DCU Online Research Access Service

    The airline – airport –destination authority relationship: the case of Greece

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    The latest European Aviation structural changes have significant implications for the tourism industry and facilitate the formation of a new contractual arrangement among destination stakeholders. Greece has experienced full air transport liberalization since 1998 being a member of the European single aviation market. However, although there is a rise in the country’s international tourism receipts this is not in line with arrivals growth and consequently per capita tourism receipts decrease. Given the unprecedented economic crisis faced by Greece today, it is very crucial to rationalize expenditure and make the best use of the very limited available public resources. An agreement under the defining aspects «Win - Win - Win» which has been developed among airports, airlines and destination authorities needs further economic and legal investigation. This chapter discusses the complex relationship that exists among the three stakeholders in the Greek marketplace. Section two emphasizes on Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) governing the triangular relation and reveals the interdependent conflicting and/or competing attachments of a transactional nature. The Greek travel and tourism sector dynamics under the current economic conditions are discussed in the third section; the important role of aviation in boosting international arrivals causing promising direct and indirect effects (enabling foreign investment, enhancing overall productivity etc.) in the direction of the country’s recovery is outlined in conjunction with related institutional market changes. Finally, section four summarises and concludes

    The ADAPT centre’s participation in WAT 2020 English-to-Odia translation task

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    This paper describes the ADAPT Centre submissions to WAT 2020 for the English-to-Odia translation task. We present the approaches that we followed to try to build competitive machine translation (MT) systems for English-to-Odia. Our approaches include monolingual data selection for creating synthetic data and identifying optimal sets of hyperparameters for Transformer in a low-resource scenario. Our best MT system produces 4.96 BLEU points on the evaluation test set in the English-to-Odia translation tas

    Study of magnetized radio-frequency sheaths using kinetic simulations

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    Plasma sheaths are present wherever a plasma interacts with a surface. In many practical situations, such as in nuclear fusion devices, the sheath is interspersed with an external magnetic field that intersects the surface at some angle. This thesis focuses on the behaviour of magnetized RF sheaths in an RF-CCP discharge since similar RF processes occur near RF antennas in fusion devices. Sheaths represent one of the oldest problems in plasma physics. While there is an abundance of research on sheaths, it is mainly focused on the un-magnetized case or that with a transverse magnetic field. There is less research on the behaviour of sheaths in oblique magnetic fields. RF sheaths are thought to be the cause of numerous, unwanted, deleterious interactions in tokamaks, thereby limiting the performance of RF antennas. Understanding their behaviour is crucial for nuclear fusion research while also having applications in the plasma processing industry where magnetic fields are often employed to enhance reactor performance. The sheath influences particle and energy fluxes to the surface and can ultimately affect the behaviour of the overall plasma. As a whole, knowledge of sheaths is vital to the understanding of plasma-surface interactions. We used a 1d3v electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, MagPIC, developed at DCU, to conduct our research. A kinetic study of the sheath is essential in order to capture the small scale kinetic and non-local effects. We have found a magnetized electron series resonance(MESR) can be induced in the presence of an oblique magnetic field. The occurrence of such a resonance is sensitive to the magnetic field angle and occurs only for an extremely narrow range of angles. We have demonstrated that during resonance the ion flux and energy can become decoupled. Upon optimization of parameters, this may provide an alternative method to realise independent control of ion properties, which may lead to applications in plasma processing. We also investigated the applicability of simple sheath models in describing the magnetized situation. From a comparison of our simulation results with a simple RF sheath model that ignores the magnetic field, it was found that such simple models can offer an adequate description of the magnetized situation for an oblique magnetic field. A brief comparison between 1D simulations and experimental results provided by the group in the Institute of Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India was also considered. From which we recommend a 2D investigation is needed

    Country-level and individual-level predictors of men's support for gender 20 equality in 42 countries

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    Men sometimes withdraw support for gender equality movements when their higher gender status is threatened. Here, we expand the focus of this phenomenon by examining it cross5 culturally, to test if both individual- and country-level variables predict men’s collective action intentions to support gender equality. We tested a model in which men’s zero-sum beliefs about gender predict reduced collective action intentions via an increase in hostile sexism. Because country-level gender equality may threaten men’s higher gender status, we also examined whether the path from zero-sum beliefs to collective action intentions was stronger in countries higher in gender equality. Multilevel modeling on 6,781 men from 42 countries supported the individual-level mediation model, but found no evidence of moderation by country-level gender equality. Both country-level gender equality and individual-level zero-sum thinking independently predicted reductions in men’s willingness to act collectively for gender equality
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