Central Arizona–Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research

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    Initial experiment of Adaptive Therapy to control Breast Cancer

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    abstract: Adaptive therapy utilizes competitive interactions between resistant and sensitive cells by keeping some sensitive cells to control tumor burden with the aim of increasing overall survival and time to progression. The use of adaptive therapy to treat breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and pancreatic cancer in preclinical models has shown significant results in controlling tumor growth. The purpose of this thesis is to draft a protocol to study adaptive therapy in a preclinical model of breast cancer on MCF7, estrogen receptor-positive, cells that have evolved resistance to fulvestrant and palbociclib (MCF7 R). In this study, we used two protocols: drug dose adjustment and intermittent therapy. The MCF7 R cell lines were injected into the mammary fat pads of 11-month-old NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) mice (18 mice) which were then treated with gemcitabine. The results of this experiment did not provide complete information because of the short-term treatments. In addition, we saw an increase in the tumor size of a few of the treated mice, which could be due to the metabolism of the drug at that age, or because of the difference in injection times. Therefore, these adaptive therapy protocols on hormone-refractory breast cancer cell lines will be repeated on young, 6-week old mice by injecting the cell lines at the same time for all mice, which helps the results to be more consistent and accurate. (abstract

    Battleship: An Application of Multiparty Computation Encryption

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    abstract: Cheating in Battleship is effortless. Battleship is a popular two-player board game where each player strategically places five ships on his or her concealed board. During this game, one can easily move their ships during a play, falsify an attack, or not even place their ships. A solution to this concern is implementing multiparty computation (MPC) encryption to ensure that the location of both players’ ships and the result of attacking a ship is true. This document details the creation and security of a Battleship program that implements an MPC encryption method known as Poker Over the Telephone. (abstract

    The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Executive Functioning in Adults with Down Syndrome

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    abstract: The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has shown that an acute bout of Assisted Cycle Therapy improved manual motor functioning, cognitive planning, and information processing in adolescents with Down syndrome but there is a lack of research when it comes to resistance training. Fourteen adults with Down syndrome completed acute sessions of Assisted Cycle Therapy, Resistance Training, and No Training. Cognitive planning was measured by the Tower of London test. The results show that cognitive planning can be improved following Assisted Cycle Therapy. An increase in cognitive planning was also present in the No Training group which may be a result of cognitive stimulating games that were played. In conclusion, this study suggests that teachers, therapists, etc. that work with adults with DS, should be sure to include a cognitive component in all activities. (abstract

    Automation In The Insurance Industry

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    abstract: The insurance industry is a multibillion-dollar industry, yet it lags far behind other industries like banking and big tech in its adaptation of automation. I experienced this first-hand as an intern at State Farm. I completed a project that was a massive data entry job and made it into a process that took clicking three buttons to finish. Although just one example, it was clear that State Farm as well as the insurance industry in general are not utilizing automation and machine learning. The adaptation of automation and machine learning will have internal and external benefits for insurance companies like increased efficiencies in business processes and increased customer satisfaction. However, to realize these external and internal benefits, companies, like State Farm, must implement an adhocratic culture where risk taking is incentivized, and companies must invest resources into their underwriting processes, rather through internal investment or an acquisition, to automate the process. (abstract

    Behavioral Coding of Dog Play in a Shelter Setting: Determining Relationships Between Time Spent in Three Types of Interactions and Physiological Measurements

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    abstract: Animal shelters are stressful environments for dogs and a plethora of research has been conducted on interventions aimed at improving the welfare of these animals. One type of intervention is social interaction, either between dogs and people or dogs and conspecifics. To investigate the types of social interaction dogs engage in and the impact of that contact on their welfare, 12 dogs were enrolled to participate in group sessions with other dogs, supervised by staff, in a shelter setting. There were three, 15-minute sessions per day across three days in which groups of two to four dogs were observed and recorded on video. These videos were then analyzed per dog for three types of interactions: dog-dog, dog-human, and dog-environment. It was found that the dogs spent significantly more time engaging with the staff members in the room than with conspecifics or the environment. Physiological measurements, including cortisol and S-IgA levels, were taken using urinary and fecal samples obtained both in the morning prior to these interaction sessions and after the final interaction of the day. No significant correlations were found between the amount of time that the dogs spent in each type of interaction and dogs’ cortisol or S-IgA levels. However, smaller statistical effects suggest that human interaction may correspond with decreased stress the day after interaction while conspecific interaction may be related to increases in stress the following day. Overall, these findings suggest that social interaction, particularly with people, may be beneficial, and should be further explored as a method to enhance the well-being of shelter dogs. (abstract

