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    The inner craniodental anatomy of the Papio specimen U.W. 88-886 from the Early Pleistocene site of Malapa, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Cercopithecoids represent an essential component of the Plio-Pleistocene faunal assemblage. However, despite the abundance of the cercopithecoid fossil remains in African Plio-Pleistocene deposits, the chronological and geographic contexts from which the modern baboons (i.e. Papio hamadryas ssp.) emerged are still debated. The recently discovered Papio (hamadryas) angusticeps specimen (U.W. 88-886) from the Australopithecus sediba-bearing site of Malapa, Gauteng, South Africa, may represent the first modern baboon occurrence in the fossil record. Given the implication of U.W. 88-886 for the understanding of the papionin evolutionary history and the potential of internal craniodental structures for exploring evolutionary trends in fossil monkey taxa, we use X-ray microtomography to investigate the inner craniodental anatomy of this critical specimen. Our goal is to provide additional evidence to examine the origins of modern baboons. In particular,we explore (i) the tissue proportions and the dentine topographic distribution in dental roots and (ii) the endocranial organization. Consistent with the previous description and metrical analyses of its external cranial morphology, U.W. 88-886 shares internal craniodental anatomy similarities with Plio-Pleistocene and modern Papio, supporting its attribution to Papio (hamadryas) angusticeps. Interestingly, average dentine thickness and distribution in U.W. 88-886 fit more closely to the extinct Papio condition, while the sulcal pattern and relative dentine thickness are more like the extant Papio states. Besides providing additional evidence for characterizing South African fossil papionins, our study sheds new light on the polarity of inner craniodental features in the papionin lineage.Palaeontological Scientific Trust (PAST) Occitanie Region and the French Ministry of Higher Education and ResearchJNC201

    Hominin tracks in southern Africa: a review and an approach to identification

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    Three Late Pleistocene hominin tracksites have been reported from coastal aelioanites in South Africa. Two have been dated to 124 ka and 117 ka , and the third is inferred to be 90 ka. There are no other globally reported sites for probable Homo sapiens tracks older than 46 ka. Given this documented record, a search for further hominin tracksites in southern Africa may well yield additional positive results. However, this is a field that demands scientific rigour, as false positive tracksites (pseudotracks) may occur. Criteria have been developed for the identification of fossil vertebrate tracks and hominin tracks, but these are specific neither to southern Africa nor to aeolianites.An important caveat is that the tracks of shod humans would not fulfil these criteria. Preservation of tracks varies with facies and is known to be suboptimal in aeolianites. An analysis of the tracks from the three documented South African sites, along with pseudotracks and tracks of questionable provenance, allows for the proposal and development of guidelines for fossil hominin track identification that are of specific relevance to southern Africa. Such guidelines have broader implications for understanding the constraints that track preservation and substrate have on identifying diagnostic morphological features.Palaeontological Scientific Trust (PAST)JNC201

    A new genus of Protasteridae (Ophiuridea) from the Lower Devonian Bokkeveld Group of South Africa

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    Gamiroaster tempestatis, a new genus and species of Palaeozoic ophiuroid, is described from four specimens identified in the Lower DevonianVoorstehoek Formation (Ceres Subgroup, Bokkeveld Group) of SouthAfrica. This ophiuroid belongs the family Protaseridae, a Middle–Late Ordovician taxon that continued into the late Palaeozoic. This new ophiuroid forms part of a much wider fauna of the Malvinokaffric Realm, a biogeographical termused to denote the cool- to cold-water, high-latitude endemic, benthic marine, Devonian faunas of southwestern Gondwana, which also includes the invertebrate fossil assemblages of the Argentine Precordillera and the Fox Bay Formation of the Falkland Islands. The specimens were collected from an obrution deposit excavated on Karbonaatjies farm, ~145 km northeast of Cape Town in theWestern Cape. The excavated rock samples contain >700 articulated specimens of Gamiroaster tempestatis that are closely associated with two types of less common mitrate stylophorans. Silicone casts and high-resolution three-dimensional digital models obtained via micro-CT scanning of these mould fossils provided detailed morphological proxies for this taxonomic description.DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, Palaeosciences (CoE-Pal)JNC201

