University of Redlands

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    1867 research outputs found

    Introduction to the Special Issue: Religion, Power, and Resistance: New Ideas for a Divided World

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    The world is currently gripped by pressing environmental, social, and economic challenges. Many people have lost faith that existing power structures can handle them, but they have come to no consensus on solutions. We thus find ourselves in increasingly divided societies, riven by ideological battles for the future of the human and the more-than-human world. In its myriad forms, religion plays many roles in this picture. It can be an underlying source of divisions as well as a powerful means of addressing them

    The Effect of Administrators\u27 Disciplinary Practices on the Educational Trajectory of African American Students

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    This qualitative phenomenological research study examined the effect of administrators’ disciplinary practices on the educational trajectory of African American students. Administrators collect information from teachers and other school employees to determine how students should be disciplined based on policy, rules, and procedures, all involving a level of discretionary decision making. Open-ended interview questions were used to gain information from 15 school site administrators holding the position of principal or assistant principal in a TK–12th-grade urban school district in southern California. The analyzed data centered on seven themes from the participants’ responses based on their lived experiences as school site administrators: (a) policies, rules, and procedures; (b) biases related to school discipline; (c) administrator discretion in discipline decisions; (d) participant impact on students; (e) participant impact on African American students; (f) influence of race on discipline decisions; and (g) culturally responsive school leadership. These findings could assist school site administrators and leaders with information to make equitable decisions that are applied to African American students to reduce the discipline gap in education between African American students and students of other racial groups. All stakeholders in schools come with predispositions and biases and each person must learn to set aside prejudices in order to construct a new learning paradigm. A positive school culture can influence a student’s performance and how the student behaves in school

    Purification of Cyclic Tetrapeptides: cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-Trp] and cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-(4F)Phe]

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    Opioid addiction is a national epidemic; in 2017, 67.8% of drug overdoses involved opioids.1 To combat this addiction crisis, scientists are seeking to develop therapies that would reduce opioid-seeking tendencies. Previous research by Brice-Tutt et al.2 demonstrated the peptide cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-Phe] blocks drug-induced and stress-induced morphine seeking behavior in mouse models, making it a promising lead compound. Our research focuses on determining the structure activity relationship of this scaffold at residue four. A series of peptide analogs was synthesized, and the present study reports on the purification of two such analogs, cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-Trp] and cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-(4F)Phe]. Normal-phase and reverse-phase flash chromatography techniques were used to isolate pure fractions of the peptides. Each peptide’s purity and peptide identity were confirmed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results indicate an oxidation process occurring with cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-Trp] that could be affecting purity and should be investigated further. Fractions of cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-Trp] and cyclo[Pro-Sar-Phe-D-(4F)Phe] were 98.7% and 98.0% pure, respectively. These peptides will be sent to the University of Florida for in vivo testing. From these results, structure-activity analysis can be conducted to better determine the importance of position four in receptor affinity and activity

    The Invisible Nicaraguans: Examining The College Experience Of Six Nicaraguan-American Students In U.S. Higher Education

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    Nicaraguan-American students in U.S. higher education research are not disaggregated from other Central American students and are more often than not lumped together with all “Hispanic” or “Latino/a” students. Conventional studies of immigrant education also tend to treat “Hispanics” or “Latinos/as” as a homogenous group. A few studies do disaggregate “Hispanics” or “Latinos/as” but limit their analysis to large subgroups such as Mexicans (e.g., Aguirre, 1993; Getz, 1997; Hurtado, 1995; San Miguel, 2001; Torres, 1991; Trujillo, 1998; Valencia, 1991). Nicaraguans are a population that is distinct from Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Central and South American groups. According to Pew Research (2015), Nicaraguans settle in various locations around the U.S. that offer different degree of tolerance, group support and social capital. The Nicaraguan population in the U.S. has nearly doubled, growing from 250,000 in 1990 to 381,000 in 2013 (Pew Research, 2015). The population of immigrants from Nicaraguans living in the U.S. have also grown by 35% up from 164,000 in 1990 to 222,000 in 2013 (Pew Research, 2015). Sixty percent of Nicaraguans in the United States were born in Nicaragua, and Nicaraguan-Americans have higher levels of education than other U.S. Hispanic/Latinas/os but lower levels than the U.S. population overall (Pew Research, 2015). This qualitative study examined the college experience of six Nicaraguan-American students to better understand their unique challenges, experiences, and needs

    Cultivating Parental Involvement Through the Lens of Perceived Success and Engagement

