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    5462 research outputs found

    A novel data augmentation approach for influenza a subtype prediction based on HA proteins

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    Influenza, a pervasive viral respiratory illness, remains a significant global health concern. The influenza A virus, capable of causing pandemics, necessitates timely identification of specific subtypes for effective prevention and control, as highlighted by the World Health Organization. The genetic diversity of influenza A virus, especially in the hemagglutinin protein, presents challenges for accurate subtype prediction. This study introduces PreIS as a novel pipeline utilizing advanced protein language models and supervised data augmentation to discern subtle differences in hemagglutinin protein sequences. PreIS demonstrates two key contributions: leveraging pretrained protein language models for influenza subtype classification and utilizing supervised data augmentation to generate additional training data without extensive annotations. The effectiveness of the pipeline has been rigorously assessed through extensive experiments, demonstrating a superior performance with an impressive accuracy of 94.54% compared to the current state-of-the-art model, the MC-NN model, which achieves an accuracy of 89.6%. PreIS also exhibits proficiency in handling unknown subtypes, emphasizing the importance of early detection. Pioneering the classification of HxNy subtypes solely based on the hemagglutinin protein chain, this research sets a benchmark for future studies. These findings promise more precise and timely influenza subtype prediction, enhancing public health preparedness against influenza outbreaks and pandemics. The data and code underlying this article are available in https://github.com/CBRC-lab/PreIS

    The effects of acute caffeine ingestion on decision-making and pass accuracy in young soccer players: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

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    Caffeine has been shown to benefit physical aspects of different sports. In this paper, we aimed to understand the effects of caffeine on decision-making and the accuracy of soccer passes. Twelve young soccer players (16–17 years old and 20.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2 BMI) completed the tasks once after taking 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine (CAF) and once after consuming similar amounts of placebo (PLA). For the decision-making task, participants were asked to determine the best outcome of ten simulated pre-recorded soccer events. For the soccer pass accuracy, participants performed five short- (10 m) and five long passes (30 m), as well as the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test. Although not statistically significant, participants were 1.67 % more accurate in short- and 13.48 % more accurate in long passes when they consumed caffeine compared to the placebo (14.67 ± 2.74 vs. 14.50 ± 2.97, p = 0.34, g = 0.27 and 7.50 ± 2.84 vs. 6.83 ± 3.13, p = 0.60, g = 0.14, respectively). However, participants' decision-making was 7.14 % and LSPT scores were 3.49 % lower when they consumed caffeine compared to the placebo (29.50 ± 3.09 vs. 30.67 ± 2.93, p = 0.28, g = −0.30 and 55.38 ± 11.91 vs. 57.48 ± 12.13, p = 0.08, g = −0.51 respectively). In conclusion, while the short pass accuracy remained consistent among almost all participants before and after caffeine consumption, the performance varied in the case of long passes. Moreover, most of the participants scored lower on decision-making and LSPT after consuming caffeine. This may suggest that more complex tasks with a higher number of passes might negatively be affected by low doses of caffeine ingested one hour before playing soccer. Future studies are required to elucidate the effects of caffeine consumption on distinct cognitive and passing tasks

    The Talent Management of Indie Authorship: From American independent cinema and short “films” to pay-TV and streaming

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    This book explores the roles that talent intermediaries, including talent agents, talent managers and producers, play in packaging, marketing and selling screen media products, services and brands by constructing and positioning their clients and collaborators as indie-auteurs. Exploring several case-studies across a range of screen media during an era of media convergence, including American indie cinema, high-end television, music video, advertising and branded content, the book explores the strategies that talent intermediaries adopt and the industrial, cultural, and social connotations and hierarchies that indie-auteurism as a promotional discourse and tool carries and reinforces. Taking a cultural production approach that involves analysing promotional, extratextual and critical discourse surrounding projects such as The Revenant, Judas and the Black Messiah, The O.A and Mr. Robot, the book links taste and professional legitimacy to race and gender inequalities as it scrutinises notions about the maverick White male auteur that have proliferated around contemporary indie productions. Providing new perspectives on the careers of indie-auteurs such as the Coen brothers, Steven Soderbergh, and Tyler Perry, and addressing the work of lesser studied figures such as Amy Seimetz, Dee Rees, and Shaka King, the book stakes out new ground that complicates popular ideas of indie-auteurs as highly autonomous and innovative filmmakers by exploring how this authorial discourse migrates between media and is constructed and reconfigured in relation to changing industrial and cultural contexts

    BANGLADESH GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS OF THE INGOS: AN EXAMPLE OF ‘INFORMATION POLITICS’ FROM THE GLOBAL SOUTH

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    This chapter investigates how the Government of Bangladesh responds to human rights reports of INGOs. It is argued that the Government’s responses mostly deny these reports since they go against Bangladesh’s image and human rights commitments. It is also argued that these INGO reports are not always neutral, and the reporting system is problematically fragmented and inordinately shaped by ‘organisational self-interest’ which gives a kind of de facto impetus to the Government to disregard, manipulate, or block them in their national sphere, which debars the creation of an integrated knowledge base required for building a human rights culture. The information politics as a politics of ‘exploitation and liberation’ suggests that in the absence of compelling strain for change, INGOs will continue to adopt a possessive and predilected approach to report human rights situations, and the Government will continue to disregard and disown these reports. It concludes that both INGO monitoring and Government’s responses need to be made in a succinct and principled way otherwise the current practice may deepen the risk of violations of human rights through the rise of a political antagonism of information

    ‘Getting closer to the place’: Stakeholder experiences and impact during archaeological research at Sobibór

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    The Sobibór Archaeology Project represents an important, long-term case study for understanding the complex ‘interests’ and relationships that may emerge during fieldwork at sites of atrocity. A complex demographic of stakeholders played parts in Sobibór over three decades, with a diverse range of motivations and expectations. Ethically sensitive forms of engagement with different stakeholders are needed in archaeological research, especially at the sites connected to the Holocaust and Nazi persecution. Based on a series of interviews with national and local government, heads of museums, archaeologists, heritage professionals, architects, a representative of the Rabbinical Commission for Jewish Cemeteries in Poland, and paid local workers involved in the research between 2007 and 2020, the paper evaluates the ways in which the research impacted different stakeholders over time, and how these stakeholders influenced the archaeological research in return

    Don't be afraid, It's only business: Rethinking the video nasties moral panic in Thatcher’s Britain

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    As prone as the British appear to be to moments of spontaneous moral panic, it is important to recognize the forces that instigate, underpin and amplify these moments, and to acknowledge that these forces are rarely benevolent, or even for that matter, spontaneous. In 1982, just as home video was finding a foothold in the United Kingdom, a moral panic erupted about the advertising that was being used to promote an array of horror films that had been imported from Europe and America and released to the conservative British marketplace. These films became known as the ‘video nasties’, a disparate collection of unrelated films of varying qualities that were grouped together on the basis that they transgressed the boundaries of respectability. While many of these films were, and remain, difficult and challenging works, it is important to recognize that it was not a sense of public outrage or moral propriety that led to the films being banned, it was simply that the organizations and institutions involved stood to benefit from the frenzy of a moral panic. Though this was not immediately obvious. The moral panic famously led to the introduction of the Video Recordings Act, which Martin Barker (1984) and Julian Petley (1997) have explored as a convenient deflection for the Conservative Government, whose reputation had been badly damaged in their previous term. However, what has received far less scrutiny is the benefit of the introduction of the Video Recordings Act to the major film studios and their role in its introduction. This paper will explore this history and will consider how the Video Recordings Act reshaped the British video industry

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPVs), solar and wind assisted hydrogen production and utilisation in iron and steel industry for low carbon productions

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    To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in high-grade steel production plants, this study developed a solar and wind assisted H_2-fuelled blast furnace – basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route coupled with the electrolysis of H_2 O and thermoelectric units. The developed model consists of heat recovery units, water gas shift (WGS), low-temperature electrolysis of H_2 O, thermophotovoltaic converter, CO_2 capture by absorption and oxy-hydrogen firing ovens and furnaces. The recovered thermal energy generated steam and distilled H_2 O feedstocks for WGS and PEMEC (proton exchange membrane electrolyser cell) units. WGS converted CO to 〖CO〗_2 and increased the H_2 production rate before separation from other by-products in the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) column. H_2 O electrolysis generated more H_2 fuel for the coke oven, Fe-CaO oven-sinter, BF and BOF. The result of the proposed system reveals that by utilising H_2 as fuel and O_2 as oxidant instead of burning natural gas (NG) for thermal decomposition of feedstocks, 1111.4kg/hr of CO_2 emission for every 626kg/hr of produced steel can be prevented. The application of 〖CO〗_2 capture by absorption process eliminated 〖CO〗_2 emission footprint from the process. Whereas 61.1kW was recovered by installing TPV units on ovens and furnaces’ walls for conversion of waste heat to electricity. By incorporating either solar or wind renewable energy systems with a power output of 20MW, 1290.4kg/hr of H_2 fuel and 38.5kg/hr of CH_4 were stored for later use and 6754.8kg/hr of CO_2 emission was avoided. The steel purchase price of the proposed system is anticipated to be cheaper than the conventional BF-BOF route operating with a CCS unit as ≥10% energy efficiency was recorded. The recycling of more scrap steel is also viable in this developed system because of the high energy density of utilised H_2 fuel for the thermal decomposition of ovens and furnaces’ feeds

    Nationality, statelessness, and human rights: Does ‘everyone’ really have the right to nationality under Article 15 of the UDHR?

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    The inclusion of the right to nationality in article 15 of the UDHR in 1948 was driven by the impulse to respond to the Second World War’s mass denationalisation. Since then, this article has been a polestar to guide states to address statelessness that may accrue in absence of nationality of any group or individual. But, despite that, statelessness has been a major challenge until now. This chapter investigates to what extent the right to nationality has been achieved to everyone’s right. After a critical analysis of the history, politics, and laws on the right to nationality and statelessness, it focuses on the contents and influences of article 15 at different levels. It then reveals the challenges, which intensify denationalisation, and thus, defy the main purpose of article 15 through two contemporary examples of statelessness, i.e., Rohingya, and Roma. In conclusion, a few recommendations are made so that the practices of (non)granting nationality are better aligned with human rights principles and secure ‘other’ human rights which are contingent upon having the right to a nationality

    Predictive models for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and MCI identification: The use of cognitive scores and artificial intelligence algorithms

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    The paper presents a comprehensive study on predictive models for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis, implementing a combination of cognitive scores and artificial intelligence algorithms. The research includes detailed analyses of clinical and demographic variables such as age, education, and various cognitive and functional scores, investigating their distributions and correlations with AD and MCI. The study utilizes several machine-learning classifiers, comparing their performance through metrics like accuracy, precision, and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Key findings include the influence of gender on AD prevalence, the potential protective effect of education, and the significance of functional decline and cognitive performance scores in the models. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of ensemble methods and the robustness of the models across different data subsets, highlighting the potential of artificial intelligence in enhancing diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Semisupervised Vector Quantization in Visual SLAM Using HGCN

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    We present a novel vector quantization (VQ) module for the two state-of-the-art long-range simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms. The VQ task in SLAM is generally performed using unsupervised methods. We provide an alternative approach trough embedding a semisupervised hyperbolic graph convolutional neural network (HGCN) in the VQ step of the SLAM processes. The SLAM platforms we have utilized for this purpose are fast appearance-based mapping (FABMAP) and oriented fast and rotated short (ORB), both of which rely on extracting the features of the captured images in their loop closure detection (LCD) module. For the first time, we have considered the space formed by these SURF features, robust image descriptors, as a graph, enabling us to apply an HGCN in the VQ section which results in an improved LCD performance. The HGCN vector quantizes the SURF feature space, leading to a bag-of-word (BoW) representation construction of the images. This representation is subsequently used to determine LCD accuracy and recall. Our approaches in this study are referred to as HGCN-FABMAP and HGCN-ORB. The main advantage of using HGCN in the LCD section is that it scales linearly when the features are accumulated. The benchmarking experiments show the superiority of our methods in terms of both trajectory generation accuracy in small-scale paths and LCD accuracy and recall for large-scale problems

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