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    44093 research outputs found

    What's the best test for HSV-2 after exposure?

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    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) tests based on herpes simplex virus 2's (HSV -2) glycoprotein G have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in determining seropositivity for HSV-2 antibodies (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on cross-sectional studies). ELISA tests not based on glycoprotein G are also highly sensitive, but they are less specific for HSV-2 and are prone to false-positive results because of cross-reactivity with HSV -1 antibodies (SOR: C, based on cross-sectional studies)

    Neutron diffraction study of load response and residual stresses in WC-(Ni/Co) composites

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    The entire dissertation/thesis text is included in the research.pdf file; the official abstract appears in the short.pdf file (which also appears in the research.pdf); a non-technical general description, or public abstract, appears in the public.pdf file.Title from title screen of research.pdf file viewed on (May 25, 2006)Includes bibliographical references.Vita.Thesis (Ph. D.) University of Missouri-Columbia 2005.Dissertations, Academic -- University of Missouri--Columbia -- Mechanical and aerospace engineering.The in-situ response of WC-Ni and WC-Co composites under compressive loading was measured using neutron diffraction techniques. These measurements give a clear indication of the elastic strain behavior of both the carbide and metal binder phases in directions both axial and transverse to the applied load. Residual stress measurements were also made on as-produced samples and on those samples which had been mechanically loaded. These measurements show a substantial relaxation in the initial thermal residual stresses of the cemented carbides with high binder content, most of which occurs by the end of the first load-unload cycle. This relaxation in residual stress is also found to be anisotropic, relaxing more in the direction transverse to the loading axis than in the direction parallel to the loading axis. Strain distribution was considered by observing the change in peak widths in the diffraction data. Taken as a whole, the data suggests a profound role for thermal residual stress and the point-to-point variation of residual stress in the response of cemented carbides to applied load. Localized yielding on the scale of the microstructure which acts to absorb energy is proposed as a mechanism for the superior toughness of these materials

    What lifestyle changes should we recommend for the patient with newly diagnosed hypertension?

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    Hypertensive patients should reduce sodium intake (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A). The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH diet)--with salt restriction and increased fruit, vegetable, calcium, and potassium intake--reduces blood pressure and should be recommended (SOR: A). Aerobic exercise is effective in the general, as well as elderly, populations for reducing blood pressure (SOR: A). Patients should be encouraged to reduce alcohol consumption (SOR: A). Evidence that weight loss is significantly associated with blood pressure reduction is inconclusive (SOR: C). Smoking cessation should be encouraged for all hypertensive patients for prevention of cardiovascular disease (SOR: A)

    Which healthy adults should take aspirin?

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    In adults with no history of cardiovascular disease, aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Aspirin prophylaxis does not decrease all-cause mortality, risk of fatal coronary heart disease, or risk of first stroke (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A-, based on multiple randomized controlled trials). The benefits of aspirin use must be weighed against its potential risks, primarily gastrointestinal bleeding and cerebral hemorrhage. The benefit of aspirin increases with higher levels of cardiovascular risk, while the potential for harm remains relatively constant. Adults with a calculated 5-year coronary heart disease (CHD) event risk of 3% or greater should receive prophylaxis (SOR: A, based on multiple randomized controlled trials). The ideal dose of aspirin for prophylaxis is unknown, but it appears that low doses (75-81 mg/d) are as effective as higher doses

    The innate immune response and toll-like receptors in the human endometrium

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    The entire dissertation/thesis text is included in the research.pdf file; the official abstract appears in the short.pdf file (which also appears in the research.pdf); a non-technical general description, or public abstract, appears in the public.pdf file.Vita."December 2005"Dissertations, Academic -- University of Missouri--Columbia -- microbiology (Medicine)Thesis (Ph. D.) University of Missouri-Columbia 2005.There are two major divisions of the human immune system: the adaptive and the innate immune systems. The adaptive immune responses are directed against specific pathogens and are essential for control and elimination of pathogens following infection. However, the response requires several days to occur. The innate immune system serves to prevent establishment of infection and protect an individual prior to development of adaptive immune responses. This response is immediate, directed against broad classes of pathogens rather than a specific organism, and is usually sufficient to prevent establishment of infection. Additionally, the nature of the innate immune response will direct and shape adaptive immune responses against invading pathogens. Contact with pathogenic organisms frequently occurs in mucosal tissues lining the body cavities such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, or the reproductive tract. These surfaces are composed of epithelial cells that act as a barrier to pathogen entry into the body and act as sentinel cells, alerting the immune system to the presence of an invading pathogen by initiating innate immune responses to pathogen. The human reproductive tract is exposed to a variety of sexually transmitted pathogens including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). These viruses are the cause of vast global human health and reproductive problems. Currently, there is a need to develop vaccines and treatment strategies to prevent transmission of these viruses. This study examines a cellular protein known as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) that is involved in detecting viral pathogens and initiating innate antiviral immune responses to these viral pathogens. We have found that TLR3 is expressed by endometrial epithelial cells in the human uterus, and that expression levels are altered with progression through the menstrual cycle. TLR3 expression peaked during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, when the uterus is prepared for embryo implantation, and was dramatically decreased during menstruation until ovulation, when TLR3 expression levels again begin to increase. Stimulation of TLR3 with its cognitive ligand initiates antiviral responses by endometrial epithelial cells and epithelial cell secretion of natural antimicrobial peptides. These data indicate that antiviral responses in the human uterus can be mediated by TLR3 and may be regulated across the menstrual cycle, indicating that susceptibility to viral infection may be altered at different stages of the menstrual cycle. These results suggest that TLR3 ligands may be utilized in development of treatment and vaccine strategies against viral pathogens of the reproductive tract.Includes bibliographical references

    When should patients with stroke receive thrombolytics?

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    Thrombolytic therapy should be limited to patients with acute ischemic stroke who meet strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and who can adhere to strict treatment protocol. Patients treated under these conditions have improved combined mortality and disability outcomes at 1 year when treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) (number needed to treat [NNT]=18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11-56) (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with significant heterogeneity)

    What is the most effective way for relieving constipation in children aged >1 year?

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    A combination of laxatives, behavioral therapy, and balanced diet is the treatment of choice for pediatric constipation (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, based on randomized, nonrandomized, controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials). Laxatives are used for disimpaction and maintenance therapy. Trials that compare different laxatives have shown similar effectiveness, although polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) may be better tolerated (SOR: B). The roles of dietary changes and acupuncture have been minimally studied

    FAPRI Analysis of Dairy Policy Options for the 2002 Farm Bill Conference

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    House and Senate staff working on the 2002 farm bill conference asked the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute to examine a number of dairy policy options. For purposes of analysis, each program is assumed to operate over 2002-2005, and no overall cap on government spending is assumed under any of the options

    Using MGA to shorten the beef breeding season (2002)

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    Modified conventional synchronization systems for beef cows boost fertility and increase the total number of females that can be inseminated.New March 2002 -- Extension website

    Financial Analysis of Missouri Broiler-Beef Farms

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    agriculture economy. USDA estimates that Missouri marketed 240 million broilers in 2000 with a value of $356 million—nearly 8 percent of the state's cash receipts from all agricultural commodities. Broilers rank sixth behind cattle, soybeans, corn, hogs, and hay in value of production and provide about 960 full-time jobs in the direct care of flocks. The regional impact is magnified in the relatively few counties where broiler production is concentrated


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