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    731 research outputs found

    Can Microbial Consortium Applications Affect Yield and Quality of Conventionally Managed Processing Tomato?

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    Three commercial microbial-based biostimulants containing fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizae and Trichoderma spp.) and other microrganisms (plant growth-promoting bacteria and yeasts) were applied on a processing tomato crop in a two-year field experiment in southern Italy. The effects of the growing season and the microorganism-based treatments on the yield, technological traits and functional quality of the tomato fruits were assessed. The year of cultivation affected yield (with a lower fruit weight, higher marketable to total yield ratio and higher percentage of total defective fruits in 2020) and technological components (higher dry matter, titratable acidity, total soluble solids content in 2020). During the first year of the trial, the consortia-based treatments enhanced the soluble solids content (+10.02%) compared to the untreated tomato plants. The sucrose and lycopene content were affected both by the microbial treatments and the growing season (greater values found in 2021 with respect to 2020). The year factor also significantly affected the metabolite content, except for tyrosine, essential (EAA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Over the two years of the field trial, FID-consortium enhanced the content of proteins (+53.71%), alanine (+16.55%), aspartic acid (+31.13%), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (+76.51%), glutamine (+55.17%), glycine (+28.13%), monoethanolamine (MEA) (+19.57%), total amino acids (TAA) (+33.55), EAA (+32.56%) and BCAAs (+45.10%) compared to the control. Our findings highlighted the valuable effect of the FID microbial inoculant in boosting several primary metabolites (proteins and amino acids) in the fruits of the processing tomato crop grown under southern Italian environmental conditions, although no effect on the yield and its components was appreciated

    Core microbiome and bacterial diversity of the Italian Mediterranean river buffalo milk

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    Milk is one of the most nutritionally complete foods and plays an important role in the human diet. Buffalo milk represents 15% of worldwide milk production and is an important source of bioactive compounds. Buffalo milk has a great market in the Mediterranean area, and dairy products, such as Mozzarella and Ricotta di Bufala Campana, obtained with the Italian Mediterranean buffalo milk, are acknowledged with the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). This study aimed to characterize, using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the milk core microbiome of water buffalo rises in the Amaseno Valley included in the Mozzarella PDO region. The principal features of the core and the auxiliary buffalo milk microbiome are the predominance of Firmicutes and Lactococcus, one of the most important lactic acid bacteria (LAB) taxa in the dairy industry. The comparative analysis of the core microbiomes indicated that the milk of the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo and other mammals share the presence of Streptococcus-affiliated OTUs (operational taxonomic units). Our data also demonstrated that the core microbiome of milk samples collected from PDO and non-PDO regions differ in the number and type of taxa. KEY POINTS: • Buffalo milk and their derivate products are becoming more popular worldwide. • Dairy locations and practice management affect the structure of the milk microbiota. • Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis allows to identify the features of the Italian Buffalo milk microbiome.6n

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a tool for studying thermal properties of a crude cellulase cocktail

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    Abstract: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as an efficient and rapid tool in studying the conformational transitions between the folded and unfolded structures of cellulolytic enzymes. The thermal properties of two crude hydrolytic enzyme cocktails containing extracellular cellulases from Trichoderma longibrachiatum DIBAF-10 were analyzed and compared with three commercial cellulase preparations. Differences in the thermal behavior of fungal cellulases in the liquid phase, freeze-dried state, liquid formulations in sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.8), and contact with cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and cellobiose were evaluated. DSC profiles of cellulases from the DIBAF-10 strain provided important thermodynamic information about the thermal stability of the included proteins. Crude enzyme cocktails underwent a reproducible and irreversible exothermic aggregation phenomenon at 52.45 ± 0.90 °C like commercial β-glucosidase. Freeze-dried and resuspended in a sodium citrate buffer, cellulases from T. longibrachiatum showed an endothermic peak dependent on buffer and enzyme concentration. In the enzyme-substrates systems, a shift of the same peak was recorded for all substrates tested. The thermal analysis of freeze-dried cellulase samples in the range of 20–150 °C gave information on the denaturation process. In conclusion, we demonstrated that DSC is a cost-effective tool for obtaining "conformational fingerprinting" of crude fungal cellulase preparations. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].6n

    Pyramiding of Four Broad Spectrum Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes in Cross Breeds of Basmati Rice

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    Pyramiding of major resistance (R) genes through marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a useful way to attain durable and broad-spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathogen, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The present study was designed to pyramid four broad spectrum BB-R genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13 and Xa21) in the background of Basmati-385, an indica rice cultivar with much sought-after qualitative and quantitative grain traits. The cultivar, however, is susceptible to BB and was therefore, crossed with IRBB59 which possesses R genes xa5, xa13 and Xa21, to attain broad and durable resistance. A total of 19 F1 plants were obtained, some of which were backcrossed with Basmati-385 and large number of BC1F1 plants were obtained. In BC1F2 generation, 31 phenotypically superior genotypes having morphological features of Basmati-385, were selected and advanced up to BC1F6 population. Sequence-tagged site (STS)-based MAS was carried out and phenotypic selection was made in each successive generation. In BC1F6 population, potentially homozygous recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from each line were selected and evaluated on the bases of STS evaluation and resistance to local Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates. Line 23 was found pyramided with all four BB-R genes i.e., Xa4, xa5, xa13 and Xa21. Five genotypes including line 8, line 16, line 21, line 27 and line 28 were identified as pyramided with three R genes, Xa4, xa5 and xa13. Pathological study showed that rice lines pyramided with quadruplet or triplet R genes showed the highest level of resistance compared to doublet or singlet R genes. Thus, line 23 with quadruplet, and lines 8, 16, 21, 27, and 28 with triplet R genes, are recommended for replicated yield and resistance trials before release as new rice varieties. Further, traditional breeding coupled with MAS, is a solid way to attain highly effective BB-resistant rice lines with no yield cost.11s

