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    2047 research outputs found

    Legal situation of Turkish (Muslim) waqfs in Greece and examination of Komotini (Gümülcine) waqfs

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    With the Lausanne Peace Treaty in 1923, a population exchange between the Republic of Turkey and Greece took place. As a result of this treaty, where these two countries are parties, the Turkish population in Western Thrace (Alexandroupoli, Komotini and Xanthi), which was found in Greek territory and in Turkish territory in Istanbul, Gökçeada and Bozcaada Greek population was excluded from the population exchange. Currently, there are approximately 150,000 Muslim Turkish minorities in the Western Thrace region of Greece. Although the rights of these minorities are determined by the Lausanne Treaty, the rights of the Western Thrace Minority with Article 44 of the Lausanne Treaty were protected. The Waqfs in Greece, in this context, it was protected by Article 40 of the Lausanne Treaty, but this was violated in time in the political environment of Greece. In 1967, the junta administration in Greece in 1967 was dismissed the administrative committees of the Komotini and Xanthi Turkish Community Waqfs and the Turkish Waqfs administrations in Greece started to be determined by appointment. The determination of the waqf administration with the election ended from this date..

    Uluslararası öğrenciler ve uyum süreçleri

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    Uluslararası öğrenci olarak eğitim görmek ve çok kültürlü bir ortamda yaşamak, çok büyük fırsatları ve kıymetli öğrenme imkânlarını beraberinde getirir. Daha iyi bir eğitim, prestijli bir hayat, burs imkânları, yeni bir dil öğrenmek ve bambaşka bir kültürle tanışmak hiç şüphesiz ki yurt dışında eğitim görmeyi çok cazip bir teklif hâline getiriyor. Diğer yandan içinde büyüdüğün ve kültürüne, insanlarına, yaşam tarzına alıştığın ülkeni bırakmak, verilmesi hiç de kolay bir karar değildir. Yaşadığımız alanı değiştirdiğimizde yeni ortamın eski ve alıştığımız ortamdan veya yapmak istediklerimizden daha farklı gereklilikleri olduğunu fark edebiliriz. Bu tür bir durumda “yabancı” veya “dışarıda kalmış” gibi hissetmemek için yeni ortama uyum sağlamamız gerekir fakat bunu yaparken de kendi zihin sağlığımızdan ödün vermemeliyiz. Benzer şekilde yeni hayat şartlarıyla karşılaşmak; hayal kırıklığına, hevesin kırılmasına ve hatta pişmanlığa sebep olabilir. Doğrusu, arkadaşlarım, bunların hepsi sürecin bir parçası. Hiç merak etmeyin

    A scoping review of studies on assistive technology interventions and their impact on individuals with autism spectrum disorder in Arab countries

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    The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Arab countries necessitates evidence-based interventions. Assistive technology (AT) presents a promising approach. However, data on the pervasiveness of AT use and its effectiveness for individuals with ASD, specifically within Arab countries, remain scarce. Objective: To review the current literature on the AT interventions and outcomes reported for individuals with ASD in Arab countries. Methods: A scoping review adhering to PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to explore the utilization of AT, segmented into three categories: low-technology (low-tech), mid-technology (mid-tech), and high-technology (high-tech) devices. Results: Twelve studies had a pooled sample of 1547 participants, primarily male school-aged children with ASD. The AT applications evaluated ranged from low-tech visual schedules and support to high-tech virtual reality systems. Studies have reported the potential benefits of AT in improving communication, social, academic, adaptive, and functional abilities; however, comparative evidence between AT interventions is limited. The identified barriers to the adoption of AT included caregiver uncertainty about the use of AT and a lack of awareness of AT among professionals and the Arab community in general. Conclusion: Available studies suggest that the adoption of AT can enhance the skills of individuals with ASD in Arab countries. However, more rigorous studies across diverse demographic groups and Arab national regions are needed to strengthen the evidence base and provide appropriate recommendations

