain imperfectly understood. The topmost layer of the CO2 plume can be most accurately characterized, its rate of growth quantified, and CO2 flux at the reservoir top estimated. The latter has been quite stable since 2001, which suggests that transport through intra-reservoir mudstones is via a limited number of discrete pathways that became established quite early in plume evolution. This important constraint on reservoir performance can help calibrate longer-term predictive models of plume evolution
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