Graduation date: 1985Material failures in heat exchangers are often\ud closely tied to events associated with the conditions\ud of service and operating parameters. These events can\ud generally be attributed to adverse load application and\ud higher than optimum operating temperatures that could\ud lead to changes in the microstructure of the materials\ud and fatigue failure of the component. However, fatigue\ud failure in heat exchangers is usually associated with\ud the presence of a biaxial stress condition. Two nonparallel\ud forces create a two-dimensional stress field\ud at the free surface of the structural element where\ud the process and mechanism of fatigue failure normally\ud initiate.\ud An experimental investigation was conduct6d to\ud evaluate the biaxial fatigue behavior of commercially\ud pure titanium Ti-50A (Grade 2) and low-alloy titanium\ud Ti-Code 12 (Grade 12) heat exchanger materials. The\ud biaxial state of stress was composed of an axial stress\ud and a superimposed torsional stress, applied in a thin-wall\ud tubular specimen machined from titanium tubing.\ud Torsional stress was applied independently using a torsion\ud machine and a torque fixer assembly devised as part of\ud this study. After applying the desired torsion, the\ud torsionally stressed specimen was mounted on a closed-loop\ud electrohydraulic machine for the application of\ud axial cyclic loading. A minimum of four tests were\ud conducted for each of three alternating stress levels at\ud both high and low torsional stresses. The biaxial\ud fatigue test under load control condition was done under\ud fully reversed cycles equivalent to a biaxiality ratio\ud of -1. These test parameters were determined from an\ud analytical formulation based on Mohr's circle.\ud The results are presented in terms of the various\ud measured or calculated quantities versus number of cycles\ud to fracture. Biaxial fatigue curves were drawn through the\ud experimental points corresponding to Weibull's mean life\ud criterion. The four data points exhibit scatter that\ud appears to be related to the applied stress amplitude. It\ud was also found that a correlation exists between the magnitude\ud of applied cyclic biaxial stress and fatigue life to\ud failure. In addition, the results have been discussed\ud taking existing failure criteria into account
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