Using a dynamically scaled robotic wing, we studied the aerodynamic torque generation of flapping wings during roll, pitch, and yaw rotations of the stroke plane. The total torque generated by a wing pair with symmetrical motions was previously known as flapping counter-torques (FCTs). For all three types of rotation, stroke-averaged FCTs act opposite to the directions of rotation and are collinear with the rotational axes. Experimental results indicate that the magnitude of FCTs is linearly dependent on both the flapping frequency and the angular velocity. We also compared the results with predictions by a mathematical model based on quasi-steady analyses, where we show that FCTs can be described through consideration of the asymmetries of wing velocity and the effective angle of attack caused by each type of rotation. Fo
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.