East Tennessee State University

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    27250 research outputs found

    Social Sustainability Strategy Across the Supply Chain: A Conceptual Approach From the Organisational Perspective

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    Much of the existing literature on the social aspects of sustainability in the supply chain has focused on dyadic buyer-supplier relationships. However, supply chains are much more extensive, featuring multi-tiered systems consisting of many interconnected sequential and parallel dyadic relationships; therefore, a more expansive and holistic approach to exploring the management and integration of social sustainability standards across the extended supply chain is desirable. This research attempts to help fill this void and considers the extent to which a series of sequential upstream and downstream supply chain partners, rather than only a focal organization’s immediate suppliers and buyers, influence the formulation process of the social aspects of a sustainability strategy and the deployment of associated practices across the extended supply chain. Findings in the literature indicate that, inter alia, sustainability efforts in the supply chain are likely to be guided by stakeholders’ sustainability desires/requirements, the geographical location of buyers and suppliers and the associated sustainability enforcement regulations and cultural norms, and the volume of trade between the buyer and supplier. This paper uses the results gleaned from a review of the literature to propose a conceptual framework for selection of sustainability strategy across the multi-tiered supply chain. Finally, we introduce a conceptual approach to the process of implementing and deploying the social aspects of sustainability strategies and practices across the supply chain using an integrated social-sustainability information management system (ISIMS)

    Feeling Not Wanted/Loved and Depression: Does Gender Matter?

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    Depression affects over 17 million American adults yearly and has been identified as the leading cause of disability in people between the ages of 15 and 44 years. There is evidence that feeling neglect or a lack of parental attachment during childhood is associated with depression. One construct that has been overlooked is love from a parent. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between individuals who felt not wanted/loved during adolescence and lifetime depression and to examine this association by gender. We examined 5114 participants aged 24–32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) public use dataset. We used logistic regression analysis to determine the association between an individual feeling not wanted/loved by their parent/caregiver prior to age 18, covariates, and lifetime depression. We then stratified by gender and ran logistic models for both men and women separately. Overall, 16.2% (n = 827) reported lifetime depression diagnosis, while 16.5% of the participants reported feeling not wanted/loved “often,” while 29.8% reported it as “sometimes.” Feeling not wanted/loved “often” was associated with higher odds of depression (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI, 2.45–3.66; p \u3c .001) versus “sometimes” (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.31–1.90; p \u3c .001). When stratified by gender, feeling not loved/wanted was associated with depression among both men (AOR = 3.70; 95% CI, 2.60–5.25; p \u3c .001) and women (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI, 2.13–3.48; p \u3c .001). Feeling not loved or wanted by a parent/caregiver during adolescence has serious implications, for both men and women. Future studies should further examine this construct and identify family-based interventions that focus on parent/caregiver and child relationships

    Female Trombonists\u27 Experiences of Gender Bias

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    Female trombonists are underrepresented throughout the United States especially in collegiate teaching positions. Is the underrepresentation of female trombonists as professional musicians and teachers causing less females to pursue playing the trombone? After discussing the expected roles of females and acceptable instruments for women to play during the 1800’s, this document mentions many women who were able to surpass the norms of female musicians and make their own musical choices. The purpose of this study is to discover if there is any relevance of gender bias towards female trombonists in society today and potentially determine how these biases affect their musical opportunities. This study and the survey questions were inspired by Melissa Ewing’s dissertation, Examining the Under-Representation of Female Euphonium Players in the USA, which examined the lack of female euphonium players in the United States. In order to create a trombone-centered survey, I used questions from Ewing’s survey as a guide while adding other questions to help gain useful information from trombone professors and female-identifying trombone students in the USA. The names of college trombone professors in the United States were collected from the College Music Society directory and this determined the professors who were surveyed and asked to provide their studio gender ratio and questions about identifying as female when applicable. In addition, the professors forwarded the student survey invitation to female-identifying students in their studios to provide their individual experiences as female trombonists in college. This document will serve as a resource for future studies on female-identifying trombonists and gender studies in general regarding music education and performance

    The Development of a Hybrid Ergonomic Walker for a Patient Suffering from Multiple System Atrophy Cerebellar Type I