    Treatment of High-Polyphenol-Content Waters Using Biotechnological Approaches: The Latest Update

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    Polyphenols and their intermediate metabolites are natural compounds that are spread worldwide. Polyphenols are antioxidant agents beneficial for human health, but exposure to some of these compounds can be harmful to humans and the environment. A number of industries produce and discharge polyphenols in water effluents. These emissions pose serious environmental issues, causing the pollution of surface or groundwater (which are used to provide drinking water) or harming wildlife in the receiving ecosystems. The treatment of high-polyphenol-content waters is mandatory for many industries. Nowadays, biotechnological approaches are gaining relevance for their low footprint, high efficiency, low cost, and versatility in pollutant removal. Biotreatments exploit the diversity of microbial metabolisms in relation to the different characteristics of the polluted water, modifying the design and the operational conditions of the technologies. Microbial metabolic features have been used for full or partial polyphenol degradation since several decades ago. Nowadays, the comprehensive use of biotreatments combined with physical-chemical treatments has enhanced the removal rates to provide safe and high-quality effluents. In this review, the evolution of the biotechnological processes for treating high-polyphenol-content water is described. A particular emphasis is given to providing a general concept, indicating which bioprocess might be adopted considering the water composition and the economic/environmental requirements. The use of effective technologies for environmental phenol removal could help in reducing/avoiding the detrimental effects of these chemicals. In addition, some of them could be employed for the recovery of beneficial ones.6s

    The customer’s preference in light cannabis: an Italian perspective

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    Nowadays, the light hemp is promoted by different stakeholders and the customer’s preference due to the different use of crop products. The aim of this chapter was to discuss the Italian perspectives concerning the utilization of light hemp connected to customer’s preferences. It is discussed the sustainability of hemp crop to produce wellness products in Italy. It is applied as a cost model based on empirical data from hemp farmers. Customers’ preferences on light cannabis wellness products are analyzed through an online survey in Italy and other six European countries. A general misunderstanding about the differences between psychoactive hemp and nonpsychoactive hemp (light cannabis) makes the demand unstable. Light hemp business in Italy is new and there are a few studies that help entrepreneurs in assessing the attractiveness of certain investment analyzing the demand for such a product. Demand for CBD-based products indicates interest, but customers’ confusion highlights a lack of regulation and transparency about CBD-cannabis.4n

    Individuale e collettivo. Introduzione alle teorie sociologiche.

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    La storia del pensiero sociologico può essere letta in base alla contrapposizione tra una concezione evoluzionistica e una concezione costruttivistica dell’ordine sociale, ovvero tra chi ritiene che siano gli individui, interagendo tra di loro, a dar luogo, nella maggior parte dei casi inintenzionalmente, a istituzioni e strutture collettive (società, stato, mercato, ecc.) e chi ritiene invece che il “tutto” sia indipendente dalle parti e determini i comportamenti dei singoli. Questo volume presenta brevi “bozzetti” relativi alle principali scuole di sociologia il cui contributo è rielaborato con la chiave di lettura unitaria (e prioritaria) del confronto tra individualismo e collettivismo metodologico.2n

    Abrasive fluidized bed finishing of additive manufactured cobalt-chrome parts: effects on surface morphology and fatigue behavior

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    The possibility of processing cobalt-chrome parts by additive manufacturing opens the way to the production of complex net-shaped parts able to withstand high loads and at the same time resist the corrosive environment or thermal loads. However, the surface morphology typical of additive manufactured parts could be detrimental to the fatigue life, and finishing operations become necessary. In this paper, the adoption of abrasive fluidized bed (AFB) processing as a finishing solution is explored, and the effect of the main process parameters, namely the abrasive type, treatment time, and rotational speed, on morphological features and fatigue life is investigated. Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge profilometry showed an improvement in sample finishing due to the AFB process. The advantages in surface properties were related to an increase in fatigue life. The experimental results show that AFB has a beneficial effect both on the finishing and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured components; a smoother surface was obtained, and the crack initiation during fatigue tests was retarded.n

    Alberto Maria De Agostini nella letteratura di viaggio italiana

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    Il saggio analizza tre romanzi italiani pubblicati tra il 2011 e il 2019 in cui il padre Alberto Maria De Agostini è considerato autorevole compagno di viaggio, una guida (non solo spirituale) per affrontare il lungo cammino verso le estreme propaggini della Terra del Fuoco.n


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