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Confidentiality as a group norm and its concomitant effect on self-disclosures by participants in personal growth groups

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Abstract

Graduation date: 1986Confidentiality as a group norm and how it affected self-disclosures\ud in personal growth groups were compared between control and\ud treated groups. The sample consisted of 53 students enrolled in a\ud graduate level group counseling course. The students were randomly\ud assigned to six groups: three control and three experimental groups.\ud Each group had two facilitators. The groups all met in the same\ud place, at the same time and observed the same protocols. The process\ud group model was followed.\ud This study had four hypotheses and three main objectives: first,\ud to determine what effect establishing confidentiality as a norm had\ud on a participant's self-disclosures, second, to determine if the\ud group members believed that the norm of confidentiality would be\ud breached by either the group facilitators or the group members; and,\ud finally, to examine the attitudes and opinions of control and treated\ud group members towards the belief that confidentiality as a group norm\ud would promote more self-disclosures in personal growth groups.\ud The qualitative and quantative data revealed that confidentiality\ud as a norm did not produce significantly greater self-disclosures.\ud Group members generally believed that confidentiality among members\ud would be observed and members had a high belief that their group\ud facilitators would not violate their stated ethical standards. There\ud was no significant difference between control and treated groups in\ud their belief that confidentiality as a norm was important for self-disclosures\ud to occur

Year: 1986
OAI identifier: oai:ir.library.oregonstate.edu:1957/38153
Provided by: ScholarsArchive@OSU

