Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional

    Democracy Deficit in China: A Choice or Foreordained

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    This paper attempts to analyze both internal and external determinants which influence the persistence of the democracy deficit in China, as Beijing successfully surpressed its people's demand for democrartic change and freedom. This paper also examines how the longevity of one-party regimes has simply made democracy such a forgettable discourse. Meanwhile, this paper argues three watersheds of undemocratized China. First, the historical precedence has shown that attempts of electoral democracy have not been successful in China. Second, there is an absence of constructive engagement toward China by external powers, such as the European Union and the United States (henceafter, "US"). Third, democracy lacks strong support from large sections of Chinese society. This paper also sees the another perspective of how the monopolized power of Chinese Communist Party (henceafter, "CCP") has been substituting the implementation of liberal democracy through the meritrocacy system and creatingthe dependencies of middle class to government

    An Indonesian Democracy: limits of a majoritarian democracy

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    Indonesia has continuously been praised as a successful post-authoritarian country transitioning to democracy. However, seeing the numerous human rights violations in the past decade alone especially towards alternative political, religious and sexual identities, the success of democracy in Indonesia has been put under the spotlight. This raises the question of the development of democracy and the use of democracy in Indonesia in practicing and upholding principles of social equality for all. In this article I wish to provide an overview of majoritarian democracy, a form of democracy that is understood and practiced in Indonesia. A form of democracy that rather than upholding values that safeguards individual rights and diversity, may in fact undermine religious and cultural diversity, enforcing a homogenized national culture and values, which in return may engender human rights violations in the name of national security that it in itself is defined by the majority

    The Evolution of ISIS In Indonesia With Regards to Its Social Media Strategy

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    AbstractISIS is a splinter terrorist group from Al-Qaeda that became a global threat in the last two decades. Its recruitment method that is different from its predecessor, also how it utilizes social media effectively, made them able to spread terror to every part of the world and conquer many territories of Iraq and Syria in order to fulfill their goal of a caliphate. However, recent development shows ISIS will lose their base of operation in both countries and there are signs of ISIS shifting their focus to Southeast Asia, with regards to the Marawi conquest. This paper aims to discuss how such development affects ISIS in Indonesia as the largest Muslim country in Southeast Asia and how the government responds to the situation. Keywords: isis; al-qaeda; social media; foreign fighters; indonesia. AbstrakISIS adalah kelompok teroris pecahan dari Al-Qaeda yang menjadi ancaman global dalam hampir dua dekade terakhir. Metode perekrutan anggota ISIS yang berbeda dari pendahulunya, serta bagaimana ISIS memanfaatkan sosial media dengan efektif membuat kelompok ini dapat menyebarkan teror di seluruh dunia dan menguasai banyak wilayah di Irak dan Suriah untuk memenuhi tujuan negara kekhalifahan mereka. Namun, perkembangan terkini menunjukkan ISIS akan kehilangan basis operasinya di kedua negara tersebut dan terdapat tanda bahwa ISIS akan mengalihkan fokus mereka ke Asia Tenggara dengan berkaca pada peristiwa penaklukan Marawi. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan bagaimana perkembangan tersebut berpengaruh pada ISIS di Indonesia sebagai negara Muslim terbesar di Asia Tenggara dan bagaimana pemerintah meresponnya. Kata Kunci: isis; al-qaeda; media sosial; pejuang asing; indonesia

    The Securitization of China's Technology Companies in the United States of America

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    This paper aims to explain the securitization process of China’s technology companies by the U.S Government. Whilethe U.S has been aware of the cyber threat since 1998, before Trump's presidency, the U.S. Government had nevertaken drastic measures against foreign technology companies based on national security pretext. This paper revealedthat the U.S. Executive has succeeded in securitizing the Chinese hardware and software companies, proved by theincreasing number of U.S. Citizens, see China as a major threat to the U.S

    The Impacts of E-Commerce to Regional Integration in Southeast Asia

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    ABSTRACTThis paper aims to examine the social impacts of e-commerce on regional integration in Southeast Asia. This paper argues that the existing literature takes for granted the positive relations between trade and regional integration; define narrowly regional integration in economic terms; and thus, focus mainly on economic impacts of e-commerce to regional integration in Southeast Asia. In contrast to this existing view, regional integration envisioned by ASEAN is not only economic but also social, emphasizing the development of a sense of belonging among regional members. In addition, the logics of the business sector, including e-commerce, may or may not be in line with the logics of ASEAN in imagining regional integration, and thus giving a possibility for the convergence or divergence of interests between the two. Applying constructivist approach on how imagination and transaction contribute to promoting region-ness among regional members, this paper finds that the imagination and transaction of e-commerce actors in the region has not had significant social impact to regional integration and may even develop risk of widening the gap among Southeast Asian countries as the imagination and transaction of many of the e-commerce actors in Southeast Asia are concentrated in the more developed parts of the region.Keywords: E-Commerce, Regional Integration, Southeast Asia, Constructivis

