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    Reconceptualising Resilience: A Dynamic Interactive Model of Resilience for Educational Practice

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    The potential of education to support, understand and develop resilience at an individual and systemic level is gaining interest in light of increased stresses and threats impacting individuals, organisations and society. This paper draws upon a range of models that seek to understand and explain human resilience and recommends how their approaches can be applied. The paper explores Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) bio-ecological model, Ungar’s (2013) social-ecological model, Gilligan’s (1997) conceptualisation of resilience in terms of protective and risk factors and the recent Downes (2017) model, which considers spatial relations and individual agency in resilience trajectories. We then present a dynamic interactive model of resilience (DIMoR) which encapsulates the key elements of existing models offering a more nuanced and complex systems approach to resilience. Resilience has been the subject of four waves of research spanning five decades (Masten, 2015). General consensus has emerged around understanding resilience as a multidimensional concept of an individual’s ability to adapt successfully following adversity or other disruption that threatens functioning or development (Masten and Cicchetti, 2016). Each wave of research has tended to focus on specific dimensions of resilience, the first two waves developing a shared understanding of the concept of resilience and the processes involved in its development. These waves established a spectrum of resilience and vulnerability linked to protective and risk factors, focusing on the qualities of resilient children. Wave three concentrated on interventions and recognises the potential for individuals and settings to develop resilience. The fourth (current) wave, within which the DIMoR model is located, builds on the notion of resilience as a dynamic system. We examine seminal models of human development and resilience research and critique their contribution to fostering a multi-dimensional and system level understanding of resilience. The central contribution of the DIMoR model is to synthesise key elements of these earlier conceptions whilst drawing on systems thinking and complexity theory (Morin, 2008) to present a model that recognises the socio-ecologically embedded nature of the individual while acknowledging the individual’s agency as they journey through life encountering real-world contexts. Through the lens of DIMoR, we explore how education settings can be hubs for fostering the development of resilience and how this complex, dynamic understanding can support the efforts of school/education leaders. Rather than an ‘injection’ of interventions, this is achieved by fostering conditions through school culture, support systems, connecting with external agencies or teacher training. While this focus on connectivity is not new, we recognise and acknowledge that individual agency - itself a complex system - has to navigate contexts that are also complex adaptive systems. For example, the individual pupil in a school is a complex system located within the wider ecological system of family, school, community and society. The individual as a system has their own vulnerabilities, risk, protective factors as well as their own agency and phenomenological approach to a context. This is dynamic, domain specific and itself dependent on interactions with the wider context which not only contains many such other individual systems (e.g. other pupils, teachers and but also includes the school as a complex system, with its own vulnerabilities, risks, protective factors, which structure the experiences of the individual (pupil) systems. The DIMoR model thus develops Downes’ (2017) idea of agentic individuals within diametric and concentric relationships all interacting with each other in the same space, by emphasising wider interacting systems. The DIMoR model offers the opportunity to consider a proactive approach to the development of resilience within education. Resilience is not something that is ‘caused’ by support systems or one-off interventions, rather it is the emergent property of the dynamic interactions of all these complex systems over time. DIMoR posits therefore, that resilience is not an individual trait, but a responsive characteristic which changes shape and structure within its own risk-protective, vulnerability-invulnerability framework as a result of interactions with the surrounding systems that, crucially, it is a part of not apart from. References Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Harvard university press. Downes, P. (2017). Extended Paper: Reconceptualising Foundational Assumptions of Resilience: A Cross-Cultural, Spatial Systems Domain of Relevance for Agency and Phenomenology in Resilience. International Journal of Emotional Education, 9(1), 99-120. Gilligan, R. (1997). Beyond permanence? The importance of resilience in child placement practice and planning. Adoption & Fostering, 21(1), 12-20. Masten, A. S. (2015). Ordinary magic: Resilience in development. Guilford Publications Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2016). Resilience in development: Progress and transformation. Developmental psychopathology, 4, 271-333. Ungar, M. (2013). Resilience, trauma, context, and culture. Trauma, violence, & abuse, 14(3), 255-266

    The Effects of Maturation on Measures of Asymmetry During Neuromuscular Control Tests in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players

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    Purpose: Asymmetry is a risk factor for male youth soccer players. There is a paucity of data confirming the presence of asymmetry using practically viable screening tasks in players at different stages of maturation. Method: A cross sectional sample (N = 347) of elite male youth soccer players who were either (pre-, circa- or post-peak height velocity (PHV)) completed the following single leg assessments: Y-Balance anterior reach (Y-Bal); hop for distance (SLHD); 75% hop and stick (75%Hop) and countermovement jumps (SLCMJ). Results: SLCMJ landing force asymmetry was higher in both circa and post-PHV groups, (p < 0.001; d = 0.41 – 0.43). 75%Hop landing force asymmetries were also highest in circa PHV players but between group comparisons were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. SLHD and Y-Bal asymmetries reduced with maturation; however, no group differences were significant, with small to trivial effect sizes (d = ≤ 0.25). Conclusion: Stage of maturation did not have a profound effect on asymmetry. Between-limb differences in functional performance seem to be established in early childhood; thus, targeted interventions to reduce this injury risk factor should commence in pre-PHV athletes and be maintained throughout childhood and adolescence to ensure asymmetry does not increase

