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    205542 research outputs found

    Queering connections: triangulation

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    Queering Connections: triangulation brings three women — Katherine Anteney, Sally Schuh, and Louise Siddons — together for a queer experiment in co-creative, collaborative cartography, curated in conversation with the Winchester School of Art artists’ book collection. Seattle, USA-based artist Sally Schuh works with text and image, blurring the line between printmaking and concrete poetry. Katherine Anteney, a WSA alumna based in Southampton, makes prints that explore the strangeness of words and local landscapes. Invited to collaborate, they quickly persuaded curator Louise Siddons to join in. Selections from the WSA book collection amplify the conversations their work collectively introduces about mapping, movement, disability, communication, activism, erasure, and more. <br/

    Financial hardship and mental health: A review of this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic and an exploration of the roles of compassion, self-criticism and self-reassurance

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    A review of the literature investigating the relationship between financial changes due to COVID-19 and mental health was conducted. The review sought to synthesise the existing evidence from longitudinal quantitative studies which have examined the effect of changes in individuals’ financial situations due to COVID-19 on mental health. Information was collected from three databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science), and study screening, quality assessment and data extraction related to the impact of COVID-19-related financial changes on mental health outcomes was conducted. The majority of included studies were of fair methodological quality. Overall, this review demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic increased objective economic impact, financial hardship and subjective financial stress. These adverse changes in people’s financial circumstances due to COVID-19, are associated with worsening mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, affect, global mental health and psychological distress. In a longitudinal study the psychological factors of compassion, self-criticism and self-reassurance were explored for their impact on the relationship between financial hardship and mental health. Participants completed measures of financial hardship, the psychological factors and measures of mental health initially and then completed measures of financial hardship and mental health again, three months later. A hierarchical regression analyses indicated that objective financial hardship significantly predicted mental health outcomes. Mediation analyses demonstrated that fears of compassion from others partially mediated the relationships between objective financial hardship and anxiety, depression, stress and suicide cognitions. Fears of compassion to self partially mediated the relationships between objective financial hardship and depression, stress and suicide cognitions, but not anxiety. Fears of compassion to others did not mediate this relationship. Self-criticism and self-reassurance both partially mediated the relationship between objective financial hardship and anxiety, depression, stress and suicide cognitions

    Unlocking the potential of research-informed practice: insights into benefits, challenges, and significance among teachers in Catalonia, Poland, and England

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    This survey-based study delves into the intricate interplay of research utilization in the pedagogical approaches of a sample of 534 teachers across Catalonia (Spain), Poland, and England. Applying Baudrillard's Theory of Consumption lenses, we present novel insights into the multifaceted aspects of research use, including its benefits, costs, and significance within the teaching profession.Our findings underscore the interdependencies among the perceived benefits, costs, and the significance of research utilization, bolstered by factor analysis. Specifically, our results indicate that teachers regard research as a means to enhance their understandings of educational theories, providing valuable insights to inform their teaching practices. Moreover, research empowers teachers to challenge entrenched conceptions and adopt innovative pedagogical strategies. In addition, the significance of research use is associated with its alignment with school priorities and integration into the decision-making processes. Furthermore, teachers identified various obstacles to research use, including issues of research literacy, support mechanisms, and the accessibility of research resources.The study sheds additional insight on the dynamics of research utilization among teachers operating within diverse national contexts. It underscores the intricate relationships between individual and organizational factors that shape and influence teaching practices.<br/