    Intentions And Motive In Augustine’s Just War Teaching

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    Abstract: Augustine, one of the greatest christian thinkers, tries to reconcile the love of neighborsand justification of wars. He develops a radically different biblical interpretation than those of earlyChurch Fathers who believe in incompatibility of Jesus's central teaching of loving neighbour andChristian participation in warfare. Augustine repudiates such incompatibility. This paper investigatesthe teaching of Augustine's just war teaching formulated in his masterpiece The City of God. In thelight of this tradition, this paper specifically adresses the intentions and the primary motive of the justwar. This paper argues that both the intentions and motive have to be distinctive. Accordingly, war isjustified if it meets two distinctive conditions. First, the goal of the war is to bring peace, restorejustice, and and punish wrong doers. Second, the war should be based on Christian charity or love ofneighbours. This paper begins by introducing the core issue of Christian understanding of its positionon warfare, followed by brief profile of Augustine. Then, it addresses Augustine's interpretation ofJesus' teaching and finally it analyses Augustine's just war teaching by focusing on intentions andmotive. Two cases, NATO Interventions in Kosovo 1999 and Libya 2011, are also included to illustratethe principle of Right Intention and Motive. It argues that NATO interventions meet the conditions ofRight Intention but fail in the principle of Right Motive.Key Words: Augustine, Just War, Love, Justice, Intentions, Motiv

    Phenomenon of Diaspora in The Preservation of National Culture on Example of Russian Diaspora in Bolivia

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    Globalization covers the most diverse spheres of human life, including social, where the processes of migration and globalization of culture take on special significance. Cultures arise and develop, interacting with each other. And the first field of this interaction is the diaspora. Diaspora is the environment where culture is directly developed and enriched. The development of diasporas is carried out by spreading the culture, values and traditions of their people, but at the same time integrating into society with a different culture, which implies the acquisition of new socially and spiritually significant qualities. The psychological reason for the emergence of the diaspora is that people far from their homeland begin to understand, appreciate and even more love their native culture. The development of the modern world is characterized, as we know, by globalization. Can the phenomenon of the diaspora in modern social life be associated with it? No, because the diaspora is directly connected with culture, while globalization is opposed to culture. Globalization is aimed at unification, ignoring the problem of cultural identity. Globalization involves the erasure of cultural features, the loss of cultural, ethnic, religious differences. But at the same time, globalization contributes to the growth of population migration, which leads to an increase in the number of diasporas abroad. The rapid growth of immigrant communities and their institutionalization forced to talk about "the diasporaization of the world" as one of the scenarios for the development of mankind. One way or another, this process deepens and takes more and more new forms, and the role of diasporas and their influence are intensified

    Identification of New Southern Policy Narratives within ROK’s Digital Diplomacy toward ASEAN

