UniCA Eprints

    Lesioni degenerative e meccanismi di riparo della superficie oculare: lo pterigio e le deficienze delle cellule staminali del limbo (LSCD). Studio immunoistochimico e tecniche di coltura cellulare

    Get PDF
    Pterygium is a surface ocular lesion that is associated with chronic UV exposure, characterized by proliferation, inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. The Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE or ACE I) is the major component of the Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) converting the inactive decapeptide Angiotensin I (Ang I) to the active octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II). Besides this “classical role”, it can act as transcriptional regulator in response to external stimuli that may lead to cell damage and tissue remodeling. Due to this role, it can be internalized into the nuclear compartment to act as transcriptional factor for proteins involved in the inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to determine ACE expression and localization in pterygium and culture pterygium cells by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated nuclear immunolocalization of ACE in pterygium compared to normal conjunctival in histological sections. ACE was not detected in the nuclei of subcultivated pterygium epithelial cells. The nuclear localization of ACE may be correlated with an anti-inflammatory path mediated by activation of its transcriptional role. The human ocular surface is characterized by a continuous non-keratinized epithelium providing the eye with its first line of defense against infection and trauma. Corneal epithelial integrity and transparency are maintained by the stem cells (SCs) that reside in the limbus. However, when the limbus is extensively damaged, stem cell activity is compromised, resulting in a condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This disease is characterized by corneal neovascularization, conjunctival epithelial ingrowth, chronic inflammation which impair vision. The aim of this study was to reconstruct in vitro organ culture models of human hemi-corneas (epithelium+stroma) on amniotic membrane, using primary keratocytes and limbal stem cells derived by human cornea. The results demonstrated that the complex represented by a well-differentiated epithelium taken together with a model resembling stroma, has developed on the surface of these hemi-corneas. Further investigation will be necessary to validate these models of hemi-corneas for pharmacotoxicology testing and therapeutic applications

    The use of Sardinian granite by-products from the Sarrabus Gerrei region to be used in road pavement layers

    Get PDF
    In Sardinia abandoned granite by-products stockpiles deriving from different excavation and processing methods are becoming an environmental and economic concern. Currently, these materials derive mainly from the ornamental quarry industry, very active in the region since late 1900’s, but also from civil engineering works consisting of tunnels, dams and other excavation projects. The storage of granite by-products in such great amount and for long periods produces damage to the environment, in terms of alterations of the landscape that can be temporary but in several cases permanent wen waste deposits become part of the landscape surrounding, subtracting large extensions of land to more important purposes such as agriculture. Also there is the visual and air pollution problem due to the suspension of fine particles in the air that these materials can produce when exposed for years to environmental climate conditions. The possibility of using of such materials that are already been extracted and that for them energy and therefore CO2 emissions has already been spent, would decrease the use of other natural aggregates that have yet to be excavated instead. Reducing the exploitation of non-renewable natural resources and limiting consumption of energy and CO2 emissions. In order to limit and in some cases solve some of these problems this thesis takes in to account the possibility of using granite by-products for road construction purposes. The possibility of using these materials, that in many cases are considered a waste, as a valid alternative to other aggregates that normally are used in pavement layers could decrease road construction costs. In this research granite by-products from the Sarrabus-Gerrei region were studied to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties to assess the possibility of using them to their fullest extent in both unbound and bound pavement layers. Three types of granite byproducts deriving from the same mother rock but subjected to different processes were studied. Two resulting from: Drill and Blast (D&B) and Tunnel Boring machine (TBM) excavation methods. The third material was obtained from the crushing of the larger blocks obtained during D&B excavation. The work reported herein describes test conducted in order to determine the best suitable application according to the type of layer in which use such material, evaluating the possible variations in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics that granite by-product performed when subjected to different processes. A preliminary characterization was conducted evaluating the environmental compatibility of such materials, based on Italian regulations on the use of excavated earth and rocks. The results of such tests were important to assess and determine the possible application in road pavement layers. Firstly, unbound layers were studied, analyzing aggregate properties and performing tests on different mixes. Particular attention was given on the bound layers were both hydraulic and bitumen binders were studied. Soil-cement mixes were prepared using different percentages of Portland cement performing different. Then Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) samples were analysed in order to evaluate the affinity between granite and bitumen. Difficulties were emerged using this type of aggregates in HMA layers due to adhesion problems between granite and bitumen. Stripping tests were performed and also attention was focused on the adhesion phenomena. In order to better understand such phenomena and evaluate and measure potential parameters, digital image processing was conducted. Good values for the unbound layer, in which granite by-products were tested, were measured. Furthermore, the use of such materials for cemented treated layers was evaluated obtaining as well good results

