University of the Sunshine Coast

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    26125 research outputs found

    The situation awareness of young drivers, middle-aged drivers, and older drivers: Same but different?

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    Extensive driving experience is essential for developing vital situation awareness skills. Young (‘inexperienced’) drivers have poor situation awareness (SA) skills compared to middle-aged (experienced) drivers, and driving abilities have been found to deteriorate with increasing age. Much remains unknown regarding similarities and differences in the SA of these driver cohorts. Data and Methodology: Using verbal commentary protocol, 36 persons with a valid driver’s licence (12 young, 12 middle-aged, 12 older) observed a 16-minute day-time driving scenario. Results: Similarities in SA were found, with all participants commenting on driving hazards in the immediate environment (eg., vehicle immediately in front). Differences in SA across groups were found, particularly the structure of the SA network. SA information is vital for effective intervention in the road safety of all drivers, improving the learning of young drivers, teaching by middle-aged drivers, and optimising road safety for older drivers

    Survival, molting pattern, and growth of early blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, juveniles fed diets containing varying levels of cholesterol

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    This study examined the effects of dietary cholesterol on the survival, molting pattern, and growth of early juveniles of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus. Seven isocaloric diets were formulated to contain cholesterol at 0 (basal diet), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 g/kg diet dry weight. Survival ranged from 20 to 47.5%, with the highest survival recorded for crabs fed the diet supplemented with 10 g/kg cholesterol, while the lowest survival was demonstrated by crabs fed the basal diet. The highest occurrence of molt death syndrome was found for crabs fed the diet with cholesterol supplementation of 15 g/kg. A general trend of decreasing development time to the crab 3 (C3) stage was observed with increasing dietary cholesterol supplementation up to a level of 10 g/kg, but this then decreased as dietary cholesterol level was increased to 12.5 and 15 g/kg. The specific growth rates of crabs, calculated for dry weight, carapace width, and carapace length, followed a similar trend. Our results suggest that, under the current feeding conditions, a dietary cholesterol level of 10 g/kg appears to be optimal for the culture of early juveniles of P. pelagicus

    The Physics of MRI and How We Use It to Reveal the Mysteries of the Mind

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    Stochastic strength rating of flexible airport pavements using construction data

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    Airport pavements are designed to accommodate a broad range of aircraft loads, necessitating an airport-specific strength rating. Strength rating for a particular pavement is usually calculated deterministically, based on assumed pavement layer thicknesses and conservative values of stiffness for each layer of material. This research demonstrates a stochastic approach to flexible airport pavement strength determination via a case study on the Whitsunday Coast Airport. Construction records are statistically analysed and construction-based deterministic and stochastic strength ratings are compared to the design-based strength. The stochastic strength rating was generated by Monte Carlo simulation. The strength rating is found to vary greater with only slight differences in the probability of encountering understrength areas of pavement, and this case study is recommended as a template for the application to other airports. Also, 10,000 simulations were found to produce stable results and truncation of the distribution of construction factors had little impact on the resulting pavement strength distribution. Further research is recommended to better understand the distribution of asphalt modulus, as well as the direct engagement of design software for Monte Carlo simulation, in order to avoid the need for a pavement-specific prediction model

    Alternative dispute resolution and mediation of complaints against police in Australia and New Zealand

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    This study assessed the role of alternative dispute resolution options in the complaints management systems of the eight policing jurisdictions in Australia and the single jurisdiction of New Zealand. The available literature shows that a large proportion of complainants would like to participate in mediation, and that both complainants and police who experience mediation report much higher rates of satisfaction than those experiencing traditional adversarial investigative and adjudicative processes. Experiences with informal dispute resolution or ‘conciliation’ options are more mixed, and they are susceptible to tokenism and misuse as a convenient administrative means of disposing of complaints. Despite this situation, the data obtained from police and oversight agency sources in this study showed that options were limited to informal resolution conducted by senior officers, with an ostensible focus on behavioral improvement but with no meaningful publicly available data on outcomes. The paper concludes by advocating for a best practice complaints management system that includes mediation within a consultative framework focused on behavioral improvement

    Comparing the impact of management support on police officers’ perceptions of discretionary power and engagement: Australia, USA and Malta

