University of Louisville

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    6812 research outputs found

    The Short and Troubled History of the Printed State Administrative Codes and Why They Should Be Preserved

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    This article makes a case for the historical importance of early state administrative codes and urges that law libraries preserve them for future researchers of state administrative law and policy

    COVID-19 Hospital Mortality Among Patients with Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: A Comparison Between Public and Private Healthcare Services in San Luis Potosí 2020–2022

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    Background: During 2019, México’s total public spending on health was 5.43% of the national gross domestic product, making it one of the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that invested the least in developing public health systems. This study analyzes hospital mortality among intubated patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 according to type of institution in San Luis Potosí, México, from March 18, 2020, to April 7, 2022. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of publicly available information about mortality among intubated patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with respect to the type of hospitalization institution. Results: Multivariate logistic regression models showed that patients admitted to public healthcare institutions had 2.4 times the risk of death compared to those admitted to private healthcare institutions. Conclusion: In public sector institutions, COVID-19 mortality among intubated patients was moderately higher. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not factors such as decreased availability of infrastructure (such as ventilators, intensive care unit beds, and oxygen reserves), decreased human resources, and high demand for public health services might account for the observed mortality differences

    Displaced Worker Angst and Far Right Populism

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    Background Nothing causes more anguish and frustration than downward social mobility such as that experienced by less-educated workers and especially by displaced workers. Those who lose economic status lose more than income because they become so socially isolated that they are further frustrated through loneliness (Case and Deaton 2020). Hanna Arendt points out that lonely men are susceptible to authoritarian influence (1973, p. 475). There is yet another aspect to the downward social mobility of low skilled men, namely that they are losing ground not only relative to social norms but also relative to the wages of low-skilled women. In 1973 men without a high-school diploma earn 4/hourmorethanwomenwithahighschooldiploma(nocollege).However,by2016theyareearning4/hour more than women with a high-school diploma (no college). However, by 2016 they are earning 1.20/hour less, a decline of $5.20/hour in their relative incomes. This also matters to their psychological alienation. The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has a report that notes that 8.9 million manufacturing workers are displaced by imports from 1991 to 2019 and that 5.4 million workers are needed to produce the growing exports (Rose 2021). However, trade really cannot be blamed for this net loss of 3.5 million workers according to CSIS. Instead, most of the lost jobs come from rising productivity due to fewer and fewer workers needed in manufacturing to run more and more machines, computers, etc. To make matters worse, CSIS points out that the US does less than its foreign competitors to help and retrain workers displaced due to layoffs, downsizing, and/or foreign trade competition. This chapter looks at how downward worker mobility and subsequent rises in societal inequality may be fueling the rise of right-wing populism (sometimes called neo-fascism). A review of relevant literature on worker displacement and angst is conducted, and then there follows a discourse on the implications of such phenomena on current US and global politics. Data is shown from government sources that somewhat validate the research done on the rise of deeply conservative populism. Finally, survey data demonstrate those who are more subject to bouts of unemployment are more likely to believe that immigrants take jobs away from US citizens and that “free” trade agreements are good for the US

    Predictive power of wastewater for nowcasting infectious disease transmission: A retrospective case study of five sewershed areas in Louisville, Kentucky

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    Background: Epidemiological nowcasting traditionally relies on count surveillance data. The availability and quality of such count data may vary over time, limiting representation of true infections. Wastewater data correlates with traditional surveillance data and may provide additional value for nowcasting disease trends. Methods: We obtained SARS-CoV-2 case, death, wastewater, and serosurvey data for Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), between August 2020 and March 2021, and parameterized an existing nowcasting model using combinations of these data. We assessed the predictive performance and variability at the sewershed level and compared the effects of adding or replacing wastewater data to case and death reports. Findings: Adding wastewater data minimally improved the predictive performance of nowcasts compared to a model fitted to case and death data (Weighted Interval Score (WIS) 0.208 versus 0.223), and reduced the predictive performance compared to a model fitted to deaths data (WIS 0.517 versus 0.500). Adding wastewater data to deaths data improved the nowcasts agreement to estimates from models using cases and deaths data. These findings were consistent across individual sewersheds as well as for models fit to the aggregated total data of 5 sewersheds. Retrospective reconstructions of epidemiological dynamics created using different combinations of data were in general agreement (coverage \u3e75%). Interpretation: These findings show wastewater data may be valuable for infectious disease nowcasting when clinical surveillance data are absent, such as early in a pandemic or in low-resource settings where systematic collection of epidemiologic data is difficult

    Innovative Virtual Wellness Interventions at an Academic Medical Center: A Pilot feasibility Study

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    Introduction: There is generally a concerning likelihood of burnout in healthcare workers. Given the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, our institution identified the need for wellness interventions to foster adaptive functioning and mitigate burnout. The purpose of this pilot project was to assess the feasibility of virtual holistic interventions like meditation, art, laughter therapy and dance and their impact on overall well-being of physicians and advanced practice providers (APPs). Methods: A series of 12 virtual sessions (art therapy, dance therapy, mindfulness-based practices/meditation and laughter therapy) were offered to providers over a 6-month period. Participants completed an online survey reporting stress levels on Likert scale 0-10 after each session. These sessions followed an open group format. Data obtained were analyzed using mixed methods. Results: A total of 72 participants attended the sessions (mean: 6, range 2-12), and 40% (29) completed the surveys. Most respondents were white (62%), female (90%) and physicians (69%, with 31% APPs). More than half worked in specialty services (66%), with the rest in primary care (34%). 41% were above the age of 60. Approximately 93% reported statically significant reduction in stress level following the intervention period (pre mean score: 6.3 versus post mean score 2.4, p \u3c .0001). Comments indicated post-intervention stress reduction and relaxation. Subjects appreciated the program and enjoyed the sessions. Some participants felt a sense of accomplishment and connectedness. Conclusion: This virtual program was well received by the providers, who demonstrated significant, immediate stress reduction and reported feeling relaxed after the sessions. These preliminary data are encouraging and point toward the feasibility of holistic approaches to support overall provider well-being. Larger, multi-centered comparative studies should evaluate the impact of different well-being activities, with attention to improving engagement