    Studies On Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors and Detector Performance for the Inner Tracking System Upgrade of ALICE

    Get PDF
    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), using Pb-Pb collisions at unprecedented energy densities. During the first three years of operation, it has demonstrated very good capabilities for measurements at high energy Pb-Pb collisions. But there are certain measurements like high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta, which would require high statistics and are not satisfactory or even possible with the current experimental setup. These measurements would help to achieve the long term physics goals of ALICE and would go a long way forward in understanding and characterizing the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). To enhance its physics capabilities, ALICE has formulated an upgrade of its detectors, motivated by an upgrade of the LHC during the LHC Long Shutdown 2 (2018-2020). The LHC upgrade features which primarily motivated the ALICE upgrade programme are, in particular, Pb-Pb collisions with a high interaction rate of up to 50 kHz corresponding to an instantaneous luminosity, L = 6 × 1027cm−2s−1 and, the installation of a narrower beam pipe. Accordingly, ALICE would require detector upgrades to cope with the upgrade scenario. These upgrades should help to improve tracking and vertexing capabilities, radiation hardness and allow readout of all interactions to accumulate enough statistics for the upgrade physics programme. The objective is to accumulate 10 nb−1 of Pb–Pb collisions, recording about 1011 interactions. Within this upgrade strategy, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade forms an important cornerstone, providing improved vertexing and readout capabilities. The new ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity which would cater to the material budget, readout and radiation hardness requirements for the upgrade. The geometry is optimized for high efficiency, both in standalone tracking and ITS-TPC combined tracking. TowerJazz 0.18 μm technology is selected for designing the pixels for ITS upgrade. This technology provides attractive features like the option to implement a deep pwell allowing the implementation of a full CMOS process in the pixel. The ongoing research and development on these pixels investigates different design strategies and would converge towards the final design of the detector by the end of 2014. Several prototypes have been designed to investigate and validate the different design strategies and the different components of the pixel detector using this technology. The work presented in this thesis can be categorized in two parts. The first part concerns the results of characterization of some of the pixel prototype circuits developed for the ITS upgrade, in particular MIMOSA32, MIMOSA32Ter and Explorer-1. The second part discusses the detector performance studies of the upgraded ITS. MIMOSA32 and MIMOSA32Ter were one of the first prototypes designed with the TowerJazz technology in the upgrade programme. The motivation was to validate the technology. This thesis includes the results of tests and characterization of pixel structures of these prototypes and qualifies the technology in terms of charge collection and radiation tolerance and the usage of the deep p-well structure. This provides a starting point for future prototypes where the deep p-well could be implemented in a full CMOS process, thus allowing in-pixel sophisticated signal processing circuits. The Explorer prototypes are developed at CERN with the main motivation towards developing a detector with low power density, lower than the maximum permissible limits for the upgrade programme. This would provide a margin to reduce the material budget of the detection layers, improving the detector performance. The Explorer prototypes are designed to study the ratio of the collected charge to the input capacitance (Q/C), in particular, its dependence on the size of the collection diode and its distance to the adjacent p-well of the input transistors. The Explorer prototypes allows the application of a back-bias voltage which has an effect on the signal collection properties. In a pixel detector, improvement of the Q/C ratio enhances the signal amplitude at the collection node of the pixel circuit which is connected to the analog frontend. This would help in optimizing the analog frontend to improve the signal to noise ratio of the detector, which has a direct consequence in minimizing the power consumption of the detector. This thesis includes the test and characterization of Explorer-1 prototype circuits with different starting materials. The results show that Q/C improves with higher back bias voltage and increased spacing between the collection electrode and the adjacent p-well. With these results, the future prototypes of Explorer could concentrate on Optimizing the size of the input transistors to study its effects on the Random Telegraph Signal noise. In parallel, optimization of the signal processing circuits would also be carried out in other prototypes. The second part of the thesis studies the performance of a baseline configuration of the upgraded detector in terms of impact parameter resolution, momentum resolution and tracking efficiency both in standalone tracking mode and ITS-TPC combined tracking. The performance is compared with the current ITS to study the improvements in the upgraded ITS. The performance is affected by the radial position and material budget of the layers and the detector intrinsic resolution. The detector specifications in this regard are still evolving specially for the Outer Barrel (the outermost four layers). The studies show the effects of variation of the specifications in terms of material budget and intrinsic resolution on the detector performance. This would help to finalize the detector specifications for an optimized detector performance. The thesis also concludes that a reduction in the beam pipe radius (lower than the baseline upgrade scenario) would not affect detector performance but may facilitate the installation of the Inner Barrel. Redundancy studies show that the presence of a dead layer can degrade the detector performance significantly. This defines a key requirement of easy and rapid accessibility to the detector in the design of the upgraded ITS. The ITS upgrade timeline foresees the finalization of the final pixel architecture in late 2014. Mass production of the final circuit is planned for 2015. The construction of the detector modules, tests, assembling and pre-commissioning will be carried out throughout 2016-2017 followed by the installation of the detector in the ALICE cavern in 2018

