The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the first international treaty dealing with trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs)3, was adopted in January 2000 and entered into force in September 2003. As it stands, the agreement is not fully operational. Many contentious issues were unresolved in the final round of the biosafety negotiations, including rules on identification of GMOs in trade, capacity building for developing countries, compliance and enforcement mechanisms as well as rules on liability. These and other issues were left to be addressed by successive meetings of the parties over the next few years. At the first such meeting, held in early 2004 amid growing controversy over GMO trade, the parties took important steps towards implementation of the protocol. This profile briefly reviews the outcomes of the First Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) serving as the Meeting of the Parties (MOP) to the Cartagen
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