Journal of Regional and City Planning
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    548 research outputs found

    Factors Affecting Illegal Land-use Changes in Residential Areas: (Case Study: District 6 of Tehran)

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    Today, understanding the trend of land-use changes and its contributing factors is one of the important issues in urban land-use planning and urban management policies. Not all land-use changes comply with urban development plan regulations. Illegal land-use changes, especially in residential areas, are often implemented to reduce the municipality tax for small businesses in large cities in Iran. This trend has become a source of income for municipalities through fine acquisition. The objective of this study was to identify the factors contributing to incompatible and illegal land-use changes in the case study of District 6 in Tehran. The research method used in this study was descriptive-analytical. The data was collected using a questionnaire and a field study. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and confirmatory factor analysis using the equation modeling technique in the LISREL software. According to the research findings, escape from the traffic scheme zone, with a coefficient load factor of 0.86, and economic profitability, with a coefficient load factor of 0.84, were the most important factors motivating illegal land-use changes in the residential areas in this case study (District 6, Tehran). The main conclusion of this research is the need for change in Tehran urban policies for mitigation of urban planning violations. Specially in this case, the impact of the traffic scheme zone in Tehran should be considered. Another suggestion is the adoption of new urban policies related to taxes on unauthorized activities in residential areas that can counteract the market response to possible changes

    The Hubs of Transformation Dictated by the Innovation Wave: Boston as a Case Study: Exploring How Design is Emerging as an Essential Feature in the Process of Laboratorization of Cities

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    Cities have become nodes of global networks, standing at the intersection points of the flows of capital, goods, workers, businesses, and travelers, making them spots where innovation, progress and economic development occur. Design emerges as an essential feature in this process, which this manuscript defines as the ‘laboratorization of cities’, a cutting-edge urban development paradigm that emphasizes cities as dynamic laboratories for innovation and experimentation. This study explored the spatial hubs of transformation within the knowledge economy, providing an overview of the current models of innovation spaces before focusing on the innovation district of one of the cities that are riding the innovation wave, namely Boston, USA. Information was gathered from observations, exploratory interviews with key stakeholders, and on-desk data. The study has significant implications, spanning from informing global urban development strategies to impacting regional economic planning and national policies. It provides valuable insights into how design, innovation, and urban development are interconnected, potentially reshaping how cities and regions approach their growth in the current knowledge-driven era. Useful lessons can be drawn from the case study analysis, allowing to define valuable tools for policymakers, a forward-looking perspective on the future of the laboratorization of cities and the evolving role of design, providing a roadmap for cities aiming to position themselves as global innovation hubs


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    Physiological and Psychological Effects of Walking in Campus Landscape on Young Adults

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    Green space has a vital role in the community’s health and well-being. Forest bathing is an effective method of enjoying the forest atmosphere through physical activity or relaxing in a forest landscape. However, until now, no one has declared the benefits of forest therapy in Indonesia. This study clarifies the physiological and psychological effects of walking in a campus landscape. This research was conducted using experimental methods through physical activity survey, self-report questionnaires, Visitor Employed Photography (VEP), and automatic classification based on the image annotation API. The experiment was conducted in a park and an arboretum, and thirty-two young university subjects were tested. The participants walked for fifteen minutes on walking routes and district roads. Their blood pressure was measured before and after walking, and their heart rate was measured continuously. During the walk, the subjects took photographs of striking scenes using the Visitor Employed Photography method. Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to evaluate the psychological responses. Walking in the campus landscape resulted in a lower heart rate, less negative moods, and less anxiety than walking on the district road. Out of 837 photographs, 45% were taken from the Academic Event Plaza, 41.5% from the Arboretum, and the remaining 13.5% from district road, Jalan Raya Dramaga. Two main groups of campus green spaces included man-made landscape consisting of road surface, buildings, plant organs, stairs, and terrestrial plants; and natural landscape consisting of sky, trees, flowers, clouds, and plant community. This study found that walking in campus green space induced physiological and psychological health benefits and prominent landscape elements supported the green campus

    A Study of Green Infrastructure in European Cities: Opportunities and possibilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Green infrastructure (GI) is generally defined as a network of natural and semi-natural regions that has been sensitively developed and managed to provide an array of ecosystem services and improve people’s well-being. Across Europe, the notion of GI has had a robust association with the the impacts of climate change, multifunctionality, and green growth; this is especially true over the past ten years, from 2012 to 2022. This has resulted in a broad-based agenda on policy and research with vast differences, targeting a variety of themes and cultures. The systematic review and meta-analysis conducted in this paper present an up-to-date review of the main attributes of GI-related research and the implications for the member states within the European Union (EU). GI-related concepts, thematic clusters, and the main priorities within the research were considered in our review. Due to the ambiguity of the definition of GI, a broad diversity of research goals and published output are discussed. It was also seen that green spaces situated within urban areas and their related ecosystem services are the most common topics in the literature. Based on this, we recommend that an in-depth integration of the goals pertaining to nature conservation be conducted to understand how GI may pertain towards sustainable transitions in and outside the city

    Urban Planning Approach and Production of Counter Architecture: A Case Study of New Market, Khulna

