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    The Irish in England

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    We use the universe of probate and vital registers, from England between 1838 and 2018 to document the status of the Irish in England. We identify the ‘Irish’ in the records as those individuals with distinctively Irish surnames. From at least the mid-19th century to 2018, the Irish in England have persisted as an underclass, being on average 50% poorer than the English. Infant mortality was about 25% higher for the Irish between the 1830s and the mid-twentieth century but has subsequently equalized. Sorting, both to urban areas, and to the North of England, are important elements in the Irish experience. We discuss the potential roles of selective migration, social mobility, and discrimination in this, and signpost directions for future research

    Young carers’ experiences of services and support: what is helpful and how can support be improved?

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    Globally, many children and young people provide support to family members who have poor physical or mental health, are disabled, or misuse drugs and alcohol. These young carers are at higher risk of poorer education, employment, health, and social participation outcomes compared to their peers without caring responsibilities. In the UK, awareness of the challenges faced by young carers, and a framework of their legal rights, are relatively well-developed. However, it is unclear how support can most effectively be provided. Taking a qualitative approach we explored experiences and views of young carers (aged 9–25), conducting focus groups or interviews with 133 young carers and 17 parent care recipients. We explored what aspects of services and support are seen as helpful, valued, and acceptable to young people, and what could be improved. A reflexive, thematic analysis was conducted. Valued support came from: young carers groups (including peer support), school-based and mental health support, and support for the care recipient. Helpful aspects of support included someone who listens and understands, and can be trusted not to break confidentiality; involving the young person in information, decision-making and planning (sometimes including regarding the care recipient); and finding and linking to other services. There was a difficult balance for practitioners between being perceived as proactive, persistent or intrusive when offering support to a young carer, but it was important to allow opportunities for young carers, and those they care for, to change their minds about when and whether to access support. Many interactions were perceived as unhelpful or threatening to the family, and there was often not enough of the type of support that was valued. Sharing of positive experiences can be beneficial for both people seeking support and those delivering it; key messages on what is helpful from the perspective of young carers can help support and shape practice approaches

    The speculative consequences of the peace

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    Keynes began actively trading in currencies almost as soon as he had published The Economic Consequences. Despite the advantages of being the leading economic thinker of his generation and possessing an enviable network of contacts with policymakers, his speculation met with mixed results. This chapter examines two issues: first, the influence which Keynes’ understanding of the post-war international economic and political situation had on his foreign exchange speculation strategy; and, second, the influence his experience as a speculator had on his political-economic theory in the years following the publication of his book

    Incentives war: the consequences of announcing a substitution policy on coca cultivation in Colombia

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    How do alternative development programs, designed to diminish the presence of illicit crops, might cause unexpected consequences? This article studies how the announcement about an alternative development program, following the signing of the peace agreement in Colombia, resulted in an increase in coca cultivation. Employing a difference-in-differences methodology, this document evaluates the impact of the National Comprehensive Plan for the Substitution of Illicit Crops (PNIS – for its acronyms in Spanish) on the incentives to cultivate coca crops. Our empirical findings show that the announcement of this program led to a substantial average increase of 791 ha of illicit crops per municipality. This increment equates to 40,341 additional hectares, constituting approximately 53% of the overall surge in illicit crop cultivation during the year following the program’s announcement. In our exploration of underlying mechanisms, we discuss the interplay of economic incentives for both coca and non-coca cultivators and the electoral motivations of the FARC political party

    Phl p 5 levels more strongly associated than grass pollen counts with allergic respiratory health

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    Background: Studies have linked daily pollen counts to respiratory allergic health outcomes, but few have considered allergen levels. Objective: We sought to assess associations of grass pollen counts and grass allergen levels (Phl p 5) with respiratory allergic health symptoms in a panel of 93 adults with moderate-severe allergic rhinitis and daily asthma hospital admissions in London, United Kingdom. Methods: Daily symptom and medication scores were collected from adult participants in an allergy clinical trial. Daily counts of asthma hospital admissions in the London general population were obtained from Hospital Episode Statistics data. Daily grass pollen counts were measured using a volumetric air sampler, and novel Phl p 5 levels were measured using a ChemVol High Volume Cascade Impactor and ELISA analyses (May through August). Associations between the 2 pollen variables and daily health scores (dichotomized based on within-person 75th percentiles) were assessed using generalized estimating equation logistic models and with asthma hospital admissions using Poisson regression models. Results: Daily pollen counts and Phl p 5 levels were each positively associated with reporting a high combined symptom and medication health score in separate models. However, in mutually adjusted models including terms for both pollen counts and Phl p 5 levels, associations remained for Phl p 5 levels (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.18 [1.12, 1.24]), but were heavily attenuated for pollen counts (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.00 [0.93, 1.07]). Similar trends were not observed for asthma hospital admissions in London. Conclusions: Grass allergen (Phl p 5) levels are more consistently associated with allergic respiratory symptoms than grass pollen counts

