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    Wspólnota gniewu i troski. Imaginaria dziewczyńskości w „Igrzyskach śmierci” i „Dziczy” na tle badań Carol Gilligan

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    Within feminist theory, the concept of ethics of care introduced by Carol Gilligan is considered to be an original and interesting model for describing patterns in which empathy expresses and manifests itself in the process of constituting young female subjectivity. Using it as an analytical tool, the author examines selected narrative models in works of popular culture addressed primarily to young audiences. Care and anger are treated as emotions that have a huge impact on the decisions made by the protagonists of the TV series The Wilds and the book and film series The Hunger Games, who are motivated by concerns for the safety of loved ones and the demand for a specific idea of justice. Narrative strategies built in this way allow the audience to perceive teenage protagonists in experiencing various forms of oppression as figures of empowered and agency, which in turn increases the spectrum of the attitudes of independent girl heroines presented within the popular culture.Koncepcja etyki troski opracowana przez Carol Gilligan uznawana jest w ramach teorii feministycznej za oryginalny i interesujący model konstruowania wzorców dziewczyńskiej empatii. Stosując ją jako narzędzie analityczne, pochylam się nad wybranymi modelami narracyjnymi w utworach kultury popularnej, kierowanych przede wszystkim do grona młodych odbiorczyń. Troskę oraz gniew traktuję jako afekty mające olbrzymi wpływ na decyzje podejmowane przez bohaterki serialu Dzicz oraz literacko-filmowej serii Igrzyska śmierci, kierujące się konkretnie troską o bezpieczeństwo najbliższych oraz potrzebą specyficznie postrzeganej sprawiedliwości. Tak budowane strategie narracyjne pozwalają odczytywać nastoletnie bohaterki w sytuacji opresji jako upodmiotowione i sprawcze postaci, zwiększając reprezentatywność postaw niezależnych bohaterek dziewczęcych w kulturze popularnej

    Strasbourg – Wrocław – Cracow. On the transfer of the “Upper Rhenish style” of Gothic church architecture to Silesia and Lesser Poland in the first half of the 14th c.

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    The turn of the 14th c. was a special moment in the history of Gothic architecture. It was during this time that the Upper Rhine region quickly gained artistic importance and became the most advanced architectural centre in Europe. The main focus of the article is to show how new trends in architectural design became apparent in two regions of southern Poland, Silesia and Lesser Poland, as early as around 1280. Monastic churches at Lubiaz and Kamieniec as well as the cathedrals and parish churches of Wroclaw and Cracow exemplify the impact of Upper Rhine models on the stylistic development of Central European Gothic architecture. They bear witness of the artistic maturity that had already been reached in the southern Polish regions in the last decades of the 13th century. The study highlights in a special way the artistic role of Wroclaw, which in the 14th c. can be regarded as an architectural centre of far supra-regional importance. It shows that the patrons and master builders of the time in Wroclaw not only maintained constant and intensive contacts with the leading creative centres in south-west Germany, but also contributed to the transmission of the latest style patterns further afield – including to Cracow

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    “Heldenplatz” by Thomas Bernhard or frightening ado about nothing