    Survey and interviews from A responsive e-learning system for the challenges facing health sciences education

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    Data Description The data presented is from a survey that investigated the usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) for eLearning amongst the 2017 medical student population at Wits. Methods The methodology was a descriptive, cross-sectional, online and paper-based survey. It was distributed to a convenience sample of medical students at Wits. The survey was generated using REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) software. The target population was stratified by points in the curriculum in which there is a change due to the teaching and learning methodology being used or the addition of new students into the class. 1 First year (entry year; n=255) 2 Third year (when graduate entrants join the school leavers in the Graduate Entry Medical Programme (GEMP); n=350) 3 Sixth year (final year; n=319) medical students. Process A pilot study with 19 student volunteers was conducted starting in May 2017. Volunteers were recruited by students from MBBCh 5. Following the pilot study, the questionnaire was edited to reduce the length, enhance clarity and to ensure readability across a range of devices. The final survey consisted of seven sections: 1. information and consent (1 question), 2. demographic data (4 questions), 3. year of study (2 questions), 4. device ownership and 5. usage to support learning (12 questions), 6. access to and reliability of the internet connection (5 questions), 7. usage of the learning management system (2 questions), 8. BYOD (6 questions). In Section 4, students were also asked to place themselves on a 100-point scale bound by opposite terms designed to measure their attitude and disposition and attitude to technology as developed and validated in the ECAR study. Lower numbers indicate certain characteristics about disposition to use technology (reluctant user, late adopter, critic, technophobe) and attitudes towards technology usage (useless, burdensome, distraction), while higher numbers indicate more positive dispositions (enthusiast, supporter, early adopter, technophile) and attitudes (useful, beneficial, enhancement) towards ICT.NL201

    Towards an integrative framework of leadership development in the South African banking industry

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    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)The thesis is a qualitative, multi-site case study of leadership development within the South African retail banking sector. It responds to the call for qualitative research to explore and give voice to the South African and other developing contexts within the predominantly Western-centric literature. It poses questions on the day-to-day organisational and lived realities of leadership and its development within this context. It is an enquiry of the forms and realities of aligning, designing and integrating leadership development, which leads to deliberation on the possibility of integrative frameworks. This follows from the thesis drawing together the reviews of the state of leadership and leadership development and how the thematic of alignment and integration is approached therein and within the human resource, management and organisational literature. Through this it develops an argument that the mainstream assumptions and programme-based approach to leadership development, including the remedial attempts to address this, do not provide the space to theoretically and empirically attend to, and engage with, the realities, complexities, contingencies and contestations at the individual, team, organisational, sector, national and global levels. The thesis explores this within the South African retail banking sector. This is done through qualitative interviews on, and thematic analysis of, the various mandates, purposes, funding and ways of configuring and managing leadership development within the banks’ Leadership Development Centres and the Banking Sector Education and Training Authority’s (BankSeta) International Executive Development Programme (IEDP) which is hosted at a local Business School. The thesis explores how leadership development is formalised, shaped, configured and managed as a function, purpose, programme and developmental process within the above sites, and how these are navigated, negotiated, enacted and embodied over time by the various stakeholders. It draws out the thematic of layered journeys; that is, the evolving and ongoing organisational, programmatic, pedagogic, personal and individualised journeys within the banks, BankSeta and the Business School. The journeys illustrate how leadership development evolves, opens up and differentiates over time at the different sites and levels as well as foregrounds the realities, complexities, contingencies and contestations therein. Through these journeys one appreciates the varied forms, perspectives, basis, sites, agency and spaces for designing and integrating leadership development and how these evolve, including how the standardisation, tailoring and customisation evolves. The deliberate, emergent, contingent and relational nature of designing and integrating, and the journey’s thematic, point to the limits of the mainstream assumptions and programme-based approach to leadership development. The thesis suggests a critical theoretical stance as an alternative as it provides space to critically attend to, engage with, and undertake the journey, task and process of aligning, designing, integrating and managing leadership development. It proposes ways to locate this task and process within the integrative theoretical models of leadership and the fields of instructional design, curriculum design and design of artefacts as well as the literature on the evolving human resources function, the identity work therein, and on space and place. It then suggests an organising model that can serve both as a guide for developing an open, modular platform and an analytical framework. In this way, the thesis contributes to the question and task of integrative frameworks of leadership development. Keywords: context, post-Apartheid, banking, leadership, leadership development, alignment, design, customisation, integration, pedagogy, journey, programme, function, centre, modular, platformGR201