    Insights from a modelling analysis of COVID-19 vaccination in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

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    Background: Understanding the main determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is critical to increasing vaccine coverage. This is particularly important for COVID-19 vaccine uptake, which has been affected by both demand and supply issues. Aim: To understand the links between vaccine uptake and demand and supply issues in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean and UNICEF Middle East and North Africa regions. Methods: We collected data through 2 rounds of a repeated cross-sectional phone survey from 11 000 individuals across 16 low- and middle-income countries. We used logit modelling to distil the main characteristics of the 4 vaccination categories (vaccinated, unvaccinated but willing, unvaccinated and undecided, and unvaccinated and unwilling) while also considering vaccine availability. We conducted sub-regional analysis to account for differences in level of development between the low- and middle-income countries. Results: Despite the increase in vaccination coverage from 60.9% at the end of 2021 to 78.3% by August 2022, about 9% were not willing and were not vaccinated during the two rounds of interviews. Our modelling analysis revealed that positive beliefs about safety, effectiveness and side effects of the COVID-19 vaccines were associated with increased odds of being vaccinated or willingness to be vaccinated. Those who did not believe in the safety of the vaccines were less likely to be vaccinated than those who believed in the safety of the vaccines (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.46–0.67). By contrast, negative beliefs about the COVID-19 vaccines increased the probability of being unwilling to be vaccinated. Conclusion: The results from this research offer useful insights into tackling the supply and demand related barriers to COVID-19 vaccination uptake and provides lessons for future health threats

    Segmented labour markets, structural injustice, and legal remedies

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    Williams’s integrity objection as a psychological problem

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    Utilitarianism is the view that as far as morality goes, one ought to choose the option which will result in the most overall well-being—that is, that maximises the sum of whatever makes life worth living, with each person’s life equally weighted. The promise of utilitarianism is to reduce morality to one simple principle, easily incorporated into policy analysis, economics and decision theory. However, utilitarianism is not popular amongst moral philosophers today. This is in large part due to the influence of Williams’s ‘Integrity Objection’ (1973). Though the Integrity Objection has been influential in turning philosophers against utilitarianism, it is also difficult to make precise, evidenced by the myriad interpretations in the literature. In this paper I interpret the objection as holding that agents who accept utilitarianism cannot, as a matter of psychology, be committed to their projects. I explore other interpretations, finding some to be inconsistent with Williams’s approach, and others to be relatively easily answerable by the utilitarian. The psychological problem I identify is harder for utilitarians to avoid, though I have begun to offer a response in other work

    Online tutoring works: experimental evidence from a program with vulnerable children

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    We provide evidence from a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a novel, 100-percent online math tutoring program, targeted at secondary school students from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. The intensive, eight-week-long program was delivered in groups of two students during after-school hours, mostly by qualified math teachers. The intervention significantly increased standardized test scores (+0.26 SD) and end-of-year math grades (+0.49 SD), while reducing the probability of repeating the school year. The intervention also raised aspirations, as well as self-reported effort at school. The two-on-one design allows us to significantly reduce costs and improve scalability, while showing similar results as one-on-one tutoring programs

    Cultural persistence and the ‘Herbal Medicine Paradox’: evidence from European data

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    The use of herbal or traditional medicines has survived the proliferation of modern medicine. The phenomenon has been labeled as the ‘herbal medicines paradox’ (HMP). We study whether such HMP hypothesis can be explained by the persistence of attitudes across cultural boundaries. We undertake a secondary analysis of individual-level migration data to test the persistence of the use of herbal medicines in relation to norms in the person’s country of birth (or home country). We study the association between attitudes towards herbal medicine treatments of both first (N = 3630) and second-generation (N = 1618) immigrants in 30 European countries, and the average attitudes of their sending country origins. We find robust evidence of an association that is stronger for the second-generation migrants. We document a stronger effect among maternal than paternal lineages, as well as significant heterogeneity based on migrants’ country of origin. Our estimates are robust to different sample analysis. Our estimates are consistent with a cultural explanation for the HMP

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