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    Informal spatial practices in cities of the Global South are often regarded as activities taking place outside the realm of regulatory oversight. The prevailing urban governance and planning paradigms, which are largely derived from developed countries, struggle to adapt to the dynamic nature of these practices and the inherent conflicts they entail. Furthermore, the influence of disorderly political systems further complicates matters at the local level. In response to planned development, informal spatial practices persist as a critical yet overlooked/integral aspect of ever-evolving urban realities. This paper provides new insights into the current dynamics surrounding the creation of informal urban spaces in Global South cities and their interaction with the formal planning framework. Our study focused on the city of Khulna in Bangladesh, a compelling case study with a history of failed industrial planning dating back to the 1960s, when it was designed by a group of British consultants. Following its initial failure and the city’s subsequent decline in population, Khulna has witnessed an unforeseen surge in ‘counter spatial’ development driven by the imperative to meet socio-economic and cultural needs. This paper underscores the significance of such type of informal spatial production and introduces/highlights the concept of ‘counter architecture’ as a pivotal element of society that demands recognition and inclusion in the broader urban development framework. It suggests that the ‘counter architecture’ lens provides a foundation for challenging the rigidity of master planning and understanding the interconnectedness between formal and informal urban spaces. This perspective emphasizes the need to consider the lived experiences and tactical attributes of spatial formation, ultimately highlighting the resistance of ‘inhabitants’ and ‘users’ against the static codes of modern master planning in cities of Global South like Khulna

    The Polarization of Orientation Amongst The Local on Cultural Land Utilization for Ecotourism Development in Ranah Minang Sumatera Barat

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    The dynamics of problems related to land occupation, ownership of cultural land, and agricultural land in Indonesia, especially in Ranah Minang, West Sumatra, have become so serious they need to be solved first before trying to achieve the ideals of sustainable development. The research methodology used in this study was a phenomenological approach. The data were analyzed through the One Score-One Criterion Scoring System. The mean values obtained for the phenomenon of cultural land-use patterns in the region were very good in many aspects. On the other hand, the dynamics of stakeholder perceptions, motivations, and preferences did not indicate any directional bias or attitudinal scale among actors over the use of cultural land. This would be different if observed in the dynamics of perception and ecotourism motivation by generating inferences of the direction polarization and attitude scale among actors. The strategy for this purpose was to optimize various aspects of land-use patterns for ecotourism development: 1) strengthening the function of cultural lands as precious treasure; 2) creating a communal business field; 3) optimizing the productivity of agricultural commodities as added value for land users; 4) establishing no-building zones in certain strategic areas as well as providing incentives to land users

    Urban Transformation and Associated Emerging Urban Forms: An Examination of Physical Density from Planning Interventions Perspective

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    Rapid urbanization frequently results in unanticipated morphological traits that could have multifaceted consequences, especially in the urban physical transformation of cities in developing countries. This study aimed to examine these spatial transformation events and identify the related emergent urban forms in the morphogenesis of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia from the perspective of plan-led and spontaneous developments. The researchers conducted a thorough on-site investigation to gather the necessary physical information and supplemented it with a desk review and focus group discussion. We utilized the Spacematrix software to examine the data and pinpoint the evolving urban structures from different time periods. Overall, the research demonstrated that point-type low-rise development dominated organically developed sites, whereas plan-driven developments were dominated by block-type low-rise and block-type midrise forms. Furthermore, except for outlying areas, there has been a rising trend in the floor space index and spatial coverage patterns over the course of the city’s morphological eras. This may indicate a growing concern for space efficiency and sustainable development. The density of the street network in organically developed portions, on the other hand, was greater than that in formally planned areas. This shows the relevance of considering the concept behind organic development in planning and designing interventions besides the formal western planning philosophy

    Déjà Vu: The Untenable Reality of the Pavement Dwellers of Dhaka - Evidence from Three Decades

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    Pavement dwellers migrate to the city in search of better opportunities. Their commitment to this way of life is based on an expectation of benefits in the destination area. This study examined five aspects of pavement dwellers’ reality: demographics, socioeconomics, migration outcomes, living conditions, and fulfillment of expectations. A mixed-method data collection exercise resulted in 64 pavement dwellers’ accounts of their current situation in Dhaka city, which were compared to similar studies from 1991 and 1993. The results show that their conditions have remained unchanged. Though half of the migration occurred for economic reasons, the real income level has remained the same as in 1991. Shelter and employment remain elusive, and moving to slums is financially infeasible. More than half of those interviewed lived on the pavement for access to a livelihood. Most declared that they could not access social safety nets. The persistence of pavement dwelling in the face of remarkable economic growth demands the refocusing of policies on urban poverty eradication

    Spatial Dynamic Model of Index-Based Disaster Resilience

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    Measurement and development of resilience are essential in disaster risk reduction programs. Furthermore, efforts are needed to measure resilience baselines to track changes over time and compare areas for monitoring and evaluating resilience development. Therefore, this study identified dimensions and indicators for measuring resilience using a statistical approach and developed an index-based spatial resilience model in a web-GIS environment. This paper presents the spatial distribution of urban resilience to disasters in Semarang City at the sub-district level. Factor analysis showed that 21 selected indicators could represent five dimensions of resilience: social, economic, infrastructure, environmental, and institutional. Furthermore, the model results showed that 88% of the sub-districts were in the moderate resilience class. The spatial distribution of each dimension showed considerable heterogeneity in its coastal and plain areas (city center) as well as better resilience in the social and infrastructure dimensions than in its hilly areas. The hilly areas in the west have relatively better resilience than those in the east. These results can be used as a reference in managing resilience to disasters. The model presents a spatial distribution of resilience based on an index that quickly provides an overview of the conditions and determines priorities for increasing resilience in supporting disaster risk reduction programs


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