Nicolaus Copernicus University

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    Aligned silver nanowires for plasmonically-enhanced fluorescence detection of photoactive proteins in wet and dry environment

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    We developed a method of aligning silver nanowires in a microchannel and fixing them to glass substrates via appropriate functionalization. The attachment of nanowires to the substrate is robust with no variation of their angles over minutes. Specific conjugation with photoactive proteins is observed using wide-field fluorescence imaging in real-time for highly concentrated protein solution, both in a microchannel and in a chip geometry. In the latter case we can detect the presence of the proteins in the dropcasted solution down to single proteins. The results point towards possible implementation of aligned silver nanowires as geometrically defined plasmonic fluorescence sensing platform

    Nowe horyzonty wiedzy: wystawa cyfrowa „De revolutionibus” i jej zaawansowane funkcje interakcji z dziedzictwem kopernikańskim

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    Artykuł omawia wystawę cyfrową „De revolutionibus Mikołaja Kopernika (1543) w bibliotekach polskich”, która zrealizowana została w ramach obchodów Roku Mikołaja Kopernika przez Bibliotekę Uniwersytecką w Toruniu i opowiada o życiu, pracy i dziedzictwie astronoma, umożliwiając interakcję z dziedzictwem kopernikańskim. Ekspozycja opiera się na otwartoźródłowym systemie Omeka S i wykorzystuje innowacyjne narzędzia cyfrowe, w tym sztuczną inteligencję. W artykule omówiono rozwiązania umożliwiające tworzenie interaktywnych opowieści cyfrowych oraz strukturyzację i wiązanie otwartych danych. Tekst podkreśla kluczową rolę Platformy Wystaw Cyfrowych, która zapewnia infrastrukturę na potrzeby współpracy podczas projektowania i budowy kolejnych ekspozycji oraz innowacyjnych projektów w obszarze humanistyki cyfrowej

    Projection of climate change impacts on extreme temperature and precipitation in Central Poland

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    Climate change is exacerbating the risk of the occurrence of extreme weather. This study has projected the change in mean and extreme climate conditions in Central Poland during near-future (2026–2050), mid-term (2051–2075), and far-future (2076–2100) periods under two climate-change scenarios in six General Circulation Models (GCMs) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). The results showed that, compared to the historical reference period (1990–2014), Central Poland will experience an increase in temperature and precipitation by the end of the twenty-first century. It is expected that the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation totals will increase by 1–4.8 °C and 2–7.5%, respectively. Furthermore, it is projected that the average number of hot, very hot days and extremely hot days (Tmax > 25 °C, > 30 °C, and > 35 °C), tropical nights (Tmin > 20 °C), and extremely high daily precipitation (> 10 mm, > 20 mm and > 30 mm) will also increase, while the average number of slight frost days (Tmin < 0 °C), and frost and severe frost days (Tmax < 0 °C, Tmax <  − 10 °C) will decline on average by the end of the twenty-first century. Therefore, it is essential for policymakers to take some appropriate measurements and strategies in advance to strengthen resilience to extreme climate events

    Illustrated Handbook of WRB Soil Classification, 299 s.

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    Soil classification is a difficult issue and requires many years of study under the guidance of experienced teachers. In the course of long-term studies and field research, soil scientists acquire the skills of recognizing and correctly naming many important features resulting from litho-, anthropo- or pedogenic processes. The problem with learning the secrets of this art is the lack of opportunity to see many examples of different soil features hidden beneath the earth's surface. Visiting many regions of the world for didactic or scientific purposes, we felt the need to share our photographic collections with other people involved in the study and interpretation of the soil environment. It is with great pleasure that we present to the reader a set of several hundred photographs showing the features, properties, soil horizons, as well as examples of interpretation of soil profiles – in accordance with the rules and nomenclature adopted in the international soil naming and classification system – the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2022). The book has been divided into several chapters. The photos have been arranged in such a way as to reflect the process of creating a description of the soil profile – from environmental features, through morphological soil features, diagnostic horizons, properties and materials, to specific examples of soil profile classification. In the section with soil profiles, we managed to collect 100 examples from all Reference Soil Groups found in all climatic zones of our planet. In the names of the soils, we have mainly emphasised those features (qualifiers) that are morphologically identifiable in the photos, consciously omitting those that can only be read from the results of laboratory analyses. We hope that the handbook, developed as one of outcomes of an Erasmus+ project Share Your Soils (SYStem), will be useful in didactic and scientific work and will help to understand what the individual soil characteristics look like, in general and in the context of the nomenclature used in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    Mixing Labor, Taking Possession, and Libertarianism: Response to Walter Block

