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    Relationships between caused by Kozyavkin© method changes in parameters of manual function and electroencephalogram, heart rate variability as well as gas discharge visualization in children with spastic form of cerebral palsy

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    Background. Earlier we reported that in children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy (SFCP) after two-week course of rehabilitation by Kozyavkin© method reducing neural component of muscle tone (NCMT) stated in 79,3% cases while in 13,8% cases changes were not detected and in 2 children it increased. We hypothesized that such a variety of changes in NCMT is due to ambiguous changes in the background activity of the nerve centers. Aim: analysis of relationships between changes (Ch) in NCMT as well as manual functional tests, on the one hand, and parameters of EEG, HRV as well as Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV), on the other hand. Material and research methods. The object of observations were 14 children (6 girls and 8 boys) aged 8÷15 years with SFCP. State motor development at GMFCS was on II÷IV level. Functional status of the hand with MACS was at II÷III level. The estimation of hand function carried out by Dynamometry (D), Box and Block Test (B&B) and Nine Hole Peg Test (NHP). We registered also NCMT by device “NeuroFlexor” (Aggero MedTech AB, Sweden), HRV and EEG simultaneosly by hardware-software complex “Cardiolab+VSR” and “NeuroCom Standard” respectively (KhAI Medica, Kharkiv, Ukraine) as well as GDV by “GDV Chamber” (“Biotechprogress”, St-Pb, RF). Results. After two-week course of rehabilitation at 9 children NCMT reduced from 19,8±3,4 to 12,3±2,8 Newtons (Ch: -7,5±2,0 N), at 3 children NCMT taked 8,2±3,3 before and 7,9±3,5 after rehabilitation (Ch: -0,3±0,3 N) while at one girl NCMT increased from 15,1 to 17,9 N and at one boy from 6,1 to 19,4 N. Manual functional tests also changed ambiguously. The Ch in NCMT are correlated with Ch in parameters HRV&EEG (R2=0,786). The Ch in functional tests of Left hand are correlated with Ch in parameters HRV&EEG to the same extent: the level of R2 is for D 0,799, for NHP 0,773 and for B&B 0,708. Instead, for the Right hand, the correlation is stronger: R2 is 0,973, 0,792 and 0,978 respectively. As regards GDV parameters, connections are weaker, but they are also stronger for the Right hand: R2 is 0,706 vs 0,462 for B&B and 0,679 vs 0,405 for NHP but not for D (0,719 and 0,709). The Ch in NCMT are correlated with Ch in parameters GDV also weaker (R2=0,556). In its turn, changes in GDV parameters are very closely related to changes in parameters of both HRV (R2=0,999) and EEG (R2=0,998). Conclusion. In children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy caused by Kozyavkin© method changes in manual functional tests and neural component of muscle tone are determined by changes in parameters of EEG and HRV as well as GDV

    New evidence for Dicke's superradiance in the 6.7 GHz methanol spectral line in the interstellar medium

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    We present new evidence for superradiance (SR) in the methanol 6.7 GHz spectral line for three different star-forming regions: S255IR-NIRS3, G24.329+0.144, and Cepheus A. Our analysis shows that some of the flux–density flares exhibiting fast rise times and asymmetric light curves reported in these sources can naturally be explained within the context of SR. When a threshold for the inverted population column density is exceeded in a maser-hosting region, the radiation mode switches from one regulated by stimulated emission (maser) to SR. Superradiance, as a more efficient energy release mechanism, manifests itself through strong bursts of radiation emanating from spatially compact regions. Elevated inverted population densities and the initiation of SR can be due to a change in radiative pumping. Here, we show that an increase in the pump rate and the inverted population density of only a factor of a few results in a significant increase in radiation. While the changes in the pump rate can take place over a few hundred days, the rise in radiation flux density when SR is initiated is drastic and happens over a much shorter time-scale

    Scientia petita, Theologia manifesta: scientific rationality and theological proposals in the pandemic