    Multivalent and bispecific immunostimulatory antibodies for cancer immunotherapy

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    Immunostimulatory antibodies (ISAs) targeting TNFRSF members have shown anti-tumour efficacy in pre-clinical cancer models, but this has not translated into clinical success, primarily due to lack of efficacy and dose-limiting toxicity. Antibody engineering can be utilised to overcome the issues with ISAs. Tetravalent anti-CD27 antibodies were developed by attaching an additional F(ab) fragments to the N-terminus of the of each IgG VH domain. This enhanced the potency of anti-CD27 ISAs through increased avidity and improved receptor clustering. The tetravalent anti-CD27 antibodies also provided greater T cell co-stimulation, enhancing proliferation and anti-tumour responses. Optimal activity of the tetravalent anti-CD27 antibodies was still dependent on FcγR-crosslinking, which could increase the risk of on-target, off-tumour toxicity. To overcome FcγR-dependency and localise the activity of ISAs to the tumour microenvironment, we produced a range of bispecific antibodies targeting m4-1BB and B7-H3. In vitro and in vivo assessment identified that a tetravalent bispecific antibody (2x2) format was the most effective. This format was then used to show that anti-m4-1BB x anti-B7-H3 2x2 bispecific antibodies provided robust anti-tumour immunity and explore whether there was an optimal T cell expressed TNFRSF co-stimulatory receptor to target. Co-stimulation through m4-1BB provided the best T cell co-stimulation, resulting in increased expression of granzyme B and anti-tumour activity in an MC38 hB7-H3 model, compared to 2x2 bispecific antibodies targeting CD27, GITR and OX40. Whilst the anti-m4-1BB x anti-B7-H3 2x2 bispecific antibody greatly enhanced anti-tumour immunity, it was not toxic so the effect of the bispecific format on tumour localisation and reducing dose-limiting toxicity could not be assessed. To assess toxicity, anti-hCD40 x anti-B7-H3 2x2 bispecific antibodies were produced. Anti-hCD40 bispecific antibodies showed that B7-H3 mediated crosslinking enhanced anti-hCD40 antibody activity, increasing NF-κB activation and B cell proliferation. However, anti-hCD40 x anti-B7-H3 bispecific antibodies did not result in decreased toxicity or enhanced anti-tumour activity. Engineered ISAs showed enhanced activity compared to the parental ISAs, with the tetravalent anti-CD27 ISAs and anti-hCD40 bispecific antibodies requiring further optimisation to induce robust anti-tumour immunity. However, the anti-m4-1BB x anti-B7-H3 2x2 bispecific antibody induced anti-tumour immunity in multiple tumour models and further exploration should look to identify the mechanism of action and potentially humanise the bispecific antibody for clinical translation

    Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Energy Transition to Net Zero Energy Reliability, Risk, and Resilience (ETZE R3)

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    The International Workshop on Energy Transition to Zero Carbon: Reliability, Risk, and Resilience is a joint effort by the B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA-GIRS) and the European Safety and Reliability (ESREL) Conference.ETZE R3 is a ESREL workshop consist of multiple sessions designed to be a platform for cross-industrial and interdisciplinary effort and knowledge exchange on risk and resilience of energy transition technologies to net zero.The workshop gathers experts from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to discuss challenges and potential solutions for energy transition technologiesto net zero from different perspectives.This workshop complements existing sessions and workshops organised around specific types of net zero energy risk and resilience assessment. ETZE R3 distinguishes itself from these events by addressing the energy transition issues and risk and resilience topics together and proposing possible solutions for safe and reliable transition to net zero energies.ETZE R3-2023 was held at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, on 3rd-7th September 2023, and gathered 77 participants from 34 organisations from around the globe. This report summarises ETZE R3-2023 workshop. It provides an overview of the main points raised by a community of experts on the current status of risk issues of energy transition to net zero methods. It also outlines research directions for safer, more reliable and resilient net zero technologies

    Causes and solutions to workplace psychological ill-health for nurses, midwives and paramedics: the Care Under Pressure 2 realist review