    Nematicidal, antimicrobial and acaricidal activity of plant secondary metabolites

    Get PDF
    Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this PhD thesis we report for the first time about the use of Ailanthus altissima, Capparis spinosa, Melia azedarach and Armoracia rusticana and their secondary metabolites such as α, β- and α, β, γ, δ- unsaturated aldehydes, isothiocyanates and polyphenols as potential nematicidal against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. We deal also about the possible mode of action of aromatic aldehydes by the inhibition of V-ATPase of the nematode. Second, we demostrate the antimicrobial activity of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) against Listeria monocytogenes. Leaves of the carob tree contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with antilisterial activity that may act by inhibiting the proline dehydrogenase. Finally, we report the acaricidal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oil and hydrolates and its fractions containing necrodane-type monoterpenes against larval stage of Hyalomma lusitanicum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Fisiologia e fisiopatologia della insufficienza venosa cerebrospinale: proposta di nuovi criteri diagnostici

    Get PDF
    Background: The physiological meccanisms thath influence the venous drainage of the extracranial venous system could be investigated by ecoDoppler sonography. The alterations of phsyological meccanism of extracranial venous drainage rappresents the physiopathological substract of CCSVI. Patients with SM have shown to have a higher prevalence of CCSVI. Objective: to study the physiology and physiopatology of the venous drainage trough the extracranial venous system using ecoDoppler sonography and to propose new criteria to define a condition of CCSVI Methods: Extracranial ECD were carried out in 126 enrolled subjects (63 healthy control and 63 subjects with multiple sclerosis matched by gender and age). Prevalence rates for CCSVI were calculated using Zamboni criteria and using two new criteria (Giugular Respiratory Index and Giugular Subclavian Index) based on physiology of extracranial venous drainage. Results: CCSVI prevalence using Zamboni criteria was 63% in SM and 44% in HC (P 0,03*), the prevalence using new criteria was 44% and 36% in SM ( respectively for GRI and GSI) and 9% and 3% in HC (P <0,0001 ****). Conclusions: our findings are consistent with an increased prevalence of CCSVI in MS with modest sensitivity and specificity using Zamboni criteria and with high specificity using new criteria (Giugular Respiratory Index a nd Giugular Subclavian Index). Our findings point against CCSVI having a primary causative role in the development of MS