    Qābus-nāma on virtuous leadership: A medieval model for modern business

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    There is no doubt that social life necessitates the emergence of a ruler. Since leadership is such a broad concept, it became one of the most discussed and researched topics in all areas of social sciences. Both myths and legends, and religious texts describing great leaders and writings about concepts and principles of leadership date back to the emergence of early civilizations. Considering that leadership research has its root in classical texts, these historical manuscripts could be utilized to improve our understanding of leadership. Among many others (Bragues, 2008; Cheng, 2010; Flynn, 2008; Jain & Mukherji, 2009; Klein, 1998; Takala, 1998; Williamson, 2008) relating ancient texts to modern business leadership, Newton (1986) has discussed the relevance of The Republic to understand and shape modern corporations. Although the state and business corporation are distinct institutions, obvious similarities exist between them. Plato’s search for justice within state administration might lead to our search for profitable and sustainable business management

    The inventory of problems-29 is a cross‑culturally valid symptom validity test: Initial validation in a Turkish community sample

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    Because the actuarial evidence base for symptom validity tests (SVTs) is developed in a specific population, it is unclear whether their clinical utility is transferable to a population with different demographic characteristics. To address this, we report here the validation study of a recently developed free-standing SVT, the Inventory of Problems-29 (IOP-29), in a Turkish community sample. We employed a mixed design with a simulation paradigm: The Turkish IOP–29 was presented to the same participants (N = 125; 53.6% female; age range: 19–53) three times in an online format, with instructions to respond honestly (HON), randomly (RND), and attempt to feign a psychiatric disorder (SIM) based on different vignettes. In the SIM condition, participants were presented with one of three scripts instructing them to feign either schizophrenia (SIM-SCZ), depression (SIM-DEP), or posttraumatic stress disorder (SIM-PTSD). As predicted, the Turkish IOP–29 is effective in discriminating between credible and noncredible presentations and equally sensitive to feigning of different psychiatric disorders: The standard cutoff (FDS ≥ .50) is uniformly sensitive (90.2% to 92.9%) and yields a specificity of 88%. Random responding produces FDS scores more similar to those of noncredible presentations, and the random responding score (RRS) has incremental validity in distinguishing random responding from feigned and honest responding. Our findings reveal that the classification accuracy of the IOP–29 is stable across administration languages, feigned clinical constructs, and geographic regions. Validation of the Turkish IOP–29 will be a valuable addition to the limited availability of SVTs in Turkish. We discuss limitations and future directions

    Rethinking municipal corporations: BELBİM A.Ş. as an electronic money institution and Istanbulkart application within the concept of local common needs

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    Belediye tarafından, iktisadi faaliyet olarak ticari şirket kurma örnekleri Cumhuriyet’in ilk yıllarında başlamış ve günümüze kadar devam etmiştir. 5393 sayılı Belediye Kanunu madde 70’te, belediyelerin kendilerine verilen görev ve hizmet alanı kapsamında, mevzuatta düzenlenen usule göre şirket kurabileceği düzenlenmiştir. Nitekim, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi tarafından bir çok şirket kurulmuştur. BELBİM A.Ş. kuruluş tarihi ve faaliyetleri açısından bu şirketler arasında ilk sırada yer almaktadır. BELBİM A.Ş. günümüzde elektronik para kuruluşu olarak faaliyet göstermekte ve “İstanbulkart” uygulaması ile toplu ulaşım faaliyetinde ödeme hizmeti vermektedir. Mahalli idareler tarafından kurulan şirketler arasında elektronik para kuruluşu olarak ilk ve tek nitelikte olan BELBİM A.Ş., mahalli müşterek ihtiyaç kavramı ile belediye şirket faaliyetlerinin sınırlarını ve içeriğini yeniden ele alınması gerekliliğini ortaya çıkarmaktadır.Beginning in the early years of the Republic, examples of municipalities creating commercial firms as an economic activity have lasted until the present day. Article 70 of the Municipal Law No. 5393 stipulates that municipalities may establish companies within the scope of the duties and services assigned to them, in accordance with the procedures set out in the legislation. As a matter of fact, many companies have been established by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. BELBİM AŞ ranks first among these companies in terms of its establishment date and activities. Today, BELBİM AŞ operates as an electronic money institution and provides payment services in public transportation through the “İstanbulkart” application. BELBİM AŞ, the first and only electronic money institution founded by local administrations, reveals the necessity to reconsider the concept of local common needs and the scope and nature of municipal company activities

    Q-ROF fuzzy TOPSIS and VIKOR methods for the selection of sustainable private health insurance policies

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    As a result of the inability of people to meet their demands in the face of increasing demands, people tend to have private health insurance in addition to the general health insurance offered as a public service. Due to the increasing trend of taking out private sustainable health insurance, the number of private sustainable health insurance plans in the health insurance market has increased significantly. Therefore, people may be confronted by a wide range of private health insurance plan options. However, there is limited information about how people analyze private health insurance policies to protect their health in terms of benefit payouts as a result of illness or accident. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide a model to aid people in evaluating various plans and selecting the most appropriate one to provide the best healthcare environment. In this study, a hybrid fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method is suggested for the selection of health insurance plans. Because of the variety of insurance firms and the uncertainties associated with the various coverages they provide, q-level fuzzy set-based decision-making techniques have been chosen. In this study, the problem of choosing private health insurance was handled by considering a case study of evaluations of five alternative insurance companies made by expert decision makers in line with the determined criteria. After assessments by expert decision makers, policy choices were compared using the Q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy (Q-ROF) sets Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Q-ROF VIšeKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) methods. This is one of the first attempts to solve private health policy selection under imprecise information by applying Q-ROF TOPSIS and Q-ROF VIKOR methods. At the end of the case study, the experimental results are evaluated by sensitivity analysis to determine the robustness and reliability of the obtained results

    Exhaustion of trademark rights principle and some problems regarding its implementation in the franchising system

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    Franchising sisteminde franchise alan, çok yüksek bedeller ödemek suretiyle tanınmış bir markanın lisansını almakta ve almış olduğu bu lisans karşılığında tanınmış bir markaya yapılan çeşitli yatırımlar nedeniyle hazırda oluşmuş bulunan müşteri çevresinden yararlanmaktadır. Bu lisansların genel olarak münhasır olduğu görülmektedir. Franchise alan, franchise aldığı bölgede rekabet edilmeyeceği düşüncesi ile franchise verenle bir franchise sözleşmesi imzalamaktadır. Ne var ki, özellikle ürün franchisinginde, franchise alanın satmakta olduğu lüks ürünlerin, internet kanalıyla pazarlandığı ve satış yapan bu kişilere “marka hakkının tükenmesi ilkesi” gereği müdahale edilemediği görülmektedir. Üçüncü kişiler bu malları franchise alanın tüketicilerini hedef alarak yaptığı indirim kampanyalarından satın alabildiği gibi paralel ithalat yoluyla da Türkiye’ye getirip pazarlayabilmektedir. Özellikle de lüks markaların üçüncü kişi tarafından satış sonrası destek hizmetlerinden yoksun bırakılarak ve ilgili markanın pazarlama politikaları dışında farklı yollarla pazarlanması hem markanın itibarına hem de franchise verenin ticaretine sekte vurmaktadır. Bu nedenle “marka hakkının tükenmesi ilkesi”nin her bir olay bazında ve “haklı neden” değerlendirmesi yapılarak istisna kapsamına girip girmediği araştırılarak bir sonuca varılmalıdır.In the franchising system, the franchisee obtains the license of a wellknown brand by paying very high prices and benefits from the existing customer base due to various investments made in a well-known brand in return for this license. These licenses appear to be generally exclusive. The franchisee agrees with the franchisor, with the idea that there will be no competition in the region where the franchise is acquired. However, especially in product franchising, it is seen that the luxury products sold by the franchisee are marketed via the internet by third parties, and these people cannot be intervened in accordance with the principle of “exhaustion of trademark right”. Third parties can purchase these goods from the discount campaigns that the franchisee makes targeting its consumers, as well as bring them to Turkey and market them through parallel imports. In particular, luxury brands are deprived of after-sales support services by the third party and the marketing of the relevant brand in different ways other than the marketing policies of the brand, disrupts both the brand’s reputation and the franchisor’s trade. For this reason, it should be determined whether the principle of “exhaustion of trademark right” falls within the scope of the exception by evaluating the “Reasonable ground” on the basis of each case

    The International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression and its activation

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    Tecavüz, devletler arasında yüzyıllardır bir mesele teşkil etse de günümüze dek faillerinin cezalandırılmamış olması gariptir. Tecavüz suçunun faillerinin yargılanabilme ihtimali, 1998 yılında Roma Statüsü’ne bu suçun ismen dahil edimesiyle gündeme gelmiştir. 2002 yılında Roma Statüsü yürürlüğe girdiğinde metinde tecavüz suçunun tarifi ve şartlerı yer almamaktaydı. Bu eksiklik, 2010 yılında Roma Statüsü’nde yapılan değişikliklerle tecavüz suçunun uygulanma şartları ve tanımının yapılmasıyla giderilmiş olduysa da suç üzerinde Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi’nin yargı yetkisi başlatılmamıştı. Nihayet 2017 yılında Taraf Devletler Meclisi, Mahkeme’ nin tecavüz suçu üzerindeki yargı yetkisinin başlatılması hakkında karar almıştır. Mahkeme’ nin tecavüz suçu hakkındaki yargı yetkisini kullanma usûlleri de dahil olmak üzere bu makale, tecavüz suçunun hukuki çerçevesini Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi bakımından çizmektedir. Bunun yanısıra, makalede uluslararası sistemin gerek tecavüz harbini önlemek gerekse tecavüz suçunun faillerinin bireysel cezai sorumluluğunu tesis etmekdeki güçlü ve zayıf yanlarına dair ayrıntılı değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Makaleyi farklı kılan bir diğer yön ise, Türk uluslararası hukuk literatüründe tecavüz suçu hakkında yirmi yılı aşkın süredir yapılan bir terminolojik hatayı tespit etmesidir.Aggression has been an international issue between States for centuries. Oddly enough, it went unpunished to this day. The possibility of punishing the perpetrators of the crime of aggression has been started when it was introduced as a crime in the Rome Statute in 1998. The Statute entered into force without the definition of the crime of aggression in 2002. This discrepancy was abolished with the 2010 amendments to the Rome Statute which laid down the circumstances of the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court without however without activating this jurisdiction. Finally, in 2017 Assembly of States Parties hold a resolution on the activation of the jurisdiction of the Court over the crime of aggression. This article sets out the legal framework of the crime of aggression in respect of the International Criminal Court including triggering mechanisms to exert jurisdiction on the crime of aggression. The paper, in addition, touches upon the strengths and weaknesses of the international system to enforce individual criminal liability for the perpetrators of the crime of aggression. One of the outstanding aspect of this article is that it points out a terminological mistake for the crime of aggression that has widely been made for more than twenty years in the Turkish international law literature

    The significant effects of parents on their children’s career development

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    Although choosing a career is a long process, young generations can get help from their parents. A vocation that is appropriate for a person makes the person very satisfied, but finding a proper job is stressful. Parents have primary roles in that procedure. Their style of raising the child affects the child's personality and attachment. People try to choose an occupation based on their skills, attitudes, characteristics, and values. The inoculating factor of those things is their parents and their way of raising the children. Parenting styles consist of four dimensions: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved. All these dimensions shape the child's characteristics and selections in life. Some parents want to involve their children's career exploration by appropriately guiding them. There are some parental involvement programs, such as in Canada and Australia. In this paper, the main aim is to define these styles and how these styles affect people's life decisions. On the other hand, to understand the family effect on the child's career desires, there are examples from other countries in the paper

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