To the best of our knowledge, one or more authors of this paper were federal employees when contributing to this work.\ud This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by BioMed Central Ltd and can be found at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/.Background: Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress\ud responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP) genes, fructosyltransferase (FST) genes, and\ud many C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here\ud we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better\ud understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses.\ud Results: Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium\ud specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4\ud homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae\ud FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared\ud to core Pooideae species.\ud Conclusions: We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms\ud involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes\ud involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These\ud differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species
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