    Mongoose Manor: Herpestidae remains from the Early Pleistocene Cooper’s D locality in the Cradle of Humankind, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Mongooses (Herpestidae) are an important component of African ecosystems, and a common constituent of southern African fossil assemblages. Despite this, mongoose fossils from the Cradle of Humankind, Gauteng, South Africa, have received relatively little interest. This paper presents the diverse mongoose craniodental assemblage from the early Pleistocene fossil locality Cooper’s D. A total of 29 mongoose specimens from five genera were identified at Cooper’s, including numerous first appearances in the Cradle or in South Africa. The exceptional mongoose assemblage at Cooper’s likely reflects the effects of an unknown taphonomic process, although mongooses follow other carnivore groups in the Cradle in displaying an apparent preference for the southern part of the Cradle. This investigation shows the value of mongooses as palaeoecological indicators and supports previous interpretations of the environment at Cooper’s as grassland with a strong woody component near a permanent water source.Palaeontological Scientific Trust (PAST); DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, Palaeosciences (CoE-Pal); the South African National Research Foundation; and the University of the Witwatersrand Postgraduate Merit Award.JNC201

    Histological evidence of trauma in tusks of southern African dicynodonts

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    Dicynodonts were a clade of globally-distributed therapsids known for their abundance in the fossil record and for surviving the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. The group had distinctive dental adaptations including a beak and, in many species, paired maxillary tusks. The function of these tusks has long been of interest, yet remains poorly understood.We report here on two instances of unusual morphology in tusk dentine from specimens of: 1) Lystrosaurus from the Karoo Basin of South Africa and, 2) an unidentified dicynodontoid from the Luangwa Basin of Zambia. In both, the cross-sectional shape of the tusk root is lobed and infolded, which histological features suggest is a result of abnormal dentine deposition. We infer that this abnormal morphology is likely the consequence of trauma given its reparative nature and structural similarities to trauma-related morphologies reported in the tusks of modern elephants. This study demonstrates that histological sampling of dicynodont tusks can shed light on the biology of this important clade of therapsids.National Geographic Exploration Grant NGS-158R-18 National Science Foundation PLR-1341304 National Science Foundation DEB-1701383 Palaeontological Scientific TrustJNC201

    Dataset : metadata extration tables of femacide reported in News Media

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    The dataset covers 2012 to 2013 of publically searchable databases usingSouth Africa has a femicide rate that is six times the world average. Over 2,500 women aged 14 years or older are murdered every year, the majority of these women killed by an intimate partner. Despite the prevalence of femicide, less than 20% of these murders are ever reported in South African news media. Studies on news-media coverage of femicide reveal a subjective and obscure process of media selection and exclusion, which contribute to an archive of crime reporting that is not reflective of actual crime rates and which actively distort the nature and frequency of certain types of crime. This influences public perceptions and fear of violent crime, including notions of who is a suspect and who is most at risk. This study uses mixed-method approaches to document and analyse the content and extent of commercial news media coverage of femicides that took place in South Africa during the 2012/2013 crime reporting year, through an original media database listing 408 femicide victims associated with 5,778 press articles. Victim and incident information is compared with epidemiological and statistical data, including mortuary-based studies and police crime statistics. Media data is explored through various media effects models, including a mixedmethods framing analysis, and is also examined by title, and by language. These analyses reveal how media constructs and depicts particular notions of gender, violence, race, and crime in South Africa.Governing Intimacies projectninA201

    Cameroon's Agrarian Political Economy: Impact of the state's free market Agrarian system reforms on coffee cooperatives' activities and market orientation.

