Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Streaming potential measurements 1. Properties of the electrical double layer from crushed rock samples

By Benoit Lorne, Frédéric Perrier and Jean-Philippe Avouac

Abstract

The ξ potential has been inferred from streaming potential measurements with crushed rock samples as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration for various salts. The value obtained for crushed Fontainebleau sandstone at pH = 5.7 and a KCl solution with a resistivity of 400 Ω m is −40 ± 5 mV, where the error is dominated by sample to sample variations. The sensitivity of the ξ potential to the electrolyte resistivity for KCl is given experimentally by ρ_f^(0.23±0.014) where ρ_f is the electrolyte resistivity. The point of zero charge (pzc) is observed for pH = 2.5 ± 0.1, and the ξ potential is positive for pH < pzc and negative for pH > pzc. For pH > 5 the variations of the ξ potential with pH can be approximated by ξ(pH)/ξ(5.7) = 1 + (0.068 ± 0.004)(pH - 5.7) for ρ_f = 100 Ω m. The ξ potential has been observed to be sensitive to the valence of the ions and is approximately reduced by the charge of the cation, unless specific adsorption takes place like in the case of Al^3+. The experimental results are well accounted for by a three-layer numerical model of the electrical double layer, and the parameters of this model can be evaluated from the experimental data. The sensitivity of the ξ potential to the rock minerals has also been studied. The ξ potential obtained for granitic rocks is comparable to that obtained for Fontainebleau sandstone but can be reduced by a factor of 2–4 for sandstones containing significant fractions of carbonates or clay. To take into account the effect of the chemical composition of the electrolyte, a chemical efficiency is defined as the ratio of the ξ potential to the ξ potential measured for KCl. This chemical efficiency is measured to be ∼80% for typical groundwater but can be as low as 40% for a water with a high dissolved carbonate content. The set of empirical laws derived from our measurements can be used to assess the magnitude of the streaming potentials expected in natural geophysical systems

Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Year: 1999
OAI identifier: oai:authors.library.caltech.edu:33956
Provided by: Caltech Authors