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    Republic of Korea (ROK) shifted its policy focus toward ASEAN through the New Southern Policy (NSP). As the core foreign policy to its southern neighbors, the NSP is envisioned to ‘elevate’ ASEAN status. The partnership has been backed by institutional and bureaucratic transformation to sustain the policy. Accordingly, ROK tapped on its digital resources to support this diplomatic engagement. Digital diplomacy, therefore, is an important strategy to engage the ASEAN public. However, does ROK's digital primacy is translated well to support NSP's digital diplomacy? This paper utilizes empirical explorative qualitative primary data collection of ROK's government tweets on two levels of analysis; towards domestic and foreign audiences. The finding confirms that domestic engagement is better. However, further scrutiny shows that within domestic narratives NSP is mainly used as a political tool. Meanwhile, on external engagement, this paper argues for ROK’s digital diplomacy deficit toward ASEAN. Not only does ROK's digital diplomacy strategy lack uniformity, but it also fails to create conversation about NSP. Keywords : ASEAN, Republic of Korea, New Southern Policy, Digital Diplomacy, Twitter  Republik Korea (ROK) mengalihkan fokus kebijakannya ke arah ASEAN melalui New Southern Policy (NSP). Sebagai kebijakan luar negeri utama di batas Selatan, NSP diharapkan dapat 'meningkatkan' status ASEAN. Kemitraan ini ditopang oleh transformasi kelembagaan dan birokrasi sebagai upaya untuk mempertahankan keberlanjutannya. Sejalan dengan upaya tersebut, ROK memanfaatkan sumber daya digitalnya untuk mendukung diplomasi ini. Diplomasi digital merupakan strategi penting terhadap publik ASEAN. Namun, apakah keunggulan ini diterjemahkan dengan baik dalam mendukung diplomasi digital dari NSP? Makalah ini menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data primer kualitatif yang bersifat eksploratif empiris dengan mengidentifikasikan tweet pemerintah ROK di dua tingkat analisis; domestik dan luar negeri. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa keterlibatan domestik lebih baik. Tetapi, penelitian lebih lanjut menemukan bahwa dalam narasi domestik NSP digunakan sebagai alat politik. Sementara pada level eksternal, terdapat defisit diplomasi digital terhadap ASEAN. Strategi diplomasi digital ROK tidak seragam dalam implementasinya dan juga gagal dalam menciptakan percakapan mengenai NSP. Kata kunci : ASEAN, Republic of Korea, New Southern Policy, Diplomasi Digital, Twitte

    Wake Up and Live: The Roots of Cosmopolitanism in Oriental Worldview

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    This article describes the roots of cosmopolitanism in Oriental worldview, especially in the Indian and Chinese worldview. The idea of cosmopolitanism is important to understand today. It is seen as an alternative solution for various conflicts with religious and cultural motives as background. Oriental civilizations developed the idea of cosmopolitanism through various philosophical teachings, such as Vedanta and Buddhism. Both of them are inherently meditative and cosmopolitan. They focus on insight on reality as it is, not reality as it is conceptualized by religion, philosophy or science. This insight deconstructs also the normal understanding of self-identity and stimulates the rise of cosmopolitan awareness, which is inherently experiential. Without this experience and awareness, various theoretical reflections on cosmopolitanism will be useless

    Trade Controversy Amidst Tobacco Control Provisions: Dynamics on the Establishment of U.S Tobacco Control Act 2009

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    AbstractThis article examines the dynamics­­­­­­­­ on the establishment of a health policy that U.S suddenly issued, so-called Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). Some provisions of this act having something to do with trade were assumed controversial policy due to two reasons. First, it banned the circulations of specific flavors in cigarettes but allowed menthol-containing tobacco products. Second, this act involved tobacco industry participation on Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC). In short, this article addresses interest groups consisting of tobacco companies and civil society groups influencing U.S government to take action regarding ratification of World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). They both have contradicting interests and race against each other to influence government through varied means. I argue that this opposing domestic dynamics influences U.S government to issue FSPTCA that contained two controversies and adopted provisions of WHO FCTC as win-win solution. Keywords: tobacco control; interest groups; ratification; influence; win-win solution. AbstrakArtikel ini membahas mengenai dinamika pembentukan sebuah kebijakan atau undang-undang kesehatan Amerika, FSPTCA yang dikeluarkan secara mendadak. Beberapa ketentuan dari undang-undang ini berkaitan dengan perdagangan dan diasumsikan sebagai kebijakan yang kontroversial karena dua alasan. Pertama, undang-undang ini melarang peredaran rokok beraroma rasa namun mengizinkan produk tembakau yang mengandung mentol. Kedua, undang-undang ini melibatkan partisipasi industri tembakau dalam sebuah kelompok para penasehat ilmiah produk tembakau. Singkatnya, artikel ini merujuk pada kelompok kepentingan yaitu perusahaan-perusahaan rokok dan kelompok masyarakat sipil yang mempengaruhi pemerintah dalam meratifikasi konvensi kerangka kontrol tembakau dari WHO. Mereka memiliki kepentingan yang saling bertentangan dan saling berlomba untuk mempengaruhi pemerintah Amerika melalui berbagai macam cara. Akhirnya, penulis beragumen bahwa dinamika domestik yang saling bertentangan mempengaruhi pemerintah AS untuk mengeluarkan kebijakan FSPTCA yang memuat dua kontroversi dan mengadopsi ketentuan WHO FCTC dengan dua kontroversinya sebagai win-win solution.  Kata Kunci: kontrol tembakau; kelompok kepentingan; ratifikasi; mempengaruhi; win-win solution.
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