This product is part of the School of Travel Industry Management (TIM) Occasional Paper Series. TIM Occasional Papers are intended to share researchers ’ latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. These papers are circulated by the School of TIM, but do not go through a formal editing or peer review process. Unless otherwise indicated, occasional papers can be quoted and cited without permission of the author, provided the source is fully cited and clearly referred to as an occasional paper. Copyright is retained by the author(s) of the occasional paper.