    Le strategie versoliberistiche di Sergio Corazzini Studio del versoliberismo corazziniano in relazione all’orizzonte d’attesa metrico primo novecentesco

    Get PDF
    The PhD Thesis examines all work in Corazzini Sergio's free verse. Actually it is the first work which studies the whole free verse production of the Italian poet. The main originality is the methodology used for the analysis: the free verse is examined using an analytic system which are mix metric tools and reception theory. In this way the auctor overcomes the critic problems about free verse literature: actually there is not an unanimous definition of free verse. The work connects technical aspects with those sociological and literary, creating a perfect synergy between two methods: the theory of reception on the one hand, the analysis textual metric on the other. This method allows an objective identification of metric indexes through which to conduct the analysis. This system works about prosodic rules, metric canon laws, horizon of expectation and influences the relationships among poets, various prosodic theories and their relations with the metric system. Also it takes care about all historical, sociological, literary and technical aspects connecting with Corazzini’s free verse. For this reason the thesis firstly debates the fundamentals of a metric-formal examination. It centers on the concept and the contest of the free verse. Also it examines the Corazzini’s status in that time and his relationships with contemporary poets and with the tradition. This thesis recreates the literary contest of the free verse and the debate about it in the nineteenth and twentieth century. At the same time it can show the connection with this debate and Corazzini’s free verse. All free verse poems of Corazzini are studied in detail: each poem is observed through four different metric analysis system. The continuous dialogue between technical data and historical, literary and biographical arguments joins the text with the context of poetic schools and literary trends. The thesis contains four appendices showing the metric data of every composition. Also it contains graphs showing the evolution of the occurrence of free verse. The bibliography offers a section of the index of primary sources for the reconstruction of the literary context between 1876-1916

    Development of scientifically base management towards a sustainable fishery of the common sea urchin, Paracentrotus Lividus, in Sardinia

    Get PDF
    In recent years sea urchins have become a premium commodity in the world where both males and females of the species are harvested for their gonads, generally referred to as “roe” in the fishery and catering market. Fishing for sea urchins can be a very profitable business during the first 5 to 10 years operations on a new fishing ground. However, after that short period of time, wild populations decline due to the high efficiency and selectivity of the employed fishing techniques. In several countries fisheries declined considerably since their peaks and stocks are now likely to be over-exploited. Paracentrotus lividus is the main echinoid consumed in Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe. France is the world’s second largest consumer of sea urchin. In Italy, sea urchin fisheries occur in the South and the Islands. Recent studies suggest that the risk of collapse of the sea urchins stocks in Sardinia could be imminent, unless the fishery agencies take on immediate strategies for the species conservation. Considering such preconditions, the general aim of my PhD project have been to develop possible alternative strategies to improve the sustainability of current management practices for sea urchin fishery in Sardinia. In detail, the goal is to encourage a science-based management in order to avoid the collapse of this resource. This overarching objective has been achieved through: a) investigation the pre- and post-effects caused by fishing harvesting on spatial patterns, abundance fluctuations and total mortality rate; b) improvement of the knowledge of the effect of habitat on the ecology behaviour of the species; c) introduction of aquaculture as operational tool to improve wild stocks numbers via restocking and to provide viable alternatives to commercial fishery. The development and application of a geostatistical approach for determining the spatial distribution and resilience of P. lividus population were studied in a fishing ground of western Sardinia (Western Mediterranean). The framework proposed, combining field data collection, experimental modelling and mapping, was adequate for biomass estimation and assessment of sea urchin resource. The effect of different habitats was investigated on spine and gonad colouring and the gonad index in the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. Colorimetric analyses of spines and gonads were conducted by a digital colorimeter using CIELAB colour spaces, which defines the colour in terms of 3 coordinate values: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The results suggested that that habitat does affect spine colour but not gonad colour. Spine colour seems to be site dependent while the gonad index depends solely on the habitat. A land-based rearing system for sea urchins was set up in Sardinia to produce juveniles of P. lividus for restocking purposes and develop and test protocols on echiniculture. The results coming from the hatchery are promising, we obtained over 8,000 post-larvae for each of the 150 l tanks , that means at least 250,000 post-larvae will be cultured per year. In conclusion, my suggestion to guaranty the sustainability of the fishery in the future should be: 1) start a collaboratively consultative process between fishermen, researchers and policymakers to review and provide advice regarding the current management issues in order to propose a new management plan for the fishery; 2)develop a fishery-independent stock assessment in Sardinian seas; 3) develop a plan for the fishery-dependent monitoring in order to reduce/avoid the poaching and to provide appropriate data for assessment strategy; 4) testing the effectiveness of restocking by cultured juveniles in overfished areas; 5) increasing the profitability of sea urchin roe production by echiniculture, aimed to reducing harvesting pressure on wild stocks