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    Currently, when an individual needs a mobility device, they must settle for walkers and rollators which cater to some of their needs. For some, this is acceptable, but for others these ill-fitted devices pose a threat to their safety as they increase the frequency of falling while walking. For individuals with ataxia, this problem is further exacerbated as they do not possess the needed motor functions to coordinate their movement and appropriately control the device. This brings relevancy to the topic of customizing walkers for certain individuals to ensure their safety. The patient in this project suffers from multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which results in the shrinking of the portion of the brain directly above the spinal cord. The disease is typically characterized by a lack of coordinated muscle control which affects the individual’s speech, eye movement, gait, and limb co-ordination. As with other forms of ataxia, there is little to no research on devices designed to support individuals with such a disease. The goal of this project is to design a walker suitable for the patient as it has been found that his unique condition cannot be adequately supported by commercially available walkers. The ergonomic walker created is a modification of the U-step walker designed and manufactured by In-Step Mobility Products Corporation. This walker was chosen based on its stable base technology and braking system designed for individuals with limited motor functions. The device was further modified to include an emergency brake system, a sensitive control panel, and a seat tailored to the anthropometric data of the patient. The result was an ergonomic walker designed to ensure the safety of the patient while giving him the confidence to walk independently

    RISK Gameplay Analysis Using Stochastic Beam Search

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    Hasbro’s RISK, first published in 1959, is a complex multiplayer strategy game that has received little attention from the scientific community. Training artificial intelligence (AI) agents using stochastic beam search gives insight into effective strategy when playing RISK. A comprehensive analysis of the systems of play challenges preconceptions about good strategy in some areas of the game while reinforcing those preconceptions in others. This study applies stochastic beam search to discover optimal strategies in RISK. Results of the search show both support for and challenges to traditionally held positions about RISK gameplay. While stochastic beam search competently investigates gameplay on a turn-by-turn basis, the search cannot create contingencies that allow for effective strategy across multiple turns. Future work would investigate additional algorithms that eliminate this limitation to provide further insights into optimal gameplay strategies

    Beginning Teachers\u27 Perceptions of Administrator Involvement in the Beginning Teacher Induction Process: A Phenomenological Study

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    The purpose of this study was to determine how the involvement of the principal and assistant principal in the beginning teacher (BT) induction process influences both self-efficacy and retention from the perspective of beginning teachers in a rural district in northwestern North Carolina. While research exists that highlights the importance of an induction process for beginning teachers in their first year of teaching and the need for fostering self-efficacy among beginning teachers, little analysis has been conducted specifically on the role of the principal or assistant principal in building beginning teachers’ self-efficacy during that process. The underlying framework of this research study focused on principal leadership as it supports a beginning teacher induction program fostering self-efficacy, effectiveness, and retention. Data collection strategies included individual, semi-structured interviews, and document review. Analysis of data occurred in three phases: (a) categorization of data using emergent codes through horizontalization; (b) identification of topic clusters using thematic analysis; and (c) re-examination of the data. The analysis of the interview data was based on the theoretical proposition that principals play an integral role in fostering self-efficacy and retention among beginning teachers. The credibility of the analysis was protected by triangulation of the data through multiple sources, including multiple sources of evidence, member checking, and peer review. The results revealed that beginning teacher self-efficacy and retention were inherently related to principal or assistant principal engagement through supportive services. The results show that while beginning teachers require and benefit from district-level induction support, they are aware of the need for and seek out school-level involvement from their principal and assistant principal. Three overarching themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (1) human resource support, (2) environmental support, and (3) structural support

    The Hope for Peace & the Case for War in the Postwar Soviet Union

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    The postwar Soviet Union remained militarized and failed to reform itself because of its ideological concerns against the West and its new satellite states, all at the cost of the Soviet people. This analysis will compare the Soviet government’s external focus and the Soviet people’s domestic problems in the aftermath of the Second World War. The country’s ideological, military, and imperial concerns abroad emphasized militarization over domestic revitalization. The Soviet people widely expected significant action from their government to remedy economic and political issues. The Soviet government nevertheless committed itself in focusing on outside concerns regardless of the harsh reality of everyday postwar society

