University of Redlands

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    655 research outputs found

    Segregation Within Public Schools Still Exists Today. How Brown v. Board of Education and Proceeding Cases Led to Resegregation Within Public Schools

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    This paper focuses on the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision and the subsequent Supreme Court cases that followed the Brown decision that allowed for resegregation to occur within public education. It specifically looks at the rulings made in; Green v. County School Board New Kent County (1968), Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), Milliken v. Bradley (1974), Missouri v. Jenkins (1990), and Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District (2007) with a focus on how these subsequent cases post-Brown have led to resegregation on a De Facto basis within public education. This article also addresses strategies to combat De Facto segregation within public education and further examines the different ways segregation has continued to occur in public education through De Facto methods such has housing polices and within school tracking programs

    Allocating Opportunity: The Role and Impact of School Counselors in Promoting Access to AP Coursework

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    In the K–12 education setting, professional school counselors are uniquely positioned to support high quality educational opportunities for all students. At the secondary level, student participation in Advanced Placement (AP) programming can be viewed as one such example of opportunity. School counselors serve as student advocates by channeling information and creating access to educational opportunity like AP. This important work takes place in the context of a bureaucratic policy environment that necessarily shapes the way AP opportunity is allocated in the local context. Charged with promoting equity and access to educational opportunity for all students, school counselors operate in a space of tension, and even conflict, when district policy, school site policy, and organizational norms related to AP participation signal less-than-open access. In this environment, school counselor advocacy and leadership become increasingly important determinants of opportunity and academic outcomes, particularly for students in the margins. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which school counselors (a) are enabled and/or constrained in their ability to create student access to AP coursework, (b) use discretionary decision making as they navigate local AP course-taking policy, (c) consider efficiency and equity as values associated with policy and counseling practice, and (d) identify and perceive justice in their local context of professional work

    The Effect of Administrators\u27 Disciplinary Practices on the Educational Trajectory of African American Students

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    This qualitative phenomenological research study examined the effect of administrators’ disciplinary practices on the educational trajectory of African American students. Administrators collect information from teachers and other school employees to determine how students should be disciplined based on policy, rules, and procedures, all involving a level of discretionary decision making. Open-ended interview questions were used to gain information from 15 school site administrators holding the position of principal or assistant principal in a TK–12th-grade urban school district in southern California. The analyzed data centered on seven themes from the participants’ responses based on their lived experiences as school site administrators: (a) policies, rules, and procedures; (b) biases related to school discipline; (c) administrator discretion in discipline decisions; (d) participant impact on students; (e) participant impact on African American students; (f) influence of race on discipline decisions; and (g) culturally responsive school leadership. These findings could assist school site administrators and leaders with information to make equitable decisions that are applied to African American students to reduce the discipline gap in education between African American students and students of other racial groups. All stakeholders in schools come with predispositions and biases and each person must learn to set aside prejudices in order to construct a new learning paradigm. A positive school culture can influence a student’s performance and how the student behaves in school

    Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Coding in Literacy Instruction

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    Coding is a language with many similarities to what is traditionally thought of as literacy. Preservice teachers are familiar with literacy instruction, but were not exposed to computer science during their K-12 education nor in their teacher education course work. Yet, they are responsible for preparing children for future careers, including the growing field of computer science, which should be integrated as early as possible into the general education curriculum to build awareness, interest, and ultimately, skills. In this study, preservice teachers in a K-6 reading interventions class were trained in Scratch and provided a template to use with children struggling in various aspects of literacy. This article examines how preservice teachers perceive the relationship between coding and literacy through the theoretical framework of gaming, and whether they would include coding in literacy instruction. Results indicate preservice teachers do not feel confident enough in their teaching abilities to feel comfortable integrating coding into literacy instruction. Lack of prior knowledge and time constraints contributed to those that chose not to participate. Success occurred as Scratch was found to be motivating and individualized when using self-selected pictures and voice to connect to the written word, supporting children’s literacy learning

    Perception is Reality: Teachers\u27 Perceptions of the Presence of Servant Leadership Characteristics in Public School Principals and its Influence on Teachers

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    This phenomenological study explored teachers’ perceptions of the presence of servant leadership characteristics in their school principals and how the principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics influenced teachers. The primary phenomenon was the teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics based on their direct personal experiences with the principals and the intrinsic and extrinsic influence on their behavior. A nonrandom sample of 16 public school teachers from Grades 1 through 12 from three similar districts in a southern California county was recruited. The elementary, middle, and high school teachers participated in one-on-one semi structured interviews. The data from the 16 oral interviews indicated that principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics, as perceived by the teachers, intrinsically and extrinsically influenced the teachers. The interviews generated seven themes regarding perceptions held by the teachers regarding their principals’ use of servant leadership characteristics. When principals in public schools exhibit servant leadership characteristics, teacher satisfaction and retention are impacted. Therefore, consideration must be made for use of servant leadership as a framework and model for teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ use of servant leadership and how those perceptions influence teachers

    Achievement Gap in Math at K-12 Among Minority Students in the U.S.