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    Background: nurses, midwives and paramedics are the largest collective group of clinical staff in the NHS and have some of the highest prevalence of psychological ill-health. Existing literature tends to be profession-specific and focused on individual interventions that place responsibility for good psychological health with nurses, midwives and paramedics themselves. Aim: to improve understanding of how, why and in what contexts nurses, midwives and paramedics experience work-related psychological ill-health; and determine which high-quality interventions can be implemented to minimise psychological ill-health in these professions. Methods: realist synthesis methodology consistent with RAMESES reporting guidelines. Data sources First round database searching in MEDLINE ALL (via Ovid), CINAHL (via EBSCO) and HMIC (via Ovid), was undertaken between February-March 2021, followed by supplementary searching strategies (e.g., hand searching, expert solicitation of key papers). Reverse chronology screening was applied, aimed at retaining 30 relevant papers in each profession. Round two database searches (December 2021) targeted COVID-19-specific literature and literature reviews. No date limits were applied. Results: we built on 7 key reports and included 75 papers in the first round (26 Nursing, 26 Midwifery, 23 Paramedic) plus 44 expert solicitation papers, 29 literature reviews and 49 COVID-19 focused articles in the second round. Through the realist synthesis we surfaced 14 key tensions in the literature and identified five key findings, supported by 26 Context Mechanism and Outcome configurations (CMOcs). The key findings identified that: 1) Interventions are fragmented, individual-focused and insufficiently recognise cumulative chronic stressors; 2) It is difficult to promote staff psychological wellness where there is a blame culture; 3) The needs of the system often override staff wellbeing at work (‘serve &amp; sacrifice’); 4) There are unintended personal costs of upholding and implementing values at work; and 5) It is challenging to design, identify and implement interventions to work optimally for diverse staff groups with diverse and interacting stressors. Conclusions: our realist synthesis strongly suggests the need to improve the systemic working conditions and the working lives of nurses, midwives and paramedics to improve their psychological wellbeing. Individual, one-off psychological interventions are unlikely to succeed alone. Psychological ill-health is highly prevalent in these staff groups (and can be chronic and cumulative as well as acute) and should be anticipated and prepared for, indeed normalised and expected. Healthcare organisations need to: 1) rebalance the working environment to enable healthcare professionals to recover and thrive; 2) invest in multi-level systems approaches to promoting staff psychological wellbeing; and use an organisational diagnostic framework such as the NHS England and NHS Improvement Health and Wellbeing framework to self-assess and implement a systems approach to staff wellbeing. Future work Future research should implement, refine and evaluate systemic interventional strategies. Interventions and evaluations should be co-designed with frontline staff and staff experts by experience, and tailored where possible to local, organisational and workforce needs. Limitations The literature was not equivalent in size and quality across the three professions and we did not carry out citation searches using hand searching and stakeholder / expert suggestions to augment our sample

    Testing and numerical modelling of circular stainless steel reinforced concrete columns

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    Chloride-induced corrosion of carbon steel reinforcing bars is considered the primary cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Stainless steel rebars have gained increasing attention in recent years as a promising alternative to the traditional carbon steel rebars to overcome the problem of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion in RC structures. This paper presents the results of a new experimental testing program on two circular RC columns, subjected to lateral cyclic loading, reinforced with two different stainless steel reinforcing bar grades: austenitic EN 1.4301 and duplex EN 1.4362. A third RC column reinforced with carbon steel reinforcing bar was tested as a control specimen. The resultant force-displacement relationships, damage, energy dissipation, secant stiffness, and moment-curvature relationships from digital image correlation (DIC) are presented and discussed. Finally, an advanced OpenSees finite element model, validated against the conducted tests, for simulating the cyclic response of RC columns is presented

    Tackling inequalities in preconception health and care: barriers, facilitators and recommendations for action from the 2023 UK Preconception EMCR Network conference

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    Reducing inequalities in preconception health and care is critical to improving the health and life chances of current and future generations. A hybrid workshop was held at the 2023 UK Preconception Early and Mid-Career Researchers (EMCR) Network conference to co-develop recommendations on ways to address inequalities in preconception health and care. The workshop engaged multi-disciplinary professionals across diverse career stages and people with lived experience (total n=69). Interactive discussions explored barriers to achieving optimal preconception health, driving influences of inequalities, and recommendations. The Socio-Ecological Model framed the identified themes, with recommendations structured at interpersonal (e.g. community engagement), institutional (e.g. integration of preconception care within existing services) and environmental/societal levels (e.g. education in schools). The co-developed recommendations provide a framework for addressing inequalities in preconception health, emphasising the importance of a whole-systems approach. Further research and evidence-based interventions are now needed to advance the advocacy and implementation of our recommendations

    Economics of geotechnical asset deterioration, maintenance and renewal

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    Transport and other infrastructure systems are supported by, adjacent to and retained by extensive systems of earthworks of varying (and increasing) age, and of variable quality of original construction. These earthworks are subject to natural deterioration, which can be accelerated and complicated by the effects of climate change. The ACHILLES research program is providing improved understanding of earthworks behavior, performance and deterioration, and is developing methods and tools to provide decision support for the construction, maintenance and renewal of earthworks, with particular emphasis on the management of existing, deteriorating assets. Conventional cost-benefit analysis methods, of the type used for new infrastructure projects, do not directly provide the decision support needed for the maintenance and renewal of existing earthworks assets, and an alternative approach is proposed and demonstrated. The handling of the uncertainty associated with earthworks behavior, deterioration rates and times to failure is also considered, as is the extension of the single-asset approach to the management of multiple earthworks assets

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