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    This narrative study used theoretical frameworks of Epstein’s overlapping sphere of influence and parental framework to evaluate parental perceptions of success held by parents and guardians of African American males in a southern California public school and to determine whether those perceptions influenced school- and district-based involvement and engagement. The research investigated how parents defined academic success by their children, which instructional measures used by the site and district were most appreciated, and which forms of engagement they were most likely to utilize throughout the school year. The research secured thoughts and desires of parents who are often overlooked as community members and provided an opportunity to give feedback on the instructional integrity and academic attainment of their children. The research was designed to increase parental involvement by identifying the needs and desires of the participants. In California, district-based funding is predicated on integration of parental involvement, so most schools offer parental engagement activities. However, it is not clear whether parents and guardians of African American males consider those activities as relevant and participate in them. This research addresses achievement disparities between African American males and their grade-level peers in one urban southern California school district and parents’ concepts of student success measures. Therefore, this research has the capacity to build a strategic collaboration among all members of the learning community through their overlapping spheres of influence

    The Influence of Administrators’ Allocations of the Local Control Funding Formula on African American Students’ Academic Achievement

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    This qualitative phenomenological research explored how administrators perceive Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) resources and their influence on African American student achievement. The central phenomenon was the role of district office administrators in determining LCFF resource allocations. A nonrandom recruitment selection of 10 public-school transitional kindergarten through Grade 12 district employees in a southern California county from seven districts with African American student populations of 8% or higher participated in the study. The district administrators who participated in semistructured interviews were superintendents, assistant superintendents, and directors. Seven themes emerged from the collected and analyzed data: (a) African American students indirectly addressed by LCFF, (b) African American achievement indirectly impacted by LCFF, (c) LCFF statutory regulations: intentional policy and practice, (d) LCFF metrics to determine effective versus ineffective expenditures, (e) LCFF resource allocation methodology, (f) LCFF voice: advocacy and stakeholder engagement, and (g) culturally responsive school leadership. Districts have flexibility with LCFF to allocate resources to meet local needs and address disparities and inequities that impact historically underperforming student groups. In order to understand how to eradicate the persistent underperformance by African American students, this study looks at the perspective of those who have the LCFF decision-making power to allocate resources in districts

    Perceptions of Race and Leadership in Early Childhood Education

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    The aim of this research is to examine the perceptions of leadership and race by African American current and or former decision makers within Early Childhood Education programs. This phenomenological study will explore African American leaders’ views, attitudes, and beliefs about race pertaining to leadership, children, and themselves. The examination of race within educational leadership is not a new concept; however, with the increased attention now given to early education, it is imperative that issues related to improving learning outcomes for all children are addressed

    Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Coding in Literacy Instruction

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    Coding is a language with many similarities to what is traditionally thought of as literacy. Preservice teachers are familiar with literacy instruction, but were not exposed to computer science during their K-12 education nor in their teacher education course work. Yet, they are responsible for preparing children for future careers, including the growing field of computer science, which should be integrated as early as possible into the general education curriculum to build awareness, interest, and ultimately, skills. In this study, preservice teachers in a K-6 reading interventions class were trained in Scratch and provided a template to use with children struggling in various aspects of literacy. This article examines how preservice teachers perceive the relationship between coding and literacy through the theoretical framework of gaming, and whether they would include coding in literacy instruction. Results indicate preservice teachers do not feel confident enough in their teaching abilities to feel comfortable integrating coding into literacy instruction. Lack of prior knowledge and time constraints contributed to those that chose not to participate. Success occurred as Scratch was found to be motivating and individualized when using self-selected pictures and voice to connect to the written word, supporting children’s literacy learning

    Campus Conversations on Scholarly Communications: May 2020 Report

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    Campus Conversations on Scholarly Communications was created as a mini-grant program to foster institutional dialogue. Funded by the Statewide California Electronic Library Consortium (SCELC) Project Initiatives Fund (SPIF) and managed by the Scholarly Communications Committee, grants of up to $800 were used by member and affiliate libraries to engage diverse constituents on topics about licensing contracts, open access, or other scholarly communication topics. This dialogue is needed to address complex issues such as price increases, library budgets, market dominance, social justice, accessibility, sustainability, and relevance. Grant recipients share their work and reflections, inevitably impacted by COVID-19, in this report

    Perception is Reality: Teachers\u27 Perceptions of the Presence of Servant Leadership Characteristics in Public School Principals and its Influence on Teachers

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    This phenomenological study explored teachers’ perceptions of the presence of servant leadership characteristics in their school principals and how the principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics influenced teachers. The primary phenomenon was the teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics based on their direct personal experiences with the principals and the intrinsic and extrinsic influence on their behavior. A nonrandom sample of 16 public school teachers from Grades 1 through 12 from three similar districts in a southern California county was recruited. The elementary, middle, and high school teachers participated in one-on-one semi structured interviews. The data from the 16 oral interviews indicated that principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics, as perceived by the teachers, intrinsically and extrinsically influenced the teachers. The interviews generated seven themes regarding perceptions held by the teachers regarding their principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics. When principals in public schools exhibit servant leadership characteristics, teacher satisfaction and retention are impacted. Therefore, consideration must be made for use of servant leadership as a framework and model for teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ use of servant leadership and how those perceptions influence teachers

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