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    The urgency of understanding the pandemic has exponentially increased the circulation of information. The main directions of information transfer have been internal, that is within scholarly communities, and external, that is towards the public. The very manner in which scientific communication is produced has also changed. While the difficulty of finding practical solutions has often created a sense of mistrust, it has also led to the emergence of an image of scientific rationality as progressive, collective and capable of growth. This image of Science makes it possible to understand and distinguish the epistemic and ontological dimensions of scientific analysis. Theology can identify an attitude of epistemic humility that is conducive to a better understanding of the role of the human being in relation to nature and as the protagonist of history in collaboration with God

    D-divisible quantum evolution families

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    We propose and explore a notion of decomposably divisible (D-divisible) differentiable quantum evolution families on matrix algebras. This is achieved by replacing the complete positivity requirement, imposed on the propagator, by more general condition of decomposability. It is shown that such D-divisible dynamical maps satisfy a generalized version of Master equation and are totally characterized by their time-local generators. Necessary and sufficient conditions for D-divisibility are found. Additionally, decomposable trace preserving semigroups are examined

    Technological Potential of European Economy. Proposition of Measurement with Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

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    The subject of the research is a technological potential of European Economies at macroeconomic level. The main aim of the article is to assess relative position and eventual progress in that sphere obtained by Central European economies that joined the European Union after the year 2004. Additional goal of the research is to verify usefulness of variables that can be used in measurement of technological potential at macroeconomic level in European economies with application of multiple criteria decision analysis methodology. In the research the phenomenon of technological potential was treated as a multivariate problem. Thus, in order to measure it the multiple criteria decision analysis approach based on the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was applied. The research was conducted with application of Eurostat Data and diagnostic variables proposed for measurement of technological potential at macro level in European members states. It was done for the years 2008-2012. The applied procedure of verification of information value of potential diagnostic variables enabled to select six final diagnostic variables. The conducted research enabled to point the European leaders, which can be treated as benchmark countries and the source of good practices in the process of forming policy guidelines aiming at supporting technological development. The research showed significant progress obtained by some new European Union members states, which confirms modernization process of Central European economics

    Long term monitoring of the vegetation in the salt marsh of “Psili Amnos”, Samos, Greece – the outlines of the monitoring project

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    This short note presents research project on SAMOS: PARALIA ALYKI in Greece. The area of the research includes salt marsh of about 500 m2 which is located in the Natura 2000 protected area of the site code GR4120001. There are 150 protected birds including 57 birds in the red list of IUCN. Vegetation is quite heterogeneous and distinct in different sections. The aim of the project is to develop and implement a long term monitoring scheme for the salt marsh of “Psili Amnos” to assess changes of the vegetation over time and to assess anthropogenic and natural threat in order to take conservation measures. In a note in addition to the presentation of the site and the research aim also the methods considered for monitoring of vegetation are briefly described. To achieve optimal and universal methodology there was discussed which of the methods of data collection and processing typically used in monitoring vegetation could be used both in a project implemented at salt marsh “Psili AMNOS” as well as in studies of coastal and inland salt marshes in Poland

    Modernisation of public buildings in Polish towns and the concept of sustainable building

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    This article aims to identify the scale of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Polish towns as representative of sustainable building. The study area is investigated from the perspective of challenges arising from the current policy in the EU. The article indicates that, given the age of public buildings in Poland, the best way to implement the concept of sustainable building is to improve their present stock. The modernisation of public buildings is discussed in terms of project location, project value, sources of funding (including EU funds), and the use of buildings undergoing modernisation. According to the research findings, the implementation of the sustainable building concept is determined by both, exogenous factors (EU directives and domestic laws, etc.) and endogenous ones (e.g. human resources and their quality)

    The role of the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase in ca2+ homeostasis in Sinapis alba root hairs