    Richard III, the Tudor Myth, and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism

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    Over the last 10 years or so there has been a resurgence of interest in the English king Richard III, especially after his remains are found in 2012 after being lost or missing for centuries. Prior to this, there are many publications, reports, and documentaries alluding to a “smear” campaign being conducted against the king by either the Tudor monarchs who succeeded him and/or by their confederates and surrogates. It is alleged that this is done in order to promote and make the Tudor dynasty of the 16th Century (Henry VII, Henry VIII, Mary I, and Elizabeth I) appear to be much better leaders by comparison and to make the social and economic times of Tudor England look better than the bloody and bad times of the 15th Century. The latter is characterized by the continuation and final ending of the Hundred Years War and the War of the Roses as well as by Richard’s alleged usurpation of the crown and tyranny during his brief reign (1483-1485). William Shakespear is even accused of being complicit in promoting the Tudor myth, although perhaps unwittingly due to his reliance on the history being disseminated in his time, long after the demise of Richard III. Since fairly advanced and well-reasoned conjectures of economic activity now exist for the 15th and 16th Centuries, this paper examines the economic times of Richard III and his predecessors of the 15th Century and compares these to those of his Tudor successors. The conjectures show poorer economic performance and higher taxation during the Tudor reign compared to the previous century, and this makes one wonder if another reason for the creation of the Tudor myth is to downplay bad economic performance during their reign. It also raises the question as to whether the vilification of Richard III also helps to obscure the bad economy of 16th Century England. When examined from a long run perspective, this poor economic performance can be considered part of the economics discussion of the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Richard III’s demise and vilification possibly and partially can be understood in the context of this transition


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    ENGL 101 Assignment Sheet

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    Using a toxic aging coin to assess hexavalent chromium-induced neurotoxicity.

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    We are facing an aging crisis, with 20% of the U.S. population projected to be geriatric (65+) by 2030 and live another 40+ years. Age-related diseases accompany a growing geriatric population, emphasizing the need to understand their etiology. Environmental pollutants compound this crisis by: 1) geriatrics are more susceptible, exacerbating age-related diseases and comorbidities, and 2) they accelerate biological aging, inducing age-related diseases at younger ages. We address this crisis using a ‘toxic aging coin’ approach; heads examines how age impacts toxicity, tails examines how chemicals accelerate aging. This thesis applies the heads side for Cr(VI)-induced neurotoxicity across ages. We hypothesize low concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water induces distinct age-, sex-, and region-specific neurotoxicity in rats, with geriatrics exhibiting the strongest effects. We observed Cr accumulation in the hippocampus but not frontal cortex, altered neurobehaviors (frailty, activity, spatial memory), and neurodegeneration, with age, sex, and regional differences

    Connections between polyvictimization, daily stress, emotion regulation, and mental health symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.

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    Background and Objectives: Individuals who experience polyvictimization, or victimization across multiple life contexts, evidence particularly severe outcomes across a range of mental health diagnoses. Preliminary evidence suggests that emotion regulation difficulties and stress sensitization effects may help explain observed links between trauma exposure and mental health symptoms. However, the use of between-subjects designs to address within-subjects processes – a common approach across this literature – can result in erroneous interpretation of findings. Moreover, widespread reliance on retrospective trait measures of emotion regulation, daily stressors, and mental health symptoms have limited insight into the ways that these processes unfold in daily life. Research Design and Methods: The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess relationships between trauma exposure, daily stressors, state perceived stress, emotion regulation, and mental health symptoms in an undergraduate sample (N = 122), with EMA surveys delivered via smartphone over a two-week period. Results: As expected, polyvictimization independently predicted reduced state adaptive strategy use after accounting for baseline mental health symptoms. However, polyvictimization did not predict state maladaptive strategy use or dysregulation when controlling for the effects of baseline mental health symptoms. Contrary to my hypotheses and the stress sensitization framework, polyvictimized individuals did not show reduced capacity to cope with proximal stressors as indicated by increased perceived stress, maladaptive strategy use, or emotion dysregulation. Additionally, results of mediation analyses indicated that there was no indirect effect of polyvictimization on state mental health symptoms via state emotion regulation. Self-monitoring effects were evident for certain groups, with female participants reporting a decrease in mental health symptoms and emotion dysregulation over the EMA period. In contrast, men reported an increase in mental health symptoms and emotion dysregulation from pre- to post-EMA. In terms of emotion regulation strategies, polyvictimized individuals showed a slight decrease in rumination from baseline to follow-up. Discussion and Implications: Prior cross-sectional research using trait measures of emotion regulation has implicated emotion regulation difficulties as a proximal risk factor for mental health symptoms for polyvictimized individuals. The current findings are not entirely consistent with this view, suggesting that mental health symptoms may be a stronger predictor of emotion regulation problems than trauma exposure. Additionally, results add to a growing literature indicating that the use of emotion regulation strategies does not guarantee their efficacy – underscoring the need for methodologies that account for the complexities of the emotion regulation process and relevant contextual factors


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