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    This study focused on the continued mathematical achievement gap among minority students at the K-12 level in the United States (U.S.) public schools. Research has found that factors beyond curriculum and instruction impact student achievement. Schools have been struggling with the achievement gap among minority students in the U.S. In addition to issues with schools, there are issues with students that affect the achievement gap in math. Some of these issues are socioeconomic status, a lack of connection to the school environment, apathetic behavior, and other academic challenges. Flores (2007) stated that students in the U.S. continue to make significant academic achievement over the last 45 years. However, the ethnic and racial achievement gap remains, since not all the students advance and develop at similar rates. Liu and Xie (2014) claimed that closing the achievement gap remains significant because it has a direct effect on the students in addition to society. McGee (2004) argued that there are various explanations for the achievement gaps in middle schools, including shortages in trained, knowledgeable, and skilled math teachers and a lack of motivation in mathematics among students. In the U.S., education remains a fundamental privilege; it is viewed as an essential equalizer that must afford every person opportunity and access. However, many students of color have yet to achieve this dream. There remains a substantial educational disparity that has evolved. Thus, bridging the achievement gap remains important and a priority in the current education system (Smith, 2015)

    Considerations on Organic Waste Management at the University of Redlands

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    This paper provides a policy analysis on California State recycling legislation as it pertains to businesses and attempts to estimate the environmental impacts from landfilling food waste in the case of the University of Redlands, Redlands, California. In an effort to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals, the State of California has implemented aggressive recycling standards for businesses to reduce the amount of organic waste which is deposited in landfills. As of March 2019, the University of Redlands (UoR) is not in compliance with law AB1826, which requires the diversion of all generated organic waste into recycling and/or resource recovery programs for waste generators of its size. This paper outlines best practices for the UoR to comply with AB1826 and provides several project alternatives to adopt a recycling program. By complying with AB1826, the UoR would avoid emitting about 626 kilograms of methane gas to the atmosphere every year. This has the same environmental benefit as planting over 250 tree seedlings and allowing them to grow for ten years. Additionally, the annual deposition of 73,136 pounds of food waste from the university\u27s main dining hall, Irvine Commons, in the landfill leads to an accumulation of escaped methane gas in the atmosphere over several decades. This theory of exponential accumulation of methane from consecutive years of landfilling organic waste is in its infancy, and requires further research which carefully accounts for the timespan of generation of gaseous emissions from food waste and the rate of decay of methane gas

    Maintaining a Socially Just Classroom: Ethical Decision-Making for Student Engagement as Positive Outcome

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    This chapter presents an ethical decision-making for student engagement from a social justice perspective. It discusses what social justice means by presenting some principles gathered from existing related research literature supported by teacher voices that are gathered from written survey. Student engagement and the factors that influence it are discussed highlighting them from a socially and culturally situated perspective. Motivational and sociocultural factors such as funds of knowledge, race, social capital, and cultural capital are presented to demonstrate why mere access is not enough as an ethical and equitable way of engaging student to achieve positive outcomes. Access must be activated by providing students ample opportunities to experience a sense of belonging, teacher trust that they are competent learners, recognition of their identities and interests, and meaningful engagements.

    Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision

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    Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision, 6th Edition offers a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach that makes it the most highly cited publication in the field and an authoritative resource for anyone seeking certification as an Approved Clinical Supervisor. Readers gain a thorough view of clinical supervision as they explore central themes from a variety of mental health professions, as well as the important topics of supervision models and modalities, administrative issues, and professional concerns.Retaining its accessible style, the 6th Edition includes additional coverage of multicultural supervision and competence, emerging supervision models, use of technology in supervision, new sections on group work and ethics, increased attention to client outcomes, and a significant focus on supervision beyond training. A new appendix includes supervision examples to help readers connect theory to practice. Its one-of-a-kind supervision toolbox, scholarly approach, and thorough topic coverage sets Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision apart.

    Introducing Web GIS to a Remote Island: Long Caye, Lighthouse Reef, Belize

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    This project focuses on the flexibility of web GIS’ integration at a small scale. The study area of this project was on Belize’s tropical island, Long Caye. Its private owners sought to share its features to adventurous tourists and potential land investors. The effectiveness of its low-quality geographic information delivery and lack of a centralized source for property data were problematic for management to reach higher efficiency levels. The web applications created in this project serve the purpose of public education and land administration by transforming traditional descriptions of the island features onto an interactive interface. The two final deliverables were scalable applications with a target audience being either the general public or the island owners. The results paved the way for further exposure of the island to GIS to enhance the system behind maintaining Long Caye’s treasures


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