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    Der vorliegende Beitrag ist dem Drama Heldenplatz von Thomas Bernhard gewidmet, seinem wohl bekanntesten Theaterstück, dessen Premiere im Wiener Burgtheater 1988 einen großen Skandal auslöste. Er entzündete sich an den auf der Bühne fallenden abfälligen Worten über Österreich und die Österreicher, die man entweder als eine unzulässige Zumutung oder als eine längst überfällige Abrechnung mit der verdrängten nationalsozialistischen Vergangenheit des Landes interpretierte. Die Analyse des Textes führt zum Ergebnis, dass es Bernhard gar nicht um die vordergründige plakative Österreichkritik ging. Sein eigentliches Anliegen lag vielmehr in der hier benutzten Sprache, deren menschenverachtende Rhetorik auf die ideologischen Raster der NS-Propaganda rekurrierte. Die öffentliche Erregung nach der Premiere zeigte, dass man eine solche Sprache der österreichischen Öffentlichkeit immer noch zumuten konnte. Der Schriftsteller stellte damit eine durchaus beängstigende Diagnose, die die österreichischen Medien und die Diskurskultur des ganzen Landes betraf.This paper concerns Heldenplatz, the play by Thomas Bernhard which premiered in 1988 at the Vienna Burgtheater and provoked a big public row. The reason were offensive words about Austria and the Austrians spoken on the stage. The critics and the public interpreted the play as a way of coming to terms with the Austrian National Socialist history or as a blameworthy imposition. The analysis in the paper leads to the conclusion that the bold criticism of Austria was not the true in- tention of the playwright. His real concern was the language spoken on the stage. Its imitation of the simplistic rhetoric of the ideological patterns of the National Socialism propaganda served to test the public validity of these patterns. Bernhard showed that the public was still ready to use this kind of language, and thereby made a frightening diagnosis of the contemporary Austrian society.Der vorliegende Beitrag ist dem Drama Heldenplatz von Thomas Bernhard gewidmet, seinem wohl bekanntesten Theaterstück, dessen Premiere im Wiener Burgtheater 1988 einen großen Skandal auslöste. Er entzündete sich an den auf der Bühne fallenden abfälligen Worten über Österreich und die Österreicher, die man entweder als eine unzulässige Zumutung oder als eine längst überfällige Abrechnung mit der verdrängten nationalsozialistischen Vergangenheit des Landes interpretierte. Die Analyse des Textes führt zum Ergebnis, dass es Bernhard gar nicht um die vordergründige plakative Österreichkritik ging. Sein eigentliches Anliegen lag vielmehr in der hier benutzten Sprache, deren menschenverachtende Rhetorik auf die ideologischen Raster der NS-Propaganda rekurrierte. Die öffentliche Erregung nach der Premiere zeigte, dass man eine solche Sprache der österreichischen Öffentlichkeit immer noch zumuten konnte. Der Schriftsteller stellte damit eine durchaus beängstigende Diagnose, die die österreichischen Medien und die Diskurskultur des ganzen Landes betraf

    News śledczy a wydarzenie medialne. Reportaż „Franciszkańska 3” — studium przypadku

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    The investigative report “Franciszkańska 3” by Marcin Gutowski on TVN about the attitude of Pope John Paul II towards pedophilia in the Catholic Church sparked a national discussion that led to specific behavior in the political and social sphere. The aim of this article is to analyze the phases of the discourse of investigative journalism (the reportage “Franciszkańska 3”), from the publication phase through the mobilization of public opinion, to political and social initiatives in the form of the so-called papal marches. The marches became — according to the typology created by Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz — a media event in the version of a “coronation”. In the described case, one of the variants of the abbreviated muckraking model by Molotch, Protess and Gordon was updated in a previously unknown subvariant characterized by a public reaction opposite to that expected by journalists initiating investigative activities. They were largely rejected by the defenders of John Paul II, becoming the axis of the worldview conflict, and causing outrage of a large part of the public opinion and creating a media event in the form of papal marches.Reportaż śledczy Franciszkańska 3 Marcina Gutowskiego w telewizji TVN24 o stosunku papieża Jana Pawła II do pedofilii w Kościele katolickim wywołał ogólnonarodową dyskusję, która doprowadziła do swoistych zachowań w sferze politycznej i społecznej. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest analiza faz dyskursu dziennikarstwa śledczego (reportażu Franciszkańska 3) od fazy publikacji poprzez mobilizację opinii publicznej do inicjatyw polityczno-społecznych w postaci tak zwanych marszy papieskich. Marsze stały się — zgodnie z typologią Daniela Dayana i Elihu Katza — wydarzeniem medialnym w odmianie koronacji. W opisywanym przypadku nastąpiła aktualizacja jednego z wariantów skróconego modelu muckrakingu autorstwa Harveya Molotcha, Davida L. Protessa i Margaret T. Gordon w nieznanym wcześniej subwariancie charakteryzującym się reakcją opinii publicznej przeciwną do oczekiwanej przez dziennikarzy inicjujących działania śledcze. W dużym stopniu działania te zostały zanegowane przez obrońców Jana Pawła II, stały się osią konfliktu światopoglądowego i wywołały oburzenie znacznej części opinii publicznej oraz wykreowały wydarzenie medialne w postaci marszy papieskich

    Poglądy Oswalda Spenglera na państwo, politykę, rewolucję i prawo

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    Last Remnants of the French Wild West: Remembering “Colorado” (1990)

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    Few settings are as quintessentially American as the Wild West. In games, the myth of the American frontier is the myth of American expansion. This myth explores, sometimes with enthusiasm, at other times with a tinge of regret, the conquest of the “wilderness” with its Native inhabitants and wildlife, and its replacement by “civilization” represented by settlers and railroads. Yet, European expansion on the frontier is not exclusively an Anglo-American story. It was the French explorers, traders, and trappers that first set out westward (and southward) along the rivers from Canada and the Great Lakes. The French experience of the frontier was radically different: for them, with the limited resources of their soon-to-be-sold colonial empire, the wilderness was effectively untameable, its Native inhabitants unconquerable: it was thus a place of permanent danger, where one might, with equal probability, eke out a living, earn a fortune, or simply perish. Only once has the French West appeared in a digital game, in Silmarils’s Colorado (1990). This paper examines Colorado as an artefact of French game development in the 16-bit era, as a unique depiction of the forgotten French West, and, finally, as a 2D predecessor of today’s sprawling 3D open-world games

    Prawo karne w konstytucjach sejmu koronacyjnego z roku 1588

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    The author attempts to select and then to analyse criminal law provisions of the constitutions of the Coronation Sejm of 1588. Using a dogmatic-linguistic interpretation, applied together with the historical-descriptive method, he seeks to present the results of his explorations in a broad historical perspective. His intention is to illustrate the evolution of some institutions of Polish criminal law in the past. Drawing on comparative legal research, he presents the results of his studies in a broad historical-legal perspective. The author ends with confronting his final conclusions with theses formulated by some other, outstanding scholars, hoping that his research will inspire other explorers of the subject matter.Criminal law in the constitutions of the Coronation Sejm of 1588The author attempts to select and then to analyse criminal law provisions of the constitutions of the Coronation Sejm of 1588. Using a dogmatic-linguistic interpretation, applied together with the historical-descriptive method, he seeks to present the results of his explorations in a broad historical perspective. His intention is to illustrate the evolution of some institutions of Polish criminal law in the past. Drawing on comparative legal research, he presents the results of his studies in a broad historical-legal perspective. The author ends with confronting his final conclusions with theses formulated by some other, outstanding scholars, hoping that his research will inspire other explorers of the subject matter. Das Strafrecht in den Verfassungen des Krönungssejm aus dem Jahre 1588Der Autor des Artikels versuchte die strafrechtlichen Bestimmungen der Verfassung des Krönungssejm aus dem Jahre 1588 auszuwählen und dann zu analysieren. Unter Verwendung der sprachlich-dogmatischen Auslegungsmethode und subsidiär der deskriptiv-historischen, bemühte er sich, die Ergebnisse seiner Untersuchung vor einer breiten historischen Perspektive darzustellen. Seine Intention war, den Prozess der Evolution einiger Institutionen des alten, polnischen Kriminalrechtes zu schildern. Mit Hilfe der rechtlichen Komparatistik wollte er die Ergebnisse der durchgeführten Forschung aus einem breiten rechtshistorischen Blickwinkel darstellen. Die zum Schluss der Forschungsarbeit formulierten Einsichten, die mit Thesen anderer Berühmtheiten konfrontiert werden, sollten weitere Forscher für die vorgenommene Problematik gewinnen

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