    Dall’azione di annullamento all’azione di adempimento: il codice del processo amministrativo

    Get PDF
    The code of the administrative process represents the last stage of the long and constant evolution which has concerned the administrative justice during the twentieth century. The present study provides an overview of the historical factors that have influenced the change of the administrative judgement progressively oriented towards a full protection of citizens' interests against public powers. The issue analyzes the evolution of the Italian doctrine, which since the years 60’s had brought to urge the introduction of a legal instrument similar to the german verpflichtungsklage. In addition, the study highlights the comparison with the french law related to the recours pour excès de pouvoir. Particular attention is given to the decree n. 104/2010 including the code of the administrative process and especially the importance of the articles 30 and 34. The final part is an analysis of the code regulations related to the use of information technology in order to ensure judgements within a reasonable time and enhance efficiency of administrative justice

    Substrati artificiali per gli interventi di ripristino ambientale in aree contaminate da metalli pesanti

    Get PDF
    Mining activities can have a large local impact on the environment, in particular for the soils the problems are toxicity, high concentrations of heavy metals and low concentrations of nutrients and they are the cause of the difficulty in the development of plant species in these areas. In order to perform an environmental restoration, in these areas it is necessary to intervene on the ground by means of the substrates that are able to support the development of the vegetation (Tordoff et al., 2000). In mining areas it is necessary to intervene with the substrates to enhance growth of vegetation (Tordoff et al., 2000). In Sardinia, the mining activity has caused big changes of the territory with consequent problems of degradation and environmental impact. The problem of management of industrial structures and of the enormous amount of deposits of potentially polluting materials are created by the cessation of mining activities (Bacchetta et al., 2007). The purpose of this work is to study the development of methodologies, using a technical-scientific approach to use man-made substrates in environmental restoration in areas contaminated by heavy metals. This objective was pursued through the study of different man-made substrates, obtained by mixing different percentages of contaminated soil with dedicated substrates. The dedicated substrates were obtained by mixing different raw materials according to specific proportions. The considered disused mining area is that of Montevecchio, western Sardinia, in the area of Sulcis-Iglesias-Guspinese, identified as the site of reclamation of national interest (DM 468/01) and bounded by Decree of the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea of 12 March 2003 (Plan Reclamation of disused mining areas of Sulcis-Iglesias-Guspinese, 2008). The contaminated soil was collected from the tailings pond in the mine of Montevecchio. After an analysis of previous studies and a careful bibliographic search, it was decided to use like plant species: Artemisia arborescens L. (Fam. Asteraceae), a native plant and colonizing plant; the Nerium oleander, a perennial plant that can be sampled throughout the year and the Populus Nigra L. Italica, a fast-growing species with a percentage of rooting for vegetative reproduction of 65%. All individuals of the populations used in the experiment were obtained through the taking of clones from mother plants growned in the wild. Subsequently the selected plants were propagated by agamic reproduction, through cuttings. The cuttings were grown in the greenhouse in plateaux and after rooting, were transplanted into pots, previously filled with the man-made substrate. The clones were placed in the greenhouse, in conditions of controlled temperature and humidity and regularly irrigated by drip. Weekly have been verified the plant health condition and the growth of the aerial part by detecting heights of plants by measuring the distance between the plane of the edge of the pot and the apical part of the plant. For each man-made substrate it was determined the content of C, H and N, pH, CSC, EC, the content of heavy metals and nutrients. The efficiency of the substrates were determined by the development of the growth curves, obtained by the mean value of the parameter biometric height. By the comparison between the curves it was possible to measure the influence of the genetic variability on the growth of different clonal populations planted in the same substrate and the influence of different substrate on the same clonal population