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    The regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ has been investigated in growing root-hair cells of Sinapis alba L. with special emphasis on the role of the plasmamembrane Ca2+-ATPase. For this purpose, erythrosin B was used to inhibit the Ca2+-ATPase, and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was applied to manipulate cytosolic free [Ca2+] which was then measured with Ca2+-selective microelectrodes. (i) At 0.01 M, A23187 had no effect on the membrane potential but enhanced the Ca2+ permeability of the plasma membrane. Higher concentrations of this ionophore strongly depolarized the cells, also in the presence of cyanide. (ii) Unexpectedly, A23187 first caused a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ by 0.2 to 0.3 pCa units and a cytosolic acidification by about 0.5 pH units, (iii) The depletion of cytosolic free Ca2+ spontaneously reversed and became an increase, a process which strongly depended on the external Ca2+ concentration, (iv) Upon removal of A23187, the cytosolic free [Ca2+] returned to its steady-state level, a process which was inhibited by erythrosin B. We suggest that the first reaction to the intruding Ca2+ is an activation of Ca2+ transporters (e.g. ATPases at the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane) which rapidly remove Ca2+ from the cytosol. The two observations that after the addition of A23187, (i) Ca2+ gradients as steep as-600 mV could be maintained and (ii) the cytosolic pH rapidly and immediately decreased without recovery indicate that the Ca2+-exporting plasma-membrane ATPase is physiologically connected to the electrochemical pH gradient, and probably works as an nH+/Ca2+-ATPase. Based on the finding that the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor erythrosin B had no effect on cytosolic Ca2+, but caused a strong Ca2+ increase after the addion of A23187 we conclude that these cells, at least in the short term, have enough metabolic energy to balance the loss in transport activity caused by inhibition of the primary Ca2+-pump. We further conclude that this ATPase is a major Ca2+ regulator in stress situations where the cytosolic Ca2+ has been shifted from its steady-state level, as may be the case during processes of signal transduction

    THE FIRST PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS TO THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION REFERRED BY ITALIAN CORTE COSTITUZIONALE, SPANISH TRIBUNAL CONSTITUCIONAL, AND FRENCH CONSEIL CONSTITUTIONNEL

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    The article concerns the issue of constitutional courts’ preliminary references to the CJ. So far only a few centralized constitutional courts have accepted raising the preliminary reference to the CJ. Three of them are courts which initially had denied such possibility, but later changed their minds: Italian Corte Costitutionale (the Italian Constitutional Court; further: ICC); Spanish Tribunal Constitucional (the Spanish Constitutional Tribunal, further: SCT) and French Conseil Constitutionell (the French Constitutional Council; further: FCC). The first reference addressed to the ECJ by ICC came after more than a decade of explicit denial of having the status of a court in the meaning of the current Article 267(3) TFUE. The change of the ICC’s position towards the preliminary ruling procedure was based on the juxtaposition of two ways in which a constitutional review proceeding may be initiated in the Italian legal system: via incidentale and via principale. The SCT denied its status as a court in the meaning of Article 267(3) TFUE till 2011. The change of the SCT’s position, in contrast to the ICC case was not followed by any in-depth argumentation favouring such “judicial volt”. The FCC for the first time referred to the CJ in 2013. The profound change in the FCC’s attitude towards EU law was triggered by the introduction of Priority Preliminary Question on Constitutionality proceedings (QPC) in 2008

    Wisdom of the elderly

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    In the studies on wisdom of the elderly, there are two kinds of wisdom: pragmatic and transcendent (spiritual), which is a general respond to the world and is associated with the level of personality development. Through its specific context, old age creates conditions for achieving wisdom. The fact whether these opportunities will be used and lead to the development of human personality in old age depends on the individuals.W badaniach nad mądrością osób starszych wyróżnia się dwa rodzaje mądrości: pragmatyczną i transcendentną (ducho-wą), która jest ogólnym ustosunkowaniem do świata i zwią-zana jest z poziomem rozwoju osobowości. Przez swój specyficzny kontekst, starość stwarza warunki do osiągania mądrości. Tylko od konkretnych jednostek zależy czy wykorzystają te możliwości i doprowadzą do rozwoju osobo-wości człowieka w okresie starości

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