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  1. a group member will discuss some personal things that were discussed in this SA group.
  2. (1979). An Eclectic Approach to Small Group Facilitation.
  3. Approximately (number) group members self-disclosed.
  4. At least (number) self-disclosures were "deep" for this group considering the number of times we've met.
  5. Being able to self-disclose in a confidential atmosphere is important to me.
  6. C.D Things They Don't Know Things I Know Things I Don't Know ARENA Qir v
  7. Confidentiality as a group norm was established/re-established.
  8. Confidentiality is an important issue for me as I won't reveal important, personal SA things about myself unless I am sure they won't be repeated.
  9. Confidentiality is an important norm to enable me to self-disclose.
  10. Confidentiality was a stated issue in this group.
  11. Confidentiality was an unstated issue in this group.
  12. Confidentiality was never discussed in my group except by my group leader.
  13. Confidentiality was observed by all group members.
  14. (1982). Counselor: Code of Ethics.
  15. Group member(s) stated that they had discussed the group and/or its members outside of the group setting. Yes No
  16. Group members stated or inferred that they believed that they were discussed outside of the group setting. Yes No
  17. How may self-disclosing remarks did you hear? (number)
  18. I am sure that some of my group's members will discuss some personal things that
  19. I am sure that some of my group's members will discuss some personal things that happened in this group.
  20. I believe people when they tell me they will keep a confidence.
  21. I believe that my group leader (s) will not personally identify anyone in this group to others outside the group.
  22. I believe that my group leader (s) will not violate the ethical standards stated in the beginning of the group.
  23. I believe that my group leader(s) will not personally identify anyone in this group to others outside the group.
  24. I believe that our norm of confidentiality will not be violated.
  25. I believe that the group leader (s) will only discuss the group's process and not the content to others.
  26. I believe that the group leader(s) will only discuss the group's process and not the content SA to others.
  27. I believe that what we do in this group will not be repeated to others.
  28. I believed that what I said would be kept confidential so I revealed things about myself SA soon after we started.
  29. I believed that what I said would be kept confidential so I revealed things about myself soon after we started.
  30. I didn't discuss anything personal about myself.
  31. I didn't self-disclose because I didn't think the group members could keep my secrets.
  32. I didn't self-disclose in this group.
  33. I didn't share many personal things about myself as I don't trust all the group members not to repeat them outside of the group.
  34. I didn't share what I was thinking or feeling.
  35. I discussed my private thoughts and feelings far more than I do with casual acquaintances.
  36. I discussed something personal about a group member outside the group setting.
  37. I don't believe that confidentiality is important for people to disclose personal SA things about themselves.
  38. I don't believe that group members revealed much about themselves.
  39. I feel confident that group members won't discuss me outside of the group.
  40. I frequently expressed my feelings in my group.
  41. I heard a group member talk about our group outside the group setting with
  42. I heard the group leader discuss a group member by name outside the group setting.
  43. I learned much about myself because I thought that what I said wouldn't be repeated outside of the SA A N D SD group. 3 I believe that my group leader(s) will not violate the ethical standards stated in the beginning
  44. I or my co-facilitator initiated a discussion of establishing confidentiality as a group norm. Yes No
  45. I or my co-facilitator read The Ethical Standards for Group Leaders Statement. Yes No
  46. I revealed many things about myself.
  47. I said things about myself in this group that I've only shared with very close friends or family.
  48. I said things about myself in this group that I've shared only with very close friends or family.
  49. I seldom self-disclose unless I believe that what I tell will be kept confidential.
  50. I self-disclosed only because I believed that what I said would remain confidential.
  51. I think more members of my group would have self-disclosed if they had believed that SA what they revealed would remain confidential.
  52. I thought that no-one would talk about me outside the group so I revealed important aspects about myself.
  53. I thought that no-one would talk about me outside the group so I revealed important SA aspects about myself.
  54. I trust my group leader(s) not to disclose anything about me to anyone outside the group.
  55. I was discreet about what I chose to discuss about the group to others outside the group.
  56. I was never certain that what I said in the group would remain confidential so
  57. I was sure that what I said would not be discussed outside of the group so I disclosed many personal things about myself.
  58. I was sure that what I said would not be discussed outside of the group so I disclosed SA many personal things about myself.
  59. I won't talk about what happened in this group outside the group meetings.
  60. I would be naive if I believed that our group leaders won't disclose some of the personal
  61. I would be naive if I believed that our group leaders won't disclose some of the personal SA things that happened in my group.
  62. I would behave differently in my group if I thought that what I said would not be repeated
  63. I would have self-disclosed had I believed that this group wouldn't repeat what I said outside of the group.
  64. If group members discuss what happened in this group, I am certain that they will not use SA names or identify the members in any way.
  65. If I believed that confidentiality was a group norm, I would have self-disclosed more often.
  66. If I believed that confidentiality was a group norm, I would self-disclose more often.
  67. If self-disclosure is to occur in a group, confidentiality must be a group norm.
  68. If yes to the above, this disclosure took place minutes after the group started.
  69. If yes, length of time this discussion lasted
  70. If yes, the first self-disclosure occurred minutes after the group started.
  71. If yes, this discussion took minutes.
  72. In my opinion members in the group self-disclosed.
  73. It made no difference to me if what I said in the group is discussed outside of the SA group meeting.
  74. It makes no difference to me if what I said in the group is discussed outside of the group meeting.
  75. It seemed to me that people shared their thoughts and feelings very soon after we met as a group.
  76. Keeping personal information secret about group members is important to me.
  77. Many group members revealed very personal things about themselves.
  78. Members of the group self-disclosed.
  79. Members of this group are not likely to keep a secret.
  80. My group leader (s) will not be able to keep his/her ethical standards of confidentiality.
  81. My group leader clearly stated ethical standards concerning leader responsibilities SA towards my group.
  82. My group leader clearly stated ethical standards concerning leader responsibilities towards my group.
  83. My group leader(s) will not be able to keep his/her ethical standards of confidentiality.
  84. No-one questioned this ethical standards statement.
  85. opinion, at least (number) of self-disclosures were "deep" for a group at this stage in development.
  86. opinion, group members self-disclosed because they believed that what they said SA would remain confidential.
  87. People can't keep secrets even though they may promise otherwise.
  88. people promise not to reveal a secret, they usually do.
  89. Revealing deep personal thoughts and feelings can't happen unless group members believe that SA everything said will be kept secret.
  90. Self-disclosure can't happen unless people believe that everything said will be kept SA secret.
  91. The group discussed confidentiality.
  92. The group initiated a discussion about confidentiality. Yes No
  93. This discussion lasted minutes.
  94. This discussion took place minutes after the group started.
  95. Total self-disclosures during entire session.
  96. We didn't discuss confidentiality but it didn't matter to me as I self-disclosed anyway.
  97. We never decided to have confidentiality as a group norm.
  98. (1972). What To Look for in Groups. In
  99. Without some discussion of confidentiality, self-disclosure is not likely to happen.

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