Cardinal Scholar

    The Influence of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Double Product Break Point in Low-to-Moderate Risk Adults

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    The double product (DP) is the product of the heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 yr) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after eight weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO2peak, maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO2 at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (p <.001). At baseline and at follow-up, the DPBP and VT did not differ. The DPBP and VT were significantly correlated to each other at both time points. Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes

    Authorizing the self : negotiating normality in contemporary American memoir

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    Writing a better story : authorizing a vivid and valid self -- Lauren Slater's Prozac diary : the medical model and the suppression of the patient -- Maxine Hong Kingston's The woman warrior : the spectacular subjugation of the dually oppressed and dis-abled body -- The three memoirs : no prosthesis needed.This study examines the contemporary American memoirs Goat (2004) by Brad Land, Prozac Diary (1998) by Lauren Slater, and The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts (1976) by Maxine Hong Kingston to reveal how these texts push traditional thematic and genre boundaries as well as conceptions of minority identity. Their inclusion of fictional aspects, episodic structure, narrative excesses, and non-teleological endings work to enhance their status as sociocultural critique and protest. This dissertation utilizes a social oppression angle within disability studies to demonstrate the overlapping processes and experiences of marginalization faced by these disparate protagonists who are dis-abled due to their undesired bodily variations and their failure to meet sociocultural standards of appropriate embodied behavior. Society is ideologically unwilling to accommodate or accept the differences the protagonists possess. Such a frame expands the artificial and culturally constructed notion of disability by illustrating the ways that discourse and ideologies of embodied normalcy intersect to constitute various minority identities as incompetent and unworthy. The texts bear witness to each protagonists’ struggle to cultivate meaningful subjectivity and reject passive victim status; however, their resulting survivor subjectivities are both resistant to and complicit with hegemonic tenets. This literary project augments ongoing work in minority, identity, autobiography, cultural, and disability studies that deconstructs essentialist paradigms while reinforcing the important cultural and literary work of contemporary memoir. Moreover, it fills a critical gap with respect to Goat and Prozac Diary, bringing these two texts into the critical discussion of autobiography. Finally, this dissertation illustrates that memoir is uniquely positioned within literary genres to navigate the interconnectedness of identity, subjectivity, and ideology, thus challenging readers to confront the injustice of a sociocultural structure that sanctions these inequities in the first placeDepartment of EnglishWriting a better story : authorizing a vivid and valid self -- Lauren Slater's Prozac diary : the medical model and the suppression of the patient -- Maxine Hong Kingston's The woman warrior : the spectacular subjugation of the dually oppressed and dis-abled body -- The three memoirs : no prosthesis needed.Thesis (Ph. D.

    Oral care practices for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

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    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving measure utilized when the respiratory status of a critically ill patient has become compromised. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a complication of mechanical ventilation (Cutler & Davis, 2005). The purpose of this study is to identify current practices of oral care in patients receiving mechanical ventilation and measure compliance with an intervention of standardized oral care. The organizing framework is the Guidelines for Prevailing Health-Care Associated Pneumonia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The sample will include 250 mechanically ventilated patients in a Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit with 21 beds at a local community hospital in the State of Indiana. Inclusion criteria are individuals over 18 year old and requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 48 hours. Time blocks of 8 hours will be randomized over the intensive care units to observe oral care on all intubated patients. Observational baseline data on oral care practices will be collected before implementation of the education program and compared to post-interventional data. Identification of current practices will occur through an oral care survey and direct observation. During the intervention phase, compliance of the protocol will be monitored and compared to pre-protocol practices. Findings will provide information regarding oral care practices among nurses and if such practices reduce the incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia.School of NursingThesis (M.S.

    State-sponsored health insurance plans for small business employers : political and economic factors for success

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    The purpose of this study was to examine three state-sponsored health insurance programs targeted at small businesses and identify the political and economic factors that contributed to their success. I evaluated the success of each states program using three criteria: reducing the number of uninsured, program participation, and providing portability. In my analysis, I examined factors which may have played a role in the varying levels of success that were observed. I found that the success of a program depended largely on two factors: economic conditions within the state and the quality of the program.Department of Political ScienceThesis (M.A.

    Being the best prepared graduate assistant : guidelines for managing a recreation department

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    This Creative Project is an overview of all the managerial tasks the Ball State University Office of Recreation Services graduate assistants are expected to complete throughout their assistantship. The guidelines were written with Ball State University Office of Recreation Services as the in intended users. It can serve as a set of guidelines to explain what tasks are expected to be completed and how they can be accomplished. After personally working almost two years as one of the graduate assistants in the Office of Recreation Services, the use of guidelines has become an increasingly popular way to help learn different processes. This presented the opportunity to create a general set of information for the students who fill these positions in the future. It covers money handling, employee hiring and training, scheduling, the on-call process used in the department, how to check payroll, in-services, working special events, purchasing and the other opportunities offered.School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise ScienceThesis (M.S.

