Scholar Commons - Institutional Repository of the University of South Carolina

    The Fundamental Right to Education

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    New litigation has revived one of the most important questions of constitutional law: is education a fundamental right? The Court’s previous answers have been disappointing. While the Court has hinted that it might recognize some minimal right to education, it has thus far refused to do so. To recognize a fundamental right to education, the Court would have to overcome two basic problems. First, the Court needs an originalist theory for why our constitution protects education, particularly since the word education does not even appear in the constitution. Second, the right to education implicates complex questions regarding its scope. Neither litigants nor scholars have seriously grappled with these problems, which explains why the Court has yet to recognize a right to education. This Article demonstrates that the right falls squarely within the Court’s existing precedent. It traces the fundamental importance of education from the nation’s founding principles through the years immediately following the Fourteenth Amendment. It examines historical facts and constitutional developments that have quite simply been overlooked. This Article also defines the scope of a right to education with historical evidence. It demonstrates that the original purpose of public education was to prepare citizens to participate actively in self-government. In the mid-nineteenth century, this required an education that prepares citizens to comprehend, evaluate, and act thoughtfully on the functions and policies of government

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    The Attraction of Imperfection: Depreciating Social Capital in Victorian Marriage Plots

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    My dissertation examines the importance of social capital in British marriage plots. While most people imagine heroines of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century novels embody virtue, I argue that many of the most innocent heroines speculate that sacrificing good assets can produce better marriages. These marriage plots demonstrate that a heroine\u27s reputation must be somewhat damaged before she receives her reward of marriage. In other words, these novels do not uniformly represent, or recommend, the preservation of a heroine\u27s good reputation; rather, they implicitly suggest that some spoiling occur before the consummation of marriage. I study how this curious freckling of heroines\u27 reputations is desirable and financially advantageous. My first two chapters discuss how depreciated reputations become eroticized in early marriage plots including Pamela and Northanger Abbey. I focus on heroines who damage their reputations through flirtation, and I use Pierre Bourdieu\u27s and Georg Simmel\u27s theories to analyze social behaviors and the relationship between flirtation and value accretion, respectively. While early marriage plots often assume that a man who proposes to a woman with low social capital possesses a selfless love, by the Victorian period novels such as Jane Eyre and Daniel Deronda are more suspicious of men who desire to marry their social inferiors as well as more critical of the eroticization of feminine vulnerability. In my third chapter on Victorian novels, I connect society\u27s growing awareness of marital abuse to fictional investigations of how loneliness renders women both appealing and especially susceptible to dangerous suitors. My fourth chapter considers the particularly troublesome capital that celebrity offers women, and I discuss the lives of real celebrities, such as Queen Victoria, and offer a reading of Trollope\u27s Miss Mackenzie. My dissertation concludes by exploring how the patterns in established marriage plots survive in popular culture phenomena such as Downton Abbey. This dissertation contributes to the critical conversation in three ways. First, my claim that the heroine\u27s speculation of social capital is characteristic of the marriage plot is one that brings novels into contact with the credit economy of their time. Although standards for modesty prevent women\u27s speculations from being clearly viewed, they were important players in non-monetary exchanges. Secondly, this project highlights a unique period during which women undergo a trial of solitude that prepares them for an affective marriage (or indicates their readiness for that state). While this period of social exile has deathly connotations, the possibility of future happiness imbues even this dark phase with a certain pleasure, especially for readers. Lastly, this project brings a new focus to the significance of flirtation in British fiction and develops our understanding of the history of desire. While many scholars have written on fallen women and unrelenting flirts, there has been less interest in the flirtation of heroines who are not ultimately condemned. Old models of femininity create a space for play, romantic gambling, and even slightly bad behavior that can harm a woman\u27s reputation. Thus, the concept of erotic femininity in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was not simply virtuously staid but flawed, daring, and lively

    Synthesis of AU and AG Catalysts with Controlled Sizes of Metal Particles

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    The performance of supported metal catalysts largely depends on the structure and composition of the metal particles and the nature of the support. In order to achieve better control over these parameters, synthetic route based on the use of templating agents has been proposed. Among the different templating agents, poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have attracted a lot of recent attention as nanoparticle stabilizers. In this thesis, Au/G4OH nanocomposites were synthesized in aqueous solutions and used as precursors for the preparation of SiO2-supported Au nanoparticles. Elemental analysis, UV-Vis, and STEM measurements were used to estimate the extent of the Au-dendrimer interactions and to illustrate how the solution pH affect the number of Au atoms complexed with each dendrimer molecule, as well as the final size of the SiO2-supported gold particles. At pH=7, Au5/G4OH nanocomposites with sizes of Au particles below 2 nm can be formed and used as precursors for the preparation of solid materials. We show that such nanocomposites can be deposited intact on the surface of SiO2 and yield highly dispersed and nearly uniform Au nanoparticles with dimensions on the order of 1.6 nm. One of the simplest, least expensive methods of catalyst preparation is the wet impregnation, where an oxide support is contacted for a certain time with a liquid solution containing the metal precursor. In certain circumstances when the impregnation conditions are controlled it is possible to end up with uniform and highly dispersed metal particles. One of these examples is the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption (SEA). In this thesis, the extension of SEA is made to an important noble metal, silver. Evaluation of the uptake of Ag diammine (Ag(NH3)2+) over supports with low and mid-point of zero charge (PZC) (Nb2O5, SiO2, Al2O3 and ZrO2) was performed and this knowledge was used to prepare highly dispersed monometallic Ag nanoparticles. Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) was used to determine the reduction temperature of the final Ag/SiO2 (low-PZC) and Ag/Al2O3 (mid-PZC) catalytic materials. Finally, STEM and XRD measurements were also used to image and determine the size of the resulting supported metal nanoparticles, respectively

    Current and Future Developments in Archeological Theory Building Within the Contract Framework

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