    Breaking Clocks

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    Exploring Postcolonial and Feminist Issues: Rabbit‐Proof Fence in a Teaching Context

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    The discussion in this article focuses on representations in Doris Pilkington's Rabbit‐Proof Fence of trauma and reparation, and reflects on processes and strategies involved in teaching undergraduate students about these issues within literary contexts. The article discusses the practice of introducing students to new texts and areas of study, and demonstrates the positive learning outcomes deriving from inclusion of non‐canonical material linked to feminist and postcolonial theoretical and critical discussions. An earlier version of this paper, entitled ‘Rabbit‐Proof Fence: Text and Film’, was given at the Contemporary Women's Writing Network Inaugural Conference, ‘For Love or Money: Contemporary Women's Fiction in the Marketplace’, University of Bangor, April 2006

    A participatory approach for comparing stakeholders’ evaluation of P loss mitigation options in a high ecological status river catchment

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    Phosphorus (P) transfer from land to water is a source of diffuse pollution that contributes to the decline in ecological status of river bodies in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) provides for the protection of water bodies that represent pristine or near-pristine condition, classified as high ecological status through the adoption of an agri-environmental decision making process that promotes stakeholder participation. However, successful implementation of agri-environmental policies can prove challenging when faced with uncertainties and diverging opinions due to the variety of actors involved. This study adopted a participatory approach including stakeholders with conflicting interests in the selection of P transfer mitigation policies. Fifteen P transfer mitigation options were shortlisted based on agronomic and environmental data from a case-study agricultural catchment and presented to a group of experts and farmers. Results showed significant disparities between perceived effectiveness by farmers and experts groups, with experts prioritizing problems related to connectivity issues, while farmers to soil compaction and erosion. In addition, measured agronomic and environmental variables were used to model effectiveness from a decision support tool (FARMSCOPER) and compared with stakeholder groups’ perceived effectiveness. This approach combined the scientific research with the empirical knowledge of farmers and the modelling of quantified field and farm data. This study showed that stakeholders are diverse, and perceive effectiveness based on group-specific operational and social factors. Experts identified effectiveness at catchment scale, whilst farmers identified field scale effectiveness. For decision support tools and simulation models to be beneficial for policy makers, they need to be calibrated to local conditions and farm typologies to select the right measure at farm scale. The study recommends improved knowledge transfer between interested actors and the need for integration of conflicting opinions in policy design. A bottom-up approach to decision making is suggested, to assist in the decentralization of the procedures towards more effectively implemented P transfer mitigation policies

    Linking the family context of migration during childhood to the well‐being of young adults: Evidence from the UK and France

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    Families often undergo separations during the migration process. A body of literature has explored the consequences of these separations for children “left behind” and, more recently, children reunified with their parents at the destination. However, little attention has been given to whether this experience during childhood is associated with well‐being into adulthood. This paper adopts a life course perspective to explore well‐being amongst youth (18–25 years) who migrated as children to the UK and France. Drawing on national household surveys, Understanding Society (UK) and Trajectories and Origins (France), we analyse whether which of the parents migrated and whether the young person migrated with them or experienced a period of separation are associated with self‐rated health (both countries) and mental well‐being (UK) or conflict with parents (France). Our findings show that whilst the majority of youth migrated with their parents (86% in the UK and 69% in France), those who did experience long‐term parental separation (6+ years) have poorer psychosocial well‐being in both destinations. This suggests that disruption to the parent–child relationship amplifies the risk of poorer outcomes in early adulthood and highlights that the context of family migration is not only important for understanding migrants' well‐being during childhood, but also as they progress into adulthood

    Conceptualizing emotional labour, interaction quality and service continuity connections

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    This conceptual paper explores the dimensions of emotional labour and its interconnections to interaction quality and service continuity in both service encounters and service relationships. This provides the basis from which to develop new avenues for research to take account of the plausible layers of EL treatment and their interconnections to interaction quality and service continuity as outcomes

    Forest landscapes: Identity and Materiality

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    The striking and rich materialities of trees and forest landscapes can become entangled in the creation of both individual and collective identities in many ways. This is often articulated through ideas of place and landscape and can operate on intermeshing scales which span from local to global. The differing ways identity is performed through trees and forest landscapes, be it through work, history, culture or politics, are thus a complex outcome of entanglement between the human and the trees and forests themselves. Their physical form and lively materiality also play a part in the bonds that exist between peoples and forests in many differing forms. In this chapter, linkages between forests and identity are explored in a number of interrelating ways

    Using signal detection theory to measure situation awareness in command and control

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    This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness (SA) referred to as QUASATM (QUantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness). QUASATM uses the principles of signal detection theory to assess situation awareness. The technique is designed to provide objective measures of individual SA, dynamic SA and different components of SA. The paper describes the theoretical basis of QUASATM and its application in a simulated command and control environment
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