    Parental Expectations and Future Pathways to Success

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    abstract: Expectation for college attendance in the United States continues to rise as more jobs require degrees. This study aims to determine how parental expectations affect high school students in their decision to attend college. By examining parental expectations that were placed on current college students prior to and during the application period, we can determine the positive and negative outcomes of these expectations as well as the atmosphere they are creating. To test the hypothesis, an online survey was distributed to current ASU and Barrett, Honors College students regarding their experience with college applications and their parents' influence on their collegiate attendance. A qualitative analysis of the data was conducted in tandem with an analysis of several case studies to determine the results. These data show that parental expectations are having a significant impact on the enrollment of high school students in college programs. With parents placing these expectations on their children, collegiate enrollment will continue to increase. Further studies will be necessary to determine the specific influences these expectations are placing on students. (abstract

    The Benefit of Dedicated Software Training Programs for Individuals, Corporations, and Universities

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    abstract: The intention of this thesis was to explore potential marketing avenues for Anavate Partners. Anavate Partners specialize in implementing, marketing, and selling the Anaplan software and this thesis was intended to provide a direction for their future marketing campaigns. (abstract

    Preschool Teacher Training on Trauma and Resilience

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    abstract: Childhood traumatic experiences are a prevalent public health issue. Children exposed to trauma often exhibit behaviors that make educating them challenging. Preschool teachers at a southwestern United States preschool receive no training related to childhood trauma and resilience. The purpose of this project was to educate preschool teachers on trauma and resilience to improve attitude related to educating children with trauma. Following Arizona State University Internal Review Board approval, preschool teachers were recruited from a non-profit metropolitan preschool. Project included two pre-training questionnaires (Adult Resilience Measure-Revised [ARM-R] and Attitudes Related to Trauma Informed Care scale [ARTIC]), one two-hour training via Zoom on childhood trauma and resilience, and post-training ARTIC questionnaire at two and six weeks. Seven teachers (n=7) participated in pre-training questionnaires, and three of these teachers (n=3) participated in both post-training questionnaires. All participating teachers were female and Caucasian. Average age of participants was 49.43 years (SD=8.40, range 36-60), and experience average was 17.17 years (SD=10.15, range 3-30). AMR-R average score was 72.29 (SD=8.28, range 61-83). Pre-training ARTIC score average was 3.87 (SD=0.16). Post-training ARTIC scores at two weeks and six weeks post-training were 3.65 (SD=0.22) and 3.86 (SD=0.25). Clinical significance included improved teacher awareness of childhood trauma and improved ability to interact with children exposed to trauma. Teachers exhibited high resilience scores. Additional research needed related to further address educating preschool teachers related to trauma informed care, related to building resilience in children, and related to the impact of teacher resilience on trauma informed care. Keywords: teacher training, adverse childhood experiences, ACEs, childhood trauma, resilienc

    Food's Influence On Culture in Worldbuilding in Speculative Fiction

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    abstract: Speculative fiction requires massive amounts of worldbuilding in order to create realistic societies and cultures for the audience to understand. While there are many aspects of worldbuilding such as economics, religion, and politics that are highly focused on in the discussion of how to worldbuild, there are also elements of everyday society that are not discussed as thoroughly. One of these aspects is food. This includes both how food is produced in certain speculative fiction settings and how these different cultures interact with food items on a daily basis. In addition to the ways that food systems operate, this project looks into three major works of speculative fiction--Star Trek: The Next Generation, Battlestar Galactica, and the works of Tolkien--to analyze the ways that these pieces of fiction have or have not used food as a part of worldbuilding. Then, I use the research that I have done to demonstrate the ways in which the food system can be incorporated into a work of speculative fiction through the writing of my own creative piece, “Of Yoila and Yalia�. My research details the ways that speculative fiction tends to treat food as either a logistical issue or simply a differentiating cultural marker instead of a useful tool to build a culture and act as a foothold for readers as they access a world that is foreign to them. Through my research and the writing of “Of Yoila and Yalia�, I conclude that food is an important aspect of creating a society and a culture that is not only accessible to readers but is relatable and understandable. To overlook food is to disregard one of the most compelling elements of culture that people interact with on a daily basis and therefore miss much of what culture revolves around. (abstract

    The Explorations of Ethical Complexities of Selective Abortion in the United States

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    abstract: Abortion is one of the most polarizing moral issues in our society today. This issue divides the country into two separate groups: Pro-choice or Pro-life. Our thesis analyzes published reviewed articles, media articles, policy papers, and perspective, opinion, and commentary pieces to discuss the ethical implications of selective abortion, specifically sex-selective abortion and genetic-selective abortion. Our thesis provides an overview of selective abortion, explores women’s bodily autonomy in the U.S., addresses the complexities of both sex-selective and genetic-selective abortion, and finally evaluates the U.S.’s regulation of selective abortion. Through these topics, we were able to determine the implications selective abortion has on the disabled community and how selective abortion is being used to ban abortion overall in the U.S. (abstract

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