Archivio istituzionale della Ricerca - Università degli Studi di Parma

    Safety and tolerability of pneumococcal vaccines in children

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    A number of pneumococcal vaccines have long been available and have been used to reduce the medical, social, and economic problems associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae-related diseases. Areas covered: The main purpose of this review was to analyze what has been, until recently, the established doctrine regarding the safety and tolerability of pneumococcal vaccines that have been used in the past and are currently being used in children. Expert opinion: Pneumococcal vaccines available on the market are all safe and are highly recommended in clinical practice. In children, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are considered the preparations of choice because of their enhanced immunogenicity and superior ability to impact nasopharyngeal carriage. All PCVs are considered safe because the incidence of severe adverse events (AEs) is marginal. Nonetheless, evidence has emerged from post-marketing surveillance regarding the occurrence of very rare but significant potential AEs following PCV administration. Therefore, post-marketing surveillance should be maintained to confirm the existence of these AEs. Over the next few years, other pneumococcal vaccines will be developed. When these new products are licensed and reach the market, new technologies and innovative epidemiological methods will permit a more rapid and more effective evaluation of AEs

    A young infant with transient severe hypertriglyceridemia temporarily associated with meropenem administration : A case report and review of the literature

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    Background: Slight changes in the lipid profile can be observed over the acute phase of infectious diseases. Moreover, some antiinfective drugs can modify serum lipid concentrations, although antibiotics do not seem to have a relevant, direct, or acute effect on the lipid profile. Methods:A 75-day-old breastfed Caucasian female, born at term after a regular pregnancy, was hospitalized for osteomyelitis. She was immediately treated with intravenous meropenem and vancomycin. Therapy was effective, but after 22 days of treatment, her blood was found to be viscous with a purple shade. Results: A fasting blood sample showed serum triglycerides of 966mg/dL, total cholesterol of 258mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 15mg/dL. Secondary causes of hyperlipidemia and primary hereditary disorders were ruled out. Thereafter, the possibility that antibiotics may have had a role in the hypertriglyceridemia was considered, and meropenem was discontinued. After 72 hours of meropenem discontinuation, a sharp modification of lipid variables was observed, and further testing showed a complete normalization of the lipid profile. Conclusion: In this child with osteomyelitis, the increase in serum triglycerides appeared suddenly after 3 weeks of meropenem treatment and resolved quickly after meropenem discontinuation, thus highlighting the possible association between meropenem and lipid profile alterations. Monitoring the lipid profile should be considered in cases of long-term treatment with meropenem, and further studies on meropenem safety should include evaluation of the lipid profile

    Changing patterns of clinical events in perinatally HIV-1 infected children during the era of HAART

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    BACKGROUND: The introduction of HAART has decreased mortality and progression to AIDS in perinatally HIV-1-infected children, but information on modification of the rate of specific clinical events is limited. METHOD: An observational population study on changes in HIV-1-related morbidity was conducted on 1402 perinatally HIV-1-infected children enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children and prospectively followed in the pre-HAART (1985-1995) and post-HAART periods (1996-2000, and 2001-2005). Of this group, 773 children (55.1%) were followed from birth. Median observation time was 8.58 years (interquartile range, 3.71-13.72). RESULTS: Overall, 666 (47.5%) children developed AIDS and 420 (29.9%) died. Improved survival over time was evidenced at Kaplan-Meier analysis (P 15% in 58.5% children with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive reductions of both mortality and rates of class B and C clinical events, including organ complications, were evidenced in the HAART era. Nevertheless, severe bacterial infections, particularly pneumonia, still occurred at considerable high rates, even in the absence of a severe CD4 cell depletion

    7p22.1 microduplication syndrome : refinement of the critical region

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    7p22.1 microduplication syndrome is mainly characterized by developmental and speech delay, craniofacial dysmorphisms and skeletal abnormalities. The minimal critical region includes two OMIM genes: ACTB and RNF216. Here, we report on a girl carrying the smallest 7p22.1 microduplication detected to date, contributing to the delineation of the clinical phenotype of the 7p22.1 duplication syndrome and to the refinement of the minimal critical region. Our patient shares several major features of the 7p22.1 duplication syndrome, including craniofacial dysmorphisms and speech and motor delay, but she also presents with renal anomalies. Based on present and published dup7p22.1 patients we suggest that renal abnormalities might be an additional feature of the 7p22.1 microduplication syndrome. We also pinpoint the ACTB gene as the key gene affecting the 7p22.1 duplication syndrome phenotype

    A new enhanced antibiotic treatment for early and late syphilis

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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an enhanced treatment regimen for syphilis with the addition of doxycycline and ceftriaxone to the conventional benzathine penicillin G (BPG) treatment. Sixty-nine syphilis patients were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (38 patients) received standard therapy and group 2 (31 patients) received the enhanced therapy. All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months. Patients underwent physical examination and serology every 6 months as well as echocardiography and neurological examination every year. A three- to four-fold decline in the initial Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titre within 6 months after therapy was considered as serological cure. At 12 months, 68% of patients in group 1 and 100% in group 2 were serologically cured (P = 0.002). During follow-up, no patients in group 2 experienced complications related to syphilis. In contrast, one patient in group 1 developed neurosyphilis. In conclusion, the enhanced treatment is more effective than standard treatment and results in a higher and faster cure rate. Moreover, it provides treponemicidal antibiotic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby preventing possible late complications

    DNA bacterial load in children with bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia

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    This study was conducted to evaluate the association between pneumococcal DNA load and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in children with community-acquired pneumonia. Bacterial load was quantified and related to the presence of PPE with or without empyema in 72 otherwise healthy children aged ≤5 years who were hospitalised because of radiographically confirmed CAP and showed a real-time polymerase chain reaction that was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. The proportion of children with a high bacterial load (i.e. ≥265 DNA copies/mL) was larger among the subjects with PPE than those without it. Multivariate analysis showed that a high bacterial load was significantly associated with PPE (OR 8.65; 95 % CI 1.10-67.8 vs a bacterial load of <125 copies/mL). Children with infection due to pneumococcal serotype 19A were at highest risk of developing PPE (OR 7.44; 95 % CI 1.10-50.4 vs all other typeable serotypes). The patients with CAP due to pneumococcal serotypes that are not included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were more frequently affected by PPE than those with infections associated with serotypes included in the vaccine, except for serotype 19A. Bacterial loads of ≥265 DNA copies/mL are significantly associated with PPE, and serotype 19A is significantly associated with a high bacterial load and the development of PPE. The mean bacterial load of the patients with empyema was higher than that of patients with simple PPE. Although further studies are required, it seems that serotypes not included in PCV13 can play a major role in causing a higher bacterial load and PP
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