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    In his recent rejoinder to my paper Walter Block argues that only the Lockean labor-mixing theory of first acquisition is compatible with libertarianism. Block’s claim is in turn directed against a position held by me in the said paper that it is the first possession theory of original appropriation that is a better fit for libertarianism. Upon reading Block’s rejoinder and thinking intensely about this issue, in the present paper I agree with Block and disagree with my former self, accepting the view that it is indeed the Lockean labor-mixing theory that should be embraced by libertarians. This verdict is mainly motivated by the following arguments that I develop in detail in the paper: (1) no libertarian arguments against the labor-mixing theory seem to work, (2) the first possession theory is unable (contrary to the labor-mixing theory) to accommodate the idea of original appropriation tracking objective links between actors and things; (3) the labor-mixing theory better fits our intuitions about justice in property acquisition. However, in order not to make things too easy for Block, I also argue that there are some surprising and problematic consequences of adopting the labor-mixing account. I am fully prepared to accept them. The question is whether so is Block

    An assessment of flood occurrences in Poland in the 16th century

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    Study region The contemporary area of Poland comprises six main regions: Baltic Coast and Pomerania, Masuria-Podlasie, Greater Poland, Masovia, Silesia, Lesser Poland, and three main river basins, the Vistula, the Oder, and the Baltic Coast. Study focus To fill the knowledge gap for historical floods in Poland we used documentary evidence as reliable sources to assess historical floods in Poland during the 16th century. New hydrological insights for the region This research is one of the most novel and comprehensive studies of historical floods in Europe, spanning floods in Poland registered in the 16th century. Specifically, in addition to the list of flood occurrence records, we also provide detailed information about the historical sources used (including estimations of credibility), extracted weather notes, and indexation of flood intensity and origins. The results showed that, based on documentary evidence, 294 floods occurred in Poland in the study period. Most were recorded in the Silesia region (170 floods). The intensity of floods estimated based on the Brázdil et al. (2006b) and Barriendos and Coeur (2004) classifications indicated that most belong to “above-average or supra-regional flood” and “extraordinary” categories, respectively. Classifications of the origin of floods based on Lambor (1954) revealed that the main reason for flood occurrences in Poland during the 16th century was rain and its subtypes (torrential, frontal, and long-lasting, accounting for 53% of floods)

    Sustainable Valorization of BioplasticWaste: A Review on Effective Recycling Routes for the Most Widely Used Biopolymers

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    Plastics-based materials have a high carbon footprint, and their disposal is a considerable problem for the environment. Biodegradable bioplastics represent an alternative on which most countries have focused their attention to replace of conventional plastics in various sectors, among which food packaging is the most significant one. The evaluation of the optimal end-of-life process for bioplastic waste is of great importance for their sustainable use. In this review, the advantages and limits of different waste management routes—biodegradation, mechanical recycling and thermal degradation processes—are presented for the most common categories of biopolymers on the market, including starch-based bioplastics, PLA and PBAT. The analysis outlines that starch-based bioplastics, unless blended with other biopolymers, exhibit good biodegradation rates and are suitable for disposal by composting, while PLA and PBAT are incompatible with this process and require alternative strategies. The thermal degradation process is very promising for chemical recycling, enabling building blocks and the recovery of valuable chemicals from bioplastic waste, according to the principles of a sustainable and circular economy. Nevertheless, only a few articles have focused on this recycling process, highlighting the need for research to fully exploit the potentiality of this waste management route

    The role of cities in the reconstruction of Ukraine

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    Throughout human history, cities have been targeted in wars due to their significance for politics, economy, communication and population. Today such Ukrainian cities as Kyiv, Mariupol, Kharkiv and Irpin can be added to this list. This commentary focuses on the long-term challenge of the reconstruction of Ukraine and the role cities may play in this process given their growing role in international decision-making processes. These roles include through the bilateral channels of the twin or sister cities system and international and national city networks. Furthermore, some such reconstruction efforts are already evident in Ukraine and which highlight how city support activities are not limited only to the post-conflict phase

    „Bóg da, że będę mógł spełnić, co mam do wykonania”- o profesorze Karolu Górskim (1903-1988)

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    W artykule dokonano, w kilku odsłonach, charakterystyki sylwetki religijnej profesora Karola Górskiego

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