    Evaluating the Efficacy of Thiel Cadavers Versus Low Fidelity Simulation Plastic Mannequins for Teaching Intubation Skills in Medical Education

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    Most medical students across the U.S. currently receive intubation skills training on low fidelity simulation (LFS) plastic mannequins. A limitation of these LFS models is that they do not allow students to attain complete familiarity and proficiency with intubation in a real-world clinical setting. For several years now, ETSU has been utilizing the Thiel embalming technique, which allows for greater joint flexibility and preservation of soft tissues compared to traditional embalming techniques. Our study set out to evaluate the efficacy of Thiel cadavers versus LFS plastic mannequins in assessing whether one model was more suitable in teaching intubation skills. After IRB approval, we exposed thirty-two first-and second-year medical students to both LFS models and Thiel embalmed cadavers in order to assess preparedness and confidence for performing intubations, and overall transference to patient care. Participants were shown an instructional video and given a brief lecture on the steps of a successful intubation by the primary investigators of the project before they were asked to practice intubation on both a Thiel cadaver as well as a LFS plastic mannequin. Participants were randomly assigned to note which teaching method to practice on first (Thiel cadaver or LFS model). Students were given written instructions during the procedure, and they completed a pre and post survey assessing preparedness, confidence, transference to patient care, and overall preference between the Thiel cadaver and LFS model for education. Our study significantly concluded that students felt better prepared and more confident by practicing on the Thiel cadaver and unanimously thought that it had better transference to clinical care. Overall, students also felt that the Thiel cadaver provided more knowledge, and close to two thirds of subjects preferred the Thiel cadaver over the LFS mannequin for learning intubation skills while a third of subjects said that both models should be used in training

    Public Willingness to Pay for Continuous and Probabilistic Hazard Information

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    Investments in new weather forecasting technologies and communication products can be costly and serve the ultimate purpose of protecting life and property. The Forecasting a Continuum of Environmental Threats (FACETs) paradigm attempts to improve technology and communication through the provision of probabilistic hazard information (PHI). The research and technology necessary to produce this information requires a substantial resource investment, but the societal value of the information may outweigh the costs. This study provides an initial estimate of this value by exploring public willingness to pay (WTP) for an app that provides continuously updated, geographically situated PHI that could be utilized during a tornado event. Findings indicate that the mean WTP, in a one-time payment, for this precise hazard information product is 7.53perperson.AggregatedtotheUSpopulation,theestimatedvalueisbetween7.53 per person. Aggregated to the US population, the estimated value is between 901 million and $1.56 billion. These findings indicate that federal agencies and private companies are likely to generate a substantial surplus by developing these products and will contribute to improving informed decision-making and protecting lives and property

    Acetyl-Coa Metabolism and Histone Acetylation in the Regulation of Aging and Lifespan

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    Acetyl-CoA is a metabolite at the crossroads of central metabolism and the substrate of histone acetyltransferases regulating gene expression. In many tissues fasting or lifespan extending calorie restriction (CR) decreases glucose-derived metabolic flux through ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) to reduce cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels to decrease activity of the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) stimulating pro-longevity autophagy. Because of this, compounds that decrease cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA have been described as CR mimetics. But few authors have highlighted the potential longevity promoting roles of nuclear acetyl-CoA. For example, increasing nuclear acetyl-CoA levels increases histone acetylation and administration of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increases longevity through increased histone acetylation. Therefore, increased nuclear acetyl-CoA likely plays an important role in promoting longevity. Although cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) promotes aging by decreasing autophagy in some peripheral tissues, increased glial AMPK activity or neuronal differentiation can stimulate ACSS2 nuclear translocation and chromatin association. ACSS2 nuclear translocation can result in increased activity of CREB binding protein (CBP), p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), and other HATs to increase histone acetylation on the promoter of neuroprotective genes including transcription factor EB (TFEB) target genes resulting in increased lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Much of what is known regarding acetyl-CoA metabolism and aging has come from pioneering studies with yeast, fruit flies, and nematodes. These studies have identified evolutionary conserved roles for histone acetylation in promoting longevity. Future studies should focus on the role of nuclear acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation in the control of hypothalamic inflammation, an important driver of organismal aging


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