    Caratterizzazione del clofibrato agonista sintetico dei recettori dei proliferatori dei perossisomi (PPARα)in modelli animali di depressione ed ansia

    Get PDF
    Depression is a severe mood disorder that affects a high percentage of the worldwide population. Unfortunately at least 40% of patients do not respond to the treatment. Therefore, considerable effort is invested in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for the pharmacotherapy of depression. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) are widely expressed in the brain and are activated by endogenous ligands like the fatty acid amides N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). Recent studies have been published on PPARα mediated behavioral effects, which suggests that PEA exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effect in mice (Crupi et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2011). However no studies have been evaluated antidepressant-like effect of synthetic PPARα agonists. Thus, the aim of our study was to characterize the pharmacological profile of synthetic PPARα agonists as clofibrate by motor activity test to evaluate possible motor impairments, the forced swim test (FST) for the antidepressant activity, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the social interaction test (SI) for anxiolytic like effects. The standard antidepressant drugs used in FST (fluoxetine 5mg/kg and amitriptyline 15 mg/kg, i.p) induced a significant increase of the duration of swimming respect to the vehicle-treated control group. Also the sub-chronic treatment with clofibrate (25 mg/kg, i.p) significantly increased swimming time and decreased immobility time in the FST with respect to vehicle-treated control group. We also investigated the possible contribution of PPARα and the endocannabinoid system on antidepressant-like effect induced by clofibrate, fluoxetine and amitriptyline. Acute administration of the specific PPARα antagonist MK886 (1 mg/kg, i.p) or the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A (1 mg/kg, i.p) did no antagonize the antidepressant-like effect induced by classical antidepressant drugs. In contrast the antidepressant-like affects of clofibrate were reverted by the acute administration of specific PPARα antagonist MK886 demonstrating an involvement of PPARα, while, the CB1r antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A, conversely MK886, did no antagonize the antidepressant-like effect of clofibrate, excluding a possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system. Interestingly, the co-administration of sub-effective dose of clofibrate (12.5 mg/kg, i.p) and fluoxetine (2 mg/kg, i.p) revealed an increase of swimming and decrease of immobility suggesting a possible interaction between the PPARα receptors and the serotoninergic system. No effect was observed when clofibrate was combined with amitriptyline. Clofibrate and PEA maintain an antidepressant effect also after 14 days of chronic treatment (25 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, i.p respectively) in the FST. Moreover, none of the PPARα agonists injected acutely, produced anxiolytic or anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EMP test, while an anxiogenic profile was observed after acute treatment in the SI test, with a reduction of the total time spent in social interactions but an unaltered numbers of contacts. No anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect was observable after chronic treatment with both clofibrate and PEA. In conclusion, these data show that clofibrate, synthetic PPARα ligand, produces antidepressant-like effect in animals, effect that is specifically mediated via PPARα-activation but that also hypothesizes an interaction with the serotoninergic system since it potentiates the fluoxetine behavioral action. PPARα agonists, that are still prescribed for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia, mixed dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, it deserve further characterization as a new candidate for the pharmacotherapy of depression
    UniCA Eprintsis based in IT
    Repository Dashboard
    Do you manage UniCA Eprints? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard!