University of Groningen

Dissertations of the University of Groningen
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    Potkleibossen in Noord- en Oost-Drenthe:Ondergrond, cultuurgeschiedenis en vegetatie

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    Two specific regions in the north and east of the province of Drenthe (northern Netherlands) contain shallow heavy clay soils that date from the Elsterien Ice Age (475,000—410,000 years BP). As these soils are unsuittable for human settlement or arable farming these regions include a relatively high numberof ancient woodlands. The paper describes the geological, cultural-historical and ecological characteristics of three of these woodlands. Glacial clay soils dating from this second—tolast ice age occur exclusively in places where all younger sediments have been eroded. This is only the case at the edge of the DrentsPlateau. The blackish grey clay layers are extremely stagnant, making them suitable for nothing but grassland. But in the Middle Ages the clay was found to be very well suited for the production of bricks and tiles.This is why the largest monastery in the Netherlands — the Cistercian Abbey of Aduard — founded several brick and tile factories in these glacial clay areas in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 16th and 17th centuries local noblemen and industrial entrepreneurs took over this brick industry, which remained active until the mid-20th century. The best preserved brick-production landscape is in the ancient woodland of De Kleibosch (Foxwolde), where numerous clay pits, field oven relics and heaps of misfired bricks are the silent witnesses of this historical brick industry. Most ancient woodlands on glacial clay soilshave been used as commons by local farmers since medieval times. Written sources like village by-laws tell us that these woodlands produced vast amounts of oak timber, coppice wood and faggots, and were also extensively used for herding cattle and pigs. Because of their rich clay soil and long history of humanexploitation, the last five remnants of this particular type of ancient woodlands contain a unique flora including more than 25 native tree and shrub species and many rare ancient woodland plants. Even though the original woodland was reclaimed in the 19th and 20th centuries, the hedges and woodbanks appearto contain many relics of this ancient woodland vegetation. They therefore deserve speccial attention from researchers, nature managers and politicians to guarantee a sustainable future for these very rare historical-ecological landscapes

    Evaluating proposals in innovation contests:Exploring negative scoring spillovers in the absence of a strict evaluation sequence

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    Prior research demonstrated that, when a strict evaluation sequence is present in innovation contests, the score of the previously evaluated proposal negatively influences the scoring of a subsequent proposal. In this paper, we expand our understanding of such negative scoring spillovers by analysing a setting where not only the previously evaluated proposal, but all other proposals within the same meeting can potentially contribute to negative scoring spillovers. We rely on a sample of 561 proposals in 53 publicly funded innovation contests, launched within the scope of four regional innovation programs in the Netherlands. We also introduce an alternative methodological approach with peer effects to adequately model and test the existence of negative scoring spillovers in contests where a strict evaluation sequence is absent. We provide evidence that, in such contests, proposals can mutually influence each other and that the magnitude of these spillovers depends on the design of the innovation contest. We also discuss the implications of these findings for the specific literature on innovation contests and the broader literature on evaluation spillovers in decision-making processes

    How plausible is plausible?

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    Patterns and Energy Consumption:Design, Implementation, Studies, and Stories

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    Software patterns are well known to both researchers and practitioners. They emerge from the need to tackle problems that become ever more common in development activities. Thus, it is not surprising that patterns have also been explored as a means to address issues related to energy consumption. In this chapter, we discuss patterns at code and design level and address energy efficiency not only as the main concern of patterns but also as a side effect of patterns that were not originally intended to deal with this problem. We first elaborate on state-of-the-art energy-oriented and general-purpose patterns. Next, we present cases of how patterns appear naturally as part of decisions made in industrial projects. By looking at the two levels of abstraction, we identify recurrent issues and solutions. In addition, we illustrate how patterns take part in a network of interconnected components and address energetic concerns. The reporting and cases discussed in this chapter emphasize the importance of being aware of energy-efficient strategies to make informed decisions, especially when developing sustainable software systems.</p

    The Poison Girl (novel)

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    Ring-opening polymerization of non-ionic eutectic mixtures for the synthesis of macroporous polyesters by emulsion templating

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    This work encompasses the study of the sequential ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of deep eutectic system monomers (DESm) composed of L-lactide (LLA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) at low temperatures and in solventless conditions.The tunable average molecular weight, crystallinity, polymer architectures, and controlled degradation profiles of these polyesters depended on the organocatalysts employed, including 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN), a new catalyst for the LLA-CL DESm ROP. Thus, fine-tuning the synthetic parameters led to the synthesis of polymer blends and a block copolymer. The toolbox of DESm capable of undergoing low-temperature and solventless ROP was further extended to LLA and various lactones, including δ-valerolactone and δ-hexalactone. The ROP of these DESm was also catalyzed by guanidine- and sulfonic acid-based organocatalysts for LLA and lactones, respectively. Finally, polycaprolactone triol (PCLT) and OH-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) were investigated as multifunctional macroinitiators in the solventless ROP of LLA-CL DESm catalyzed by 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and methanesulfonic acid. Branched or linear PLLA copolymers with PCLT or PEG, respectively, were blended with PCL after the sequential ROP of LLA-CL DESm. The insights gained into the DESm ROP in bulk were advantageously used to design polymerizable high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) oil-in-DESm. These emulsions sustained the efficient organocatalyzed ROP of the continuous phase. The resulting polymer replicas of the HIPEs, characterized by macroporous and interconnected structures, were capable of sorbing crude oil.The mild polymerization temperatures and solventless conditions stand as green features of the ROP developed in this work to prepare resorbable biomaterials with programmable degradation profiles

    Return to work after total hip or total knee arthroplasty

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    Osteoarthritis is expected to become the most prevalent chronic disorder in the Netherlands by 2040, with its incidence rising rapidly. Total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) is considered the most cost-effective treatment for advanced hip or knee osteoarthritis, and its demand is increasing. Notably, more individuals of working age are opting for these procedures, leading to a shift in rehabilitation needs. We investigated the role of system-related factors (i.e. healthcare- and social security systems, clinical guidelines) and work-related factors (i.e. workplace characteristics, physical- and psychosocial working conditions, and work adjustments) on return to work, and factors associated with fulfilment of patient expectations towards paid employment for the growing group of working-age THA and TKA patients. The findings suggest that there are opportunities to enhance the current attention given to work, highlighting a lack of collaboration among healthcare professionals (orthopaedic surgeons and occupational physicians) and scarcity of guidelines. The thesis reveals that psychosocial working conditions (e.g. possibilities for personal job development, work recognition and quality of supervisor leadership) and expectations, not just physical working conditions (e.g. physical job tasks), play a crucial role in return to work. The insights from this research may improve care for workers undergoing a THA/TKA, advocating for a work-oriented approach. One way to achieve this, would be by incorporating the topic into multidisciplinary guidelines and healthcare provider education. The challenge ahead is to identify and implement multidisciplinary intervention strategies for sustainable RTW, fostering a well-connected care chain

    Active Learning through Art-Making in Philosophy Education

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