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    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Humanities, School of Social Sciences (Development Studies Programme), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, 2018.Cameroon’s modern economy developed around a satellite-metropolis plantation dynamic within which successive European colonial masters and later, African-led governments, promoted monocrop commodity production along coastal areas for the benefit of Europe. The federating organisations employed to structure production were a combination of plantations, agriculture development zones and especially cooperatives. The period of government-controlled cooperatives was characterised by a too-big-to-fail approach; the State intervened directly in cooperatives’ affairs and managed their cashflow through the National Produce Marketing Board. Following a structural adjustment plan in the 1990s, the Cameroon State divested its interest in cooperatives and transitioned the agrarian system into a borderless, global market within a neoliberal competition state dynamic. This study investigated the impact of the Cameroonian State’s post-structural adjustment neoliberal agrarian system reforms on coffee cooperatives’ activities and market orientation. This was done through the prism of the two biggest coffee cooperatives in Cameroon, i.e. the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives of the West (UCCAO) and the North West Cooperative Association (NWCA). The study employed an interpretivist approach, and the extended case methodology was used to gather data. Data gathering instruments included interviews, questionnaires, participant observation, archival material and photos. Respondents were top managers of both cooperatives plus forty coffee growers. The study revealed three key findings. Firstly, the Cameroon State’s support to coffee cooperatives in the free market era is characterised by a preponderance of disparate programmes which appear to be done more for optics rather than actually providing the robust support that is needed to help producer organisations succeed. Some development experts (Chang, 2001; Gereffi, 1995; Stiglitz, 2008) are unanimous that in underdeveloped countries with threadbare infrastructure, the state has a key role to play in providing the infrastructure, communications networks, access to finance and other support necessary to develop efficient value chains that can take commodities to world markets on a consistent and reliable basis. Secondly, Cameroon’s coffee Cooperatives have made only timid and insufficient efforts to adjust to the deeply globalised free market context into which they were suddenly ushered in the 1990s after a half a century of operating as quasi parastatals. Their market orientation shows a business-as-usual approach which is ultimately self-defeating as it stops them from leveraging the opportunities offered by free market globalism. Thirdly, conclusive data from around the world reveals that the more successful modern-day cooperatives are those ones that locate themselves in parallel cooperative market economies based on solidarity, democracy and cooperation among cooperatives rather than in traditional capitalistic value chains (Wright, 2011). It is this pathway that Cameroonian cooperatives need to follow if they wish to succeed in the age of globalism.MC201

    A South African NGO engaged in Physical and Sensory Disabilities: A Case Study of the paradigms of Charity and Social Justice.

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    A research project submitted to: The School of Social Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand In partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts in February 2018This study explores how a South African non-governmental organisation engaged in service provision to people with physical and sensory Disabilities makes sense of its position within the differing paradigms of charity and social justice. The lives of disabled people are at the hands of service providers who intervene on their behalf. Acts of goodwill by non-governmental organisations are often not the result of the dominant and exclusionary medical model of disability that oppresses and marginalises disabled people. These acts of goodwill by organisations are often co-opted by dominant positions of power that valorize the non-disabled at the expense of disabled people occupying non-dominant positions. South Africa is amongst the countries that struggle with issues of social justice and often, but not all the time, organisations representing disabled people are accused of promoting dependency on their services rather than pursuing social change/development. Using a case study as a qualitative inquiry method, the researcher sought to establish evidence of how this organisation makes sense of its position between the differing paradigms of charity and social justice. The research sample constituted of ten participants; four were beneficiaries at the organisation (two males who identify as deaf and two females who identify themselves as disabled with Cerebral Palsy; four Social Workers; the CEO and a Job Placement Officer). These participants enabled the researcher to understand the process of sensemaking holistically. An interpretive technique, in the form of semi-structured interviews, was used for data collection as well as a professional interpreter for participants using Sign Language. Finally, thematic analysis was used to develop themes and an Atlas.ti software for coding and data capturing. The findings of the research indicate that the organisation uses both the charity and social justice paradigm, but that the charity paradigm is more prevalent than the social justice paradigm. The participants argued that to practice social justice is very costly and as a result, the organisation tends to do more charitable work rather than pursue social justice issues.E.R. 201

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