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    This paper uses Social Exchange Theory as a lens for comparing the impact of management support upon police perceptions of discretionary power and employee engagement, across three countries. A survey-based, self-report process collected data from 193 police officers in Australia, 588 from the USA, and 249 from Malta. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings suggest a significantly different management support context across the three countries, as well as significantly different perceptions of discretionary power. Across the three countries, police perceived relatively poor satisfaction with organizational management support and only some engagement levels. However, USA police perceived significantly more discretionary power than the other country samples. These findings provide greater clarity about the link between management support, discretionary power and engagement for the police officers. Since employee engagement likely affects policing outcomes, the findings suggest that poor management support of police officers could negatively affect the provided service. Potential strategies to enhance police engagement include (a) training police managers about how to manage so as to promote greater engagement, and (b) modifying police managers’ performance indicators in line with achieving better police engagement. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Grou

    Losing your head: Are principals attached to their school?

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    This article explores the effects on former principals who have undergone involuntary job dissolution. It draws upon a study of 10 former principals who have experienced involuntary job dissolution in England and Australia; however, none of the participants were dismissed. Hour-long, one-to-one interviews were conducted with each participant and key emergent themes analysed. There was a high level of congruence between data from the two countries and key findings were effects on former principals’ physical and emotional health, self-belief, professional identity and finances, plus a sense of loss of power. The effects of these job losses were significant and longlasting. The analysis positions these results within the established literature on job loss, particularly with regard to Bowlby’s attachment theory. The manner of departure appears to carry substantial meaning and there are implications here for the management of school principals. Attachment theory suggests people undergo physical and emotional loss when separated from loved ones. The participants displayed a sense of grief akin to loss of a significant other. The authors put forward the concept that principalship involves attachment to the school institution as in a love relationship

    Contesting family-based violence: sole parenting possibilities and alternatives

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    This paper considers problematic recognisability and deficit constructions of sole parent families which I suggest contribute to conditions that can perpetuate family-based violence. Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s safety (ANROWS) state that one in four women in Australia have experienced at least one incident of violence by an intimate partner, equating to 2.2 million women who, since the age of 15, have experienced male intimate partner violence. A proliferation of discourses constructing the deficit ‘single mother’ tends to reinscribe the centrality and normative power of the hetero-nuclear family. When we obscure and restrict choice and alternatives to familial forms we restrict the possibilities of these alternatives becoming liveable lives. When deficit constructions of sole parenting are reinforced, people in dangerous and untenable violent family circumstances are less likely to view sole parenting as a possibility for constituting an alternative and happy family life. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Grou

    Memory Keeper: A prototype digital application to improve engagement with people with dementia in long-term care (innovative practice)

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    People with dementia living in long-term care commonly experience loneliness and lack of meaningful activity. Memory Keeper is a prototype digital application that presents personalised prompts to stimulate reminiscences and meaningful engagement with formal and informal carers. A trial involving three persons with dementia in long-term care and seven family and staff members revealed no negative responses to the device or application. Family members said it was valuable in improving the quality of engagement and made visits more enjoyable. If practical and technical barriers can be overcome, Memory Keeper could become an innovative family engagement tool for dementia management

    Physical education across the international media: a five-year analysis

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    The message of physical education (PE) has been one of a ‘contested ground’ with regular debate around its purpose, alongside conceptual confusions. A major channel of communication that strongly influences public perceptions is through mainstream media, yet how media platforms have reported on the PE profession has received a scarcity of research attention. The aim of this research was to investigate international media reporting of PE over a five-year period. To generate key concepts and themes emerging from the international PE media (English speaking), researchers conducted a Leximancer text mining analysis of media articles published via the Google News function between January 2013 and March 2018. A PE for health discourse was evident from across the international media reporting of PE with regular concepts and themes focused upon the ‘physical’ including activity, health, obesity, physical activity and exercise. It was also evident that there were clear links between the concept of ‘physical education’ with regulatory concepts such as ‘requirements, reporting and law’. Notable thematic absences related to how PE goals can be met through teaching, learning and programming. Unpacking conceptual and thematic insight into how the PE profession has been reported into the public sphere sheds light on key trends, discourses and influences that are being communicated to the public across global contexts

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