A recent study1 showed that action video-game playing modified the visual selective attention of the habitual players. Here we showed that processing of Chinese characters became more phonologically or orthographically oriented depending on whether the participants used to type with the phonology-based or orthography-based word-entry method. One striking difference between human and non-human species is while non-humans live in a more or less natural environment, humans live in the artifactual environment we create. If survival requires adaptation to the environment, humans are adapting to a very different environment than non-humans. How do the artifacts we create affect our brain and our cognition? Scientists in various fields have begun to answer this question. For example, Green and Bavelier1 showed that action video-game playing modified the visual selective attention of the habitual players. Bruce Lahn and colleagues2, 3 showed that the genes regulating and determining the brain size in human
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