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1964). A laboratory study of streaming potentials, doi
  2. (1995). A large self-potential anomaly on Unzen volcano, doi
  3. (1973). A new streaming potential apparatus and study of temperature effects using it, doi
  4. (1997). A one-year systematic study of electrodes for long period measurement of the electric field in geophysical environments, doi
  5. (1992). A study of anomalous underground electric field variations associated with a volcanic eruption, doi
  6. (1972). Aftershocks caused by fluid flow, doi
  7. (1994). Anomalies de polarisation spontane´e et syste`mes convectifs sur le volcan du Piton de la Fournaise (Ile de la
  8. (1994). Anomalies de polarisation spontane´e et syste`mes convectifs sur le volcan du Piton de la Fournaise (Ile de la Re´union,
  9. (1994). Cartography and temporal observation of self-potential (SP) anomalies at Piton de la Fournaise,
  10. (1960). Colloid Science, edited by doi
  11. (1998). Commissariat a` l’E´nergie Atomique, Laboratoire de De´tection et de Ge´ophysique,
  12. (1998). Commissariat a` l’E´nergie Atomique, Laboratoire de De´tection et de Ge´ophysique, BP12, F-91680 Bruye`res-le-Chaˆtel,
  13. (1991). Complex conductivity measurements and fractal nature of porosity, doi
  14. (1992). Creep, compaction and the weak rheology of major faults, doi
  15. (1973). Earthquake prediction: A physical basis, doi
  16. (1997). Electric potential changes associated with slip failure of granite: Preseismic and coseismic signals, doi
  17. (1998). Electric potential variations associated with lake level variations, doi
  18. (1999). Electric potential variations associated with periodic spring discharge in western doi
  19. (1980). Electrochemical Methods, Fundamentals and Applications, doi
  20. (1991). Electrokinetic dissipation induced by seismic waves, doi
  21. (1976). Electrokinetic phenomena associated with earthquakes, doi
  22. (1964). Electrokinetic potentials, in The Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry,
  23. (1993). Electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes in the ULF band: A review of observations and mechanisms, doi
  24. (1997). Electrostatic characterisation of Almodified, nanosized silica particles, Colloids Surf.
  25. (1981). Experimental and theoretical basis of electrokinetic phenomena in rock-water systems and its applications to geophysics, doi
  26. Experimental and theoretical basis of self-potential phenomena in volcanic areas with reference to results obtained on Mount Etna (Sicily), Earth Planet. doi
  27. (1990). Friction, overpressure and fault normal compression, doi
  28. (1993). Geometry of flow paths for fluid transport in rocks, doi
  29. (1969). Geophysical studies of water leakages from reservoirs, doi
  30. (1994). Governing equations for the coupled electromagnetics and acoustics of porous media, doi
  31. (1992). Hydrochemical budgets of a small forested granitic catchment exposed to acid deposition: The Strengbach catchment case study (Vosges massif, doi
  32. (1992). Hydrochemical budgets of a small forested granitic catchment exposed to acid deposition: The Strengbach catchment case study (Vosges massif, France), doi
  33. (1993). Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain, doi
  34. (1988). Ionic radii in aqueous solutions, doi
  35. (1994). Ionic surface conductivity in sandstone, doi
  36. (1997). Laboratory measurements anomalous 0.1–0.5 Hz streaming potential under geochemical changes: Implications for electrotelluric precursors to earthquakes, doi
  37. (1992). Le Moue¨l, Electrical signals generated by stress variations in porous non saturated rocks,
  38. (1989). Le Moue¨l, Electrical signals generated by the collapse of the pillars of a gypsum quarry,
  39. (1996). Le Moue¨l, On a possible mechanism of sandstone alteration: Evidence from electric potential measurements,
  40. (1990). Le Moue¨l, Possible electrokinetic origin of large magnetic variations at La Fournaise Volcanoe, doi
  41. (1988). Le Moue¨l, Volcanomagnetic effects observed on Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Re´union Island): 1985–1987, doi
  42. (1995). Magnetic and electric fields associated with changes in high pore pressure in fault zones: Applications to the Loma Prieta ULF emissions, doi
  43. Mapping and surveillance of active fissure zones on a volcano by the self-potential method, doi
  44. (1994). Modeling of streaming potential responses caused by oil well pumping, doi
  45. (1970). Natural potential anomalies as a quantitative index of the rate of seepage from water reservoirs, doi
  46. (1995). Parkfield seismicity: doi
  47. (1995). Permeability dependence of streaming potential in rocks for various fluid conductivities, doi
  48. (1992). Plausibility of long distance electrotelluric precursors to earthquakes, doi
  49. (1995). Precursory chemical changes in ground water: doi
  50. (1995). Precursory chemical changes in ground water: Kobe earthquake, doi
  51. (1999). Radon emanation and electric potential variations associated with transient deformation in the vicinity of reservoir lakes,
  52. (1973). Resistivity, self-potential, and induced-polarization surveys of a vapordominated geothermal system, doi
  53. (1993). Self potential generated by two-phase flow in a porous medium: Experimental study and volcanological applications, doi
  54. (1998). Self-potential and magnetic surveying of La Fournaise volcano (Re´union Island): Correlations with faulting, fluid circulation, and eruption, doi
  55. (1986). Self-potential variations with time and their relation to hydrogeologic and meteorological parameters, doi
  56. (1997). Springwater chloride ion anomaly prior to an doi
  57. (1995). Streaming potential and permeability of saturated sandstones under triaxial stress: Consequences for electrotelluric anomalies prior to earthquakes, doi
  58. (1994). Streaming potential from multiphase flow, doi
  59. (1989). Streaming potential properties of Westerly granite with applications, doi
  60. (1978). Surface ionization and complexation at the oxide/water interface, doi
  61. (1979). The Chemistry of Silica, doi
  62. (1979). The self-potential method in geothermal exploration, doi
  63. (1972). The study of streaming potentials on fissured media models, doi
  64. (1997). Theory of ionic-surface electrical conduction in porous media, doi
  65. (1981). Transient streaming potential measurements on fluidsaturated porous structures: An experimental verification of Biot’s slow wave in the quasi-static limit, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.