    Teaching to the differences in a classroom : an honors thesis (HONRS 499)

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    This project examines the use of differentiation in an elementary classroom, which was inspired after my student teaching placement. During my student teaching in a 2nd grade classroom, I had a diverse group of learners. I completed my student teaching wondering what could be done to better educate students in a way that best fit their learning styles and levels. It is the teacher's responsibility to educate the students no matter what their needs. Individual needs of students can be met by using differentiation in the classroom to adapt lesson plans and teach them in a way by which they learn best. I wrote a few example lesson plans for teachers to use for ideas on how to use different methods of differentiation in a classroom.Honors CollegeThesis (B.?.

    Mural use in enhancing outdoor education : incorporating a mural into the classroom at the Juanita Hults Environmental Learning Center

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    The Juanita Hults Environmental Learning Center has been owned by Ball State University for nearly thirty years. The property consists of a farmstead and a variety of ecosystems, including wetland, forest, and tallgrass prairie. Local school groups take field trips to Hults, where they participate in hands-on nature activities and games led by their teachers and Ball State students and faculty. Activities mostly encourage outdoor exploration and discovery, but an indoor classroom (located in the farmhouse) is available as well. When I visited Hults for the first time, I saw a lot of unused potential in the indoor classroom space, which had plenty of materials for outdoor education but little organization or child-friendly atmosphere. I decided to transform the space by painting a mural on one of the walls. In this paper I discuss the creative process of designing and implementing the mural, as well as its projected usefulness in outdoor education at Hults.Honors CollegeThesis (B.?.

    Indianapolis Latino neighborhood revitalization : integrating and accommodating the growing Latino population in the Irvington neighborhood of Indianapolis

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    The purpose of this project is to revitalize a Latino, urban, neighborhood in Irvington, on the east side of Indianapolis, Indiana, using three levels of design. The 350-acre framework plan includes the area along Washington Street with Irvington Street as the western border, Kitley Avenue as the eastern boundary, University Avenue as the southern border, and Lowell Avenue as the northern boundary. The 84.5-acre master plan site extends from Bolton Avenue east to Kitley Avenue, and from University Avenue to half a block north of Washington Street. The I.54-acre site-scale plan includes the new Central Plaza and adjacent buildings that front Washington Street between Kenmore and Ridgeview Avenues. The project focuses on integrating the Latino population into the neighborhood and using the culture as design inspiration. This is accomplished by creating compact developments using sustainable development principles, providing affordable housing options, providing opportunities for educational and community services, and using characteristics of the Latino culture, such as the use of plazas and the importance of dance, to determine land use designations. The plans embrace the Latino culture and create an interesting place for all current and future residents of Irvington. Many elements of design accommodate Latino culture, but also provide a better quality of life for all residents. Case studies of mixed-use and sustainable developments in Indianapolis and across the United States provide insight on how to create a sustainable development that accommodates the Latino population. Research about Latino culture, urban revitalization methods, and how the topics can be inter-related guides the design principles for the Irvington neighborhood renewal. Latinos transform urban environments, and the plans build upon these transformations as a means to integrate the culture into the neighborhood. Latino culture also places emphasis on family values, social networks, and the use of public open space for large gatherings, and these elements of Latino culture are considered in all levels of design. Because of the adversity Latino immigrants face, the design also includes affordable housing, services, and organizations to facilitate upward mobility.Honors CollegeThesis (B.?.

    Framing ethanol : a content analysis comparing national and regional media coverage of ethanol

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    The main purpose of this research study was to compare national and regional newspaper coverage of the issue of ethanol. The methodology used in this study was content analysis. Newspaper articles were the units of analysis. Newspaper articles printed in four national newspapers and four regional newspapers located in the top ethanol producing states in the United States were collected from a LexisNexis Academic database and analyzed. Newspaper articles were analyzed in terms of article source, size, placement in terms of section and page number, headline and author attributes, the number and types of sources included in each story, overall article tone and themes. Results from the content analysis found no significant correlations between national and regional newspapers and the tone, source types and themes of ethanol articles. Data did show differences in other affective attributes attached to the issue of ethanol.Department of JournalismThesis (M.A.

    Community structure and composition changes of two old-growth forests at Versailles State Park in southeastern Indiana

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    In the 1950’s and 1960’s, studies of two old-growth forest stands in Versailles State Park, Laughery Bluff and Dogwood Nature Preserves, were designed and carried out by Potzger to provide the baseline necessary to investigate future trends in these forest communities. In 1968 and 1988, Jackson surveyed these stands again and identified changes in attributes and size classes over that 20-year period. In 2011 and 2012, these sites were re-sampled to document change in species composition and stand structure since 1968. Diameter at breast height (dbh) and species identification were recorded for all stems with dbh ≥ 10 cm. Trees between 1 and 9.9 cm dbh were sampled by counting the number of individuals by species. These data were used to calculate density, dominance, and importance values, as well as to provide full-census data on the overstory size classes at the two sites. Notable findings since the prior studies included the continued increase of Acer saccharum in density and basal area as well as the continued loss of Cornus florida and Fagus grandifolia stems throughout both stands